Notes on forensic medicines

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Text of Notes on forensic medicines

  • 1. Dr Udai Bhan Yadav MBBS DMCH. SMO&Medical Jurist Govt general hospital alwar rajasthan. Dr Udai Bhan Yadav SMO & Medical Jurist GH Alwar Rajasthan1 FORENSIC MEDICINES NOTES

2. Lung tuberculoses Dr Udai Bhan Yadav SMO & Medical Jurist GH Alwar Rajasthan2 Congested,edematous multiplegray white nodules ranging from pin point size up to 1 cm were diffusely distributed through out the lung parenchyma 3. AGE OF ABRASION Dr Udai Bhan Yadav SMO & Medical Jurist GH Alwar Rajasthan3 Bright red-Fresh Red scab-12-24 hr Redish brown scab 2-3days New growth of epithelium 4-7days Scab dried shrink and falls off -7days.some time may take 10-15 days 4. Age of contusion Dr Udai Bhan Yadav SMO & Medical Jurist GH Alwar Rajasthan4 Red-Fresh Blue-After few hours to three days Bluish black/brown- 4th day Green 5-7days Yellow 7-12 days Normal 2 weeks 5. Age incised and stab wound Dr Udai Bhan Yadav SMO & Medical Jurist GH Alwar Rajasthan5 6. Detemination of age of injury Dr Udai Bhan Yadav SMO & Medical Jurist GH Alwar Rajasthan6 Scab over abrasion and superficial cut-12-24hr In case of bruse change of color commence from the circumferance by 12-24hr and passes through usual changes In ordinary wound inflamation sat in within48 hr. If it is not rendered properly aseptic pus also forms by this time Skin wounds or contused wound on the head will generally heal within a week.if margins is considerably brused,it may take a fortnight.Healing of wound depend much on the constitution of pt and treatment 7. Dr Udai Bhan Yadav SMO & Medical Jurist GH Alwar Rajasthan7 In fracture ,inflamation and exudate of blood in soft tissue around the fracture site are noticed from 1st to 3rd days.callus begins to form the third day onwards.If inflamation subsides callus begins to ossify from 2nd to 3rd week on wards.it is fully absorbed by about 6-8 weeks Granulation tissues appears about 1 week When tooth knocked out.bleeding stops in24 hrs cavity fills in 7-10days time.smooth after 14 days Dution estimated by color change in bruse if present 8. Characters of incised and lacerated wounds Dr Udai Bhan Yadav SMO & Medical Jurist GH Alwar Rajasthan8 Incised wound edges are regular, clean cut,retracted,everted,except in neck&scrotum where edges are inverted,spindle shaped ,length is greaterin three dimensions,haemorrage isexcessive,Edge of wound may be irregular in care skin is loose eg neck &scrotum. Lacerated wound-margins are irregular ragged and inverted.tissues are torn and not cot.bleeding may not be marked due tocrushing of tissues. 9. PM FINDING IN ELECTRIC BURN(ELECTROCUTION) Dr Udai Bhan Yadav SMO & Medical Jurist GH Alwar Rajasthan9 e.g-multiple burn injuries present over an area 6cmx5cm.and contact electric burn of 5cmx3cmon palmar aspect of left hand. e.g-an oval crater like electric burn mark measuring 2cmx0.4cm with a pale flattened floor and a ridge of elevated skin and blackening around. e.g-split laceration skin wound 0.75x0.3cm with elevated ridge,seen on middle of the sole of left foot. Face is pale,eyes congested Brain congested,oedimatous,multiple petichial haemorrhagic spots in brain substance. 10. Dr Udai Bhan Yadav SMO & Medical Jurist GH Alwar Rajasthan10 Larynx and trachea congested Rt&Lt Lungs congested,oedimatous. Mouth,pharynx,oesophagus,stomach mucosa.liver,spleen,kidneys all are congested. OPINION Post mortem findings are consistent with death due to electrocution. 11. PM FINDINGS IN BURN(SAMPLE CASE) Dr Udai Bhan Yadav SMO & Medical Jurist GH Alwar Rajasthan11 e.g.-body cold and stiff. Face is totally burnt,blackened,swollen,with scalp hairs burnt in patchy area on the front and on the sides of the head,have been trimmed short up to neck level. Eyes brows &eyelashes are also burnt completely. Rest body showed infected deep skin burn injuries with greenish black sloughing except a thin strip of intact skin around the waist line 1x30 cm,perineum and inner aspect of both feet(total skin area burnt90%).Suturing venesection wound measuring 1.5x0.25cm were seen one each on the inner aspect of both ankles. Superficial to deep burn,peeling of skin present,skin black.red line present 12. Dr Udai Bhan Yadav SMO & Medical Jurist GH Alwar Rajasthan12 Brain congested,edematous Pleurae intact healthy.but with an effusion of straw yellow fluid measuring 400ml on rt side and200mlon lt side. Larynx and trachea intact healthy and showed blakish shoot particals . Lungs congested,edematous Mouth,pharynx,oesophagus intact healthy,congested Stomach mucosa congested and showed submucosal erosion at duodenal end. Liver,kidney,congested.spleen congested and pulpy 0PINION-DECEASED DIED DUE TOCOMPLICATION OF BURN INJURIES SUSTAINED. 