Non-anatomical features in wood identification and systematic wood anatomy

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Non-anatomical features in wood identification and systematic wood anatomy. Regis B. Miller (retired) USDA Forest Service Forest Products Laboratory One Gifford Pinchot Drive Madison, WI 53726-2398. 2004. 1989. Standard Lists for Identification. Hardwood list of features. 221 features - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

Text of Non-anatomical features in wood identification and systematic wood anatomy

  • Non-anatomical features in wood identification and systematic wood anatomyRegis B. Miller (retired)USDA Forest ServiceForest Products LaboratoryOne Gifford Pinchot DriveMadison, WI 53726-2398

  • Standard Lists for Identification

  • Hardwood list of features221 features163 microscopic58 non-anatomical

    25 geographic origin33 habit, specific gravity, colour, odour, fluorescence, froth, chrome azurol-S, burning splinter

  • How do we identify wood?Naked eyeNon-anatomical features colour, specific gravity, odour, fluorescence, chrome azurol-S, etc.Hand Lens10X - 20XMostly transverse surfaceLight Microscope4X, 10X, 20X & 40X objectivesMostly radial and tangential section

  • ColorDensityFluorescenceSurfaceExtract WaterEthanolNon-anatomical features Chemical testsBurning splinterFrothChrome Azurol-SColor of water and ethanol extracts

    Additional featureSodium nitrite

  • Non-anatomical features -- ColorColor can be a good featureColor varies from nearly white to black

  • Non-anatomical features -- ColorColor may change in light and airColor varies within a species

  • Non-anatomical features -- Color4 Groups within Tabebuia

  • Non-anatomical features -- Color2 Groups within Brosimum

  • Non-anatomical features -- Color2 Groups within Cordia

  • Non-anatomical features -- DensityDensity (weight/volume)

    Basic Specific Gravity (OD weight/green vol.)

    Standard ListLow - 0.40Medium - 0.40-0.75High - demonstrations/video/...

  • Non-anatomical features -- DensityTabebuia (lapacho group) - 0.85 - 0.97Tabebuia (roble group) - 0.52Tabebuia (white-cedar group) - 0.57Tabebuia (primavera group) - 0.40

    Cordia (dark) - 0.63 - 0.84Cordia (light) - 0.34

    Brosimum (guianense) - 0.82 - 1.10Brosimum (rubescens) - 0.73Brosimum (alicastrum) - 0.55 - 0.72Brosimum (utile) - 0.35 - 0.50

  • Non-anatomical features -- DensityHandroanthus (lapacho group) - 0.85 - 0.97Tabebuia (roble group) - 0.52Tabebuia (white-cedar group) - 0.57Roseodendron (primavera group) - 0.40

    Grose and Olmstead. 2007. Taxonomic revisions in the polyphyletic genus Tabebuia s.l. (Bignoniaceae). Systematic Botany 32:660-670.

    Grose and Olmstead. 2007. Evolution of a charismatice neotropical clade: Molecular phylogeny of Tabebuia s.l., Crescentieae, and allied genera (Bignoniaceae). Systematic Botany 32:650-659.

  • Non-anatomical features -- DensityBrosimum (guianense) - 0.82 - 1.10Brosimum (rubescens) - 0.73Brosimum (alicastrum) - 0.55 - 0.72Brosimum (utile) - 0.35 - 0.50

    Datwyler and Weiblen 2004. On the origin of the fig: Phylogenetic relationships of Moraceae from NDHF sequences. Am. Jour. Bot. 91:767-777.

  • Non-anatomical features -- FluorescenceSurface fluorescence

  • Non-anatomical features -- FluorescenceSurface fluorescence needs a fresh surface

  • Non-anatomical features -- FluorescenceSurface fluorescence many legumes many anacards

    Miller, R.B. 2007. Fluorescent woods of the world. IN: Flynn, J.H. (ed). A guide to more useful woods of the world. Forest Products Society, Madison, WI

  • Non-anatomical features -- Extract FluorescenceWater and ethanol extract fluorescencePlatymisciumPlatymiscium Dalbergia

  • Water fluorescenceD. nigranegativeD. spruceanablueNon-anatomical features -- Extract Fluorescence

  • Ethanol fluorescenceD. nigragreen/blueD. spruceanablueNon-anatomical features -- Extract Fluorescence

  • Non-anatomical features -- DensityDalbergia nigra - 0.76 (0.85) 0.96 g/cm3

    Dalbergia spruceana - 1.00 - 1.05 g/cm3

    Miller, R.B. and M.C. Wiemann. 2006. Separation of Dalbergia nigra from Dalbergia spruceana. Res. Paper FPL-RP-632. USDA Forest Service, Forest Products Laboratory.Convention on International Trade of Endangered Species

  • Non-anatomical features -- FrothFroth Test

  • Non-anatomical features -- FrothFroth Test: many Sapotaceae legumesEnterolobiumPentaclethraMoraPoeppigiaAbaremaCojobaInga

  • Non-anatomical features -- Extract ColorWater and ethanol extract colorHaematoxylon, Brasilettia, Guilandina, CaesalpiniaBrosimum, Maclura, Vatairea, Loxopterygium

  • Non-anatomical features -- TestsChrome azurol-S testBlue color on aluminum accumulators

  • Non-anatomical features -- TestsSpecies of VochysiaceaeMany species of MelastomataceaeMany species of RubiaceaeMany species of ProteaceaeSpecies of AnisophylleaceaeChrome azurol-S testKukachka, B.F. and R.B.Miller. 1980. A chemical spot-test for aluminum and it value in wood identification. IAWA Bull. n.s. 1(3):104-109.

  • Non-anatomical features -- TestsBurning splinter testGood for some specific separations

  • Non-anatomical features -- TestsSodium nitrite testDark purple to black on species in white oak groupOrange on species in red oak group

  • Non-anatomical features -- TestsSodium nitrite testExamined all North American oaks!

    Miller, R.B., J.T. Quirk, & D.J. Christensen. 1985. Identifying white oak logs with sodium nitrite. For. Prod. Jour. 35(2): 33-38.What about all species of Quercus?What about all species of Fagaceae?What about other families?

  • CONCLUSIONSNon-anatomical featuresNon-anatomical features are very important in wood identificationTake Home Message!Non-anatomical features may be important in systematic wood anatomyYOU NEVER KNOW WHAT FEATURES ARE IMPORTANT UNTIL YOU EXAMINE THEM!!

  • Tropical Wood Species Listed under CITESRegis B. Miller