Non-Western n Indian - Kamien

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    Non-Western

    Tradition

    Indian Classical Music

    (from Kamien, 9th Edition)

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    Characteristics of Non-Western Music

    Music of non-Western traditions is too varied tobe generalised.

    There are common features to most traditions music is usually closely linked with religion,dance and drama; accompanies activities ineveryday living (ceremonies markingimportant phases in life religious rites[birth/death], celebrations, etc).

    Oral tradition, not notated traditionally.

    Improvisation highly disciplined art from yearsof training.

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    Characteristics

    Improvisation:- Indian/Islamic musicians create music withinframework of melody types associated with specificmood/set of tones/phrases.

    Repertoire of traditional songs or instrumentalpieces.

    Singing (Vocal) & Instrumental are thefundamental important form of expression in musicof all traditions.

    Scholars grouped non-Western instruments intofour categories (Chordophones, Aerophones,Membranophones, Idiophones see Kamien p578,9th edition)

    Elements Melody, Texture and Rhythm.

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    Classical Music of India

    One of the oldest traditions in the world.

    Two distinctive strands of traditions:- Hindustani Music (North India) performed inprincely courts. Influences - Persian & Muslim.- Karnatak Music (South India) performed in

    temples.

    British colony in 19th C, N.I. performed mainly forelite audience. Became public after

    independence in 1947.

    Improvisation guided by complex melodic andrhythmic systems that govern choice of tones,

    ornaments and rhythms (few minutes to hours).

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    Elements of Indian Classical Music

    Based on human voice, pitch range < 4 octaves.

    Instrumentalists imitate vocal style. 18th C composed songs are used as springboard for

    improvisation.

    Highly embellished melodic lines with microtonalornaments and tiny pitch fluctuations around notes.

    Slides of pitch make graceful transitions from one

    note to another.

    Drone on tonic/dominant (or sub-dominant)throughout.

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    PERCUSSION INSTRUMENTS

    Mridangam

    The Indian Musical InstrumentMridangam is one of the mostpopular classical instruments of

    South India. Mridangamaccompanies vocal, instrumentaland dance performances.

    Tabla

    Tabla is the most popular pair ofdrums in the Indian Sub- continent.Tabla is a pair of drums which

    consists of a small right hand drumcalled Dayan and a larger metal onecalled bayan.

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    WIND INSTRUMENTS

    Bansuri

    Bansuri is basically a folk instrument,invariably linked to the lives andplayfulnesses of Krishna. However, itwas during the Bhakti movement that

    Bansuri raised to prominence.

    Harmonium

    Harmonium usually belongs to thefamily of free-reed aerophones. Theinstrument is a small, tabletop sizeorgan which has bellows at the backthat is pumped by one hand while theother hand plays the keyboard.

    Shehnai

    Shehnai the wind instrument is believedto have been introduced in India by theMuslims. Shehnai is the predominantdouble-reed wind instrument used in

    North Indian music.

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    STRING INSTRUMENTS

    Sarangi

    Sarangi has a hollow body and madeof teak wood adorned with ivory

    inlays. It consisits of forty strings ofwhich thirty seven are sympathetic.

    Sarod

    Sarod is a popular Indian classicalmusical instrument which is similar

    to the Western lute in structure.Among the followers andconnoisseurs of Hindustani classicalmusic Sarod is one of the mostimportant musical instruments.

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    STRING INSTRUMENTS

    Sitar

    Sitar is one of the most popular Indianclassical instruments and it comes underthe category of a chordophone in thelute family. Sitar has neck crafted from

    toon or teakwood and a resonatorcarved from a large seasoned gourd.

    TanpuraTambura

    Tanpura in India is a drone instrumentthat accompanies Dhrupad singing andis the most fundamental of allinstruments of Indian Classical Music.

    Veena

    Veena the traditional instrument of India

    is also known as Saraswati Veena whichis a musical instrument of South India.Veena is a classical instrument basicallyplucked stringed instrument that is used

    to accompany Carnatic music.