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Wiener Institut für Internationale Wirtschaftsvergleiche The Vienna Institute for International Economic Studies www.wiiw.ac.at Robert Stehrer The Vienna Institute for International Economic Studies – wiiw www.wiiw.ac.at Non-Tariff Measures becoming ever more important - but also trickier to evaluate Book presentation „Focus on External Trade 2017/2018“ Protectionism: Causes, manifestations, economic effects WKÖ/OeNB June 18, 2018 Vienna University of Economics and Business (WU)

Non-Tariff Measures becoming ever more important - but ... · “Non-tariff measures (NTMs) are policy measures, other than ordinary customs tariffs, that can potentially have an

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Page 1: Non-Tariff Measures becoming ever more important - but ... · “Non-tariff measures (NTMs) are policy measures, other than ordinary customs tariffs, that can potentially have an

Wiener Institut für Internationale Wirtschaftsvergleiche

The Vienna Institute forInternational EconomicStudies

www.wiiw.ac.at

Robert StehrerThe Vienna Institute for International Economic Studies – wiiw

www.wiiw.ac.at

Non-Tariff Measures becoming ever more important- but also trickier to evaluate

Book presentation „Focus on External Trade 2017/2018“

Protectionism: Causes, manifestations, economic effects

WKÖ/OeNBJune 18, 2018

Vienna University of Economics and Business (WU)

Page 2: Non-Tariff Measures becoming ever more important - but ... · “Non-tariff measures (NTMs) are policy measures, other than ordinary customs tariffs, that can potentially have an

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The increasing importance of non-tariff measures

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Number of PTAs over time

The Political Economy of non-tariff measures (NTMs)Depth of PTAs over time

Trends in Tariffs and NTMs

0

500

1.000

1.500

2.000

2.500

3.000

0

2

4

6

8

10

12

14

1995

1997

1999

2001

2003

2005

2007

2009

2011

United StatesSimple avg. over all countriesGermanyNTM notifications

Note: Applied tariff rate, weighted mean, all products (%)Sources: WTO I-TIP (NTM data), World Bank (WITS tariff data), wiiw calculations. Dür et al, 2014 (Number and Depth of PTAs).

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“Non-tariff measures (NTMs) are policy measures, other than ordinary customs tariffs, that can potentially have an economic effect on international trade in goods, changing quantities traded, or prices or both.” (UNCTAD, 2017)

Non-tariff measure classification by MAST chapterA: Sanitary and phytosanitary measures B: Technical barriers to tradeC: Pre-shipment inspection and other formalities D: Contingent trade-protective measures E: Non-automatic licensing, quotas, prohibitions and quantity-control measures other than for SPS or TBT reasons F: Price-control measures, including additional taxes and charges G: Finance measures H: Measures affecting competition I: Trade-related investment measures J: Distribution restrictions K: Restrictions on post-sales services L: Subsidies (excluding export subsidies under P7) M: Government procurement restrictions N: Intellectual property O: Rules of origin P: Export-related measures

What are non-tariff measures (NTMs)?

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Sanitary and phytosanitary measures (SPS)- ~30% of NTM notifications Bilateral SPS measure of the EU blocking the import of dried beans from Nigeria due to

pesticide residues at levels exceeding the reference dose as stated by the European Food Safety Authority [WTO Document: G/SPS/N/EU/131, 29 June 2015]

Measures to prevent the spread of transmissible diseases, such as spongiform encephalopathies [WTO Document: G/SPS/N/EU/67, 4 March 2014]

Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT)- ~45% of NTM notifications Energy labelling requirement for storage cabinets, including those used for refrigeration. The

stated aim of the EU is to pull the market towards more environmentally friendly products by providing more information to end-users.[WTO Document: G/TBT/N/EU/178, 28 January 2014]

Examples of NTMs

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Data collected from WTO trade notifications WTO I-TIP- and harmonised ...

15 out of 16 classifications concern imports thereof 3 are technical in nature:

- TBT… technical barriers to trade- SPS … sanitary and phytosanitary measures- Pre-shipment inspection and other formalities

thereof 12 are non-technical measures:- antidumping (ADP)- countervailing Duties (CVD)- (special) safeguards (SG) - quantity control measures (e.g. quotas, licensing) (QRS)- …

Specific trade concerns (SPS & TBT)

Note: Total number of notifications (37,982) to the WTO between 1979 and March 2015; Graph excludes 899 Specific Trade Concerns. Sources: UNCTAD, 2013 (Classification), WTO I-TIP (NTM data), wiiw calculations.