13. DURATION OF BURN Dr Udai Bhan Yadav SMO & Medical Jurist GH Alwar Rajasthan13 Rednss immediate Vesication about 2-3 hours Pus,Slough about 36-72 hours Fall of superficial slough about 1 week. Fall of deep slough about 2 weeks. 14. CAUSE OF DEATH IN BURN Dr Udai Bhan Yadav SMO & Medical Jurist GH Alwar Rajasthan14 Shock within 2 days Toxaemia -2 to 4 days Septecemia if infection Rarely MI,and Fat embolism 15. PM FINDINGS IN HANGING Dr Udai Bhan Yadav SMO & Medical Jurist GH Alwar Rajasthan15 Body cold and stiff. PM Lividity on both fore arms,hands and both legs and feet. Face congested eyes congested Subconjunctival haemorrhage. Blood stained froath at nostrils Tongue protruded out bitten dry. Vertical salivary trickle mark on the left side of face and front of chest &abdomen. Lips and nailbeds bluish Seminal and faecal discharge present Brain intact, congested,edematous,with multiple peticheal haemorrhagic spot in substance of brain. 16. Dr Udai Bhan Yadav SMO & Medical Jurist GH Alwar Rajasthan16 Larynx trachea congested. Lungs congested,edematous with blood stained frothy oozing on cut section. Mouth,pharynx,oesophagus congested. Liver,spleen,kidney healthy ,congested. LIGATURE MARK size .x.cm eg. 26cm running obliquely above the thyroid cartilage.upward and backward.patterned and grooved,dark dry and parchmentized and with bruised edegs Dissection of neck. 50%cases no intenal injury. 17. Dr Udai Bhan Yadav SMO & Medical Jurist GH Alwar Rajasthan17 Subcutaneous tissues under neath ligature mark is whitish firm and glistening. Platisma and sternomastoid muscle may show petechial haemorrhage and may rupture occasionally.may be brusing in subcutaneous tissues and muscles deeper to neck. Rupture or tear of intima of carotid arteries above its point of bifurcation, aroun the sinures with extravasation of blood in their walls. Trauma to hyoid bone #.both grater cornu in hanging and one in throatling. OPINION post mortem appearance are suggestive of death due to asphaxia resulting from hanging. 18. LIGATURE STANGULATION Dr Udai Bhan Yadav SMO & Medical Jurist GH Alwar Rajasthan18 Body cold and stiff.PM Lividity on back &fixed. Face livid.eyes congested with sub conjunctival haemorrhage. Blood stained fluid flowing out through ears and nostrile.lips and nails bluish. e.g a jute rope material used for strangulation,measuring1.5mts was found round the neck of victim with a double reef knot on the front of neck over adams apple. Brain congested oedematous with multiple peticheal haemorrhagic spots in brain substance. L arrynx,trachea intact healthy but contains blood stained froth. 19. Dr Udai Bhan Yadav SMO & Medical Jurist GH Alwar Rajasthan19 Lungs congested edematous with blood stained froth oozing on cut section. Mouth,pharynx,oesophagus, intact healthy,but congested. Liver,spleen,kidneys intact,healthy.congested. Injuries bloodless dissection of neck revealed ecchymosis of muscles of neck underneath the ligature mark. Fracture-the thyroid cartilage in the neck is fractured in mid line. L igature mark was a pressure abrasion measuring eg 28cmx1.5cm. Continuous and running horizontally encircling the neck at the level of adams apple.the rark was grooved discoloured and with bruses at the edges. OPINION post mortem appearance are suggestive of death due to asphaxya resulting from ligature strangulation. 20. PM FINDINGS IN DRAWNING Dr Udai Bhan Yadav SMO & Medical Jurist GH Alwar Rajasthan20 Body cold ,wet,rigor mortis well established. PM lividity on face chest abdomen front of thigh and fixed. Fine whitish lathery froth seen at mouth and nostrils. Lips and nails bluish.Hands clenched. Both palms and soles were soddened bleached.groose skin (cutis anserina) appearance present. Brain intact healthy but congested,edematous with multiple petecheal haemorrhagic spots in brain substances. Larynx trachea intact healthy but containing fine whitish leathery froth Lungs voluminnous ,congested,edematous with fine whitish lathery froth on cut section. or Lungs are water logged bulge out pit on pressure,moderately congested and feel doughy. Mouth pharynx oesophagus intact ,healthy congested. Liver,spleen kidneys congested OPINION POST MORTEM APPEARANCE ARE CONSISTENT WITH DEATH DUE TO DRAWING. Case of death asphaxia,ventriculr fibrillation,laryngeal spasm ,vagal inhibition,injuries etc 21. PM FINDINGS IN POISONINGS Dr Udai Bhan Yadav SMO & Medical Jurist GH Alwar Rajasthan21 Cold, stiff, pm lividity on back and fixed ,face bluish,pinkish frothy fluid flowing out of nose. Brain congested edematous,multiple petecheal hemorrhagic spots in brain substance. Larynx trachea intact healthy congested. Lungs congested edematous with pinkish fine oozing on cut section. Mouth pharynx oesophagus intact healthy.congested Stomach mucosa congested and showed submucosal erosion.liver intact healthy congested.spleen intact healthy congested.and pulpy.kidneys congested. Visceras are collected and sealed in glass jar glass Jar A contains whole stomach and its contents,glass J