Non-tariff measures (NTMs): Overview

Other Counteracting measures (OCA)

TBT50%

SPS35%

QRS2%

ADP10%

SG1%

SSG1%

CVD1%

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Source: Ghodsi et al. (2017)

NTM notifications over time

0

500

1.000

1.500

2.000

2.500

3.000

3.500

1995

1996

1997

1998

1999

2000

2001

2002

2003

2004

2005

2006

2007

2008

2009

2010

2011

2012

2013

2014

2015

TBT STC(TBT) SPS STC(SPS) QRS ADP OCA

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NTM notifications by imposing country

Source: Ghodsi et al. (2017)

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NTM notifications by affected countries

Source: Ghodsi et al. (2017)

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NTM notifications by level of development

Source: Ghodsi et al. (2017)

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NTM notifications by product groups

Sec. XXISec. XIVSec. XIXSec. VIIISec. XIISec. XSec. IXSec. XISec. XIIISec. XVIISec. XVIIISec. XXSec. VSec. XVSec. IIISec. VIISec. XVISec. VISec. IVSec. ISec. II

0 2.000 4.000 6.000 8.000

Works of art and antiquesPearls, precious stones and metals; coin

Arms and ammunitionHides, skins and articles; saddlery and travel goods

Footwear, headgear; feathers, artif. flowers, fansPaper, paperboard and articles

Wood, cork and articles; basketwareTextiles and articles

Articles of stone, plaster; ceramic prod.; glassVehicles, aircraft and vessels

Instruments, clocks, recorders and reproducersMiscellaneous manufactured articles

Mineral productsBase metals and articles

Animal and vegetable fats, oils and waxesResins, plastics and articles; rubber and articles

Machinery and electrical equipmentProducts of the chemical and allied industries

Prepared foodstuff; beverages, spirits, vinegar; tobaccoLive animals and products

Vegetable products

TBT STC(TBT) SPS STC(SPS) QRS ADP OCA Summe

Source: Ghodsi et al. (2017)

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Assessing the impact of non-tariff measures on trade

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Ad-valorem equivalents (AVEs) of NTMsor: How to make NTMs directly comparable to tariffs?

Price gap method Indirect Approach

Wha

t? Deriving AVEs from an analysis of the price wedge due to the implementation of NTMs

Deriving AVEs with a Gravity estimation approach from the impact on import quantities and import demand elasticities

Who

? • Dean et al., 2009

• Nimenya et al., 2012

• Cadot and Gourdon, 2015

• Kee et al., 2009

• Bratt, 2014

• Beghin et al, 2014

Issu

es

› Necessity to compare different prices along the production and supply chain

› Neglect of product quality differences

› Price data availability usually restricts to few countries for a small set of products

› Based on import demand elasticities, which are themselves estimates

› Neglect of product quality differences

New data set (WTO I-TIP complemented by Ghodsi et al) Types and intensity of NTMs Using a panel structure Assess effects bilaterally Assess impacts in GVCs

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Based on GDP-function estimation of import price elasticities 𝜀𝜀𝑖𝑖𝑖

Gravity estimation to get effect of NTM on trade flows βihn

Transformation to AVEs:

This and related research shows that “Ad-Valorem Equivalents (AVE)” of NTMsare in almost 50% of cases negative, i.e. trade enhancing- Bratt (2014); Beghin et al. (2014); Ghodsi et al. (2017)

Method: ad-valorem equivalents

𝜕𝜕 ln mih

𝜕𝜕NTMihn =

𝜕𝜕 ln mih

𝜕𝜕 ln pih𝜕𝜕 ln pih𝜕𝜕NTMih

n = εihAVEihn

τihn =eβihn − 1

εih

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“TBT/SPS measures do not unambiguously increase or decrease trade. In general, TBT/SPS measures have positive effects for more technologically advanced sectors, but negative effects on trade in fresh and processed goods. As economic theory suggests, the introduction of a new TBT/SPS measure yields a trade-off between higher costs of adaption to new requirements for producers and lower information costs for consumers, who can be confident about the quality of the product in question.“ (WTO (2012), World Trade Report)

NTMs should not be seen as “trade costs”, implying that removal of those will –similar as tariffs in standard trade models – bring further beneficial effects (‘welfare gains’)

- NTMs can also lead to reduction of trade costs (e.g. due to harmonisation)

NTMs are often important and beneficial itself as e.g. safety standards, environmental protection, rules, etc.

NTMs ≠ NTBs

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Non-tariff measures are becoming more important (particuarly also in recent free trade agreements)

Standards and regulations in trade have multiple aims- Consumer safety, harmonisation of technical standards, health effects, ...- Compliance with European standards and values

Impact of NTMs on trade are diverse- due to complexity of technical regulations, etc.- even if negative impacts occur, NTMs serve various other purposes- Needs a detailed (product-level, bilateral) approach

Trade measures accumulate when international production sharing is important

Even if some NTMs have trade-impeding effects, these have to weighed off with other important effects of promoting standards and consumer needs

Needs much more careful modelling approaches than exist now

Summary

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Ghodsi, M., J. Grübler, O. Reiter and R. Stehrer (2017), The Evolution of Non-Tariff Measuresand their Diverse Effects on Trade, wiiw Research Report 418, May 2017.

Ghodsi, M., J. Grübler, and R. Stehrer (2016), Import Demand Elasticities Revisited, wiiwWorking Paper 132, November 2016.

Ghodsi, M., J. Grübler, and R. Stehrer (2016), Estimating Importer-Specific Ad Valorem Equivalents of Non-Tariff Measures, wiiw Working Paper 129, September 2016

Ghodsi, M. and R. Stehrer (2017), Quality impacts of NTMs, in progress.

Ghodsi, M. and R. Stehrer (2017), Non-tariff measures trickling through global value chains, in progress.

Papers

Page 18: Non-Tariff Measures becoming ever more important - but ... · “Non-tariff measures (NTMs) are policy measures, other than ordinary customs tariffs, that can potentially have an

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The Vienna Institute forInternational EconomicStudies

www.wiiw.ac.at

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