Nobel prize in physicsPresented by: Ashraf GoudaThe Nobel Prize in Physics has been awarded to 180 individuals since 1901. (John Bardeen was awarded the prize in both 1956 and 1972.( Noble Prize In Physics- Ashraf Gouda
What Is physics?(and why should you care?)Physics is the study of the basic physical worldIt addresses How and Why questionsIt explains and predicts how the universe works.Physics is key to scientific literacyUnderstanding physics is useful in every day lifeLeaving physical problem to other is expensiveModern technological society depend on physics.
The Nobel Prize in Physics 1901"in recognition of the extraordinary services he has rendered by the discovery of the remarkable rays subsequently named after him
Wilhelm Conrad RntgenGermany
X-rays How Are X-rays Made?The penetrating rays discovered by Rntgen in 1895.X-rays, What Are They? electromagnetic waves of shorter wavelength and higher energy than normal light But the debates over the nature of the rays waves or particles? continued until the wave-particle duality was generally accepted in the 1920s.Photons can be described both as waves and particles.
X-rays in Use
The Nobel Prize in Physics 1902"in recognition of the extraordinary service they rendered by their researches into the influence of magnetism upon radiation phenomena
Hendrik Antoon Lorentzthe NetherlandsPieter Zeemanthe Netherlands
Zeeman effectIs the splitting of a spectral line into several components in the presence of a static magnetic field Since the distance between the Zeeman sub-levels is proportional to the magnetic field, this effect is used by astronomers to measure the magnetic field of the Sun and other stars.
Lorentz transformation converts between two different observers' measurements of space and time, where one observer is in constant motion with respect to the other
Time is different from frame to another
You cant transfer energy with a v greater than c
The Nobel Prize in Physics 1903"in recognition of the extraordinary services he has rendered by his discovery of spontaneous radioactivity" "in recognition of the extraordinary services they have rendered by their joint researches on the radiation phenomena discovered by Professor Henri Becquerel
Antoine Henri Becquerel 1/2Pierre Curie 1/4Marie Curie 1/4France
Radioactive decay Radioactive decay is the process in which an unstable atomic nucleus loses energy by emitting radiation in the form of particles or electromagnetic waves
The Nobel Prize in Physics 1906"in recognition of the great merits of his theoretical and experimental investigations on the conduction of electricity by gases
Joseph John ThomsonUnited Kingdom
Work on cathode rays In his first experiment, he investigated whether or not the negative charge could be separated from the cathode rays by means of magnetism
In his second experiment, he investigated whether or not the rays could be deflected by an electric field
In his third experiment, Thomson measured the charge-to-mass ratio of the cathode rays by measuring how much they were deflected by a magnetic field and how much energy they carried
Application:Cathode Rays Tube (CRT)
The Nobel Prize in Physics 1909"in recognition of their contributions to the development of wireless telegraphy
Guglielmo Marconi Italy Karl Ferdinand Braun Germany
Invention of radio Marconi began to conduct experiments, building much of his own equipment in the attic of his home at the Villa Griffone in Pistachio, Italy. His goal was to use radio waves to create a practical system of "wireless telegraphy.
Marconi's system had the following componentsA relatively simple oscillator.A wire or capacity area placed at a height above the ground; A coherer receiverA telegraph key to operate the transmitter to send short and long pulses, corresponding to the dots-and-dashes of Morse codeA telegraph register, activated by the coherer, which recorded the transmitted Morse code dots-and-dashes onto a roll of paper tape.
The Nobel Prize in Physics 1915"for their services in the analysis of crystal structure by means of X-rays
Sir William Henry BraggUnited KingdomWilliam Lawrence Bragg United Kingdom
X-ray crystallography Diffraction from a three dimensional periodic structure such as atoms in a crystal is called Bragg diffraction.
The Nobel Prize in Physics 1918"in recognition of the services he rendered to the advancement of Physics by his discovery of energy quanta
Max Karl Ernst Ludwig PlanckGermany
Quantum Mechanics: The word quantum (Latin, how much) in quantum mechanics refers to a discrete unit that quantum theory assigns to certain physical quantities,
such as the energy of an atom at rest .The discovery that waves have discrete energy packets (called quanta) that behave in a manner similar to particles .
E = h v
The Nobel Prize in Physics 1921"for his services to Theoretical Physics, and especially for his discovery of the law of the photoelectric effect
Albert EinsteinGermany and Switzerland
Photoelectric effect The photoelectric effect is a quantum electronic phenomenon in which electrons are emitted from matter after the absorption of energy from electromagnetic radiation such as x-rays or visible light. The emitted electrons can be referred to as photoelectrons in this context.
Study of the photoelectric effect led to important steps in understanding the quantum nature of light and electrons and influenced the formation of the concept of waveparticle duality.
Special theory of relativityFirst postulate:The laws of physics are the same in all inertial frames of reference.Second postulate:The speed of light in a vacuum is a universal constant, c, which is independent of the motion of the light source. c (299792458 m/s) Time dilation (twin paradox) Lorentz contraction Equivalence of mass and energy, E=mc^2
The Nobel Prize in Physics 1922"for his services in the investigation of the structure of atoms and of the radiation emanating from them
Niels Henrik David BohrDenmark
Bohr model In atomic physics, the Bohr model depicts the atom as a small, positively charged nucleus surrounded by electrons that travel in circular orbits around the nucleus similar in structure to the solar system, but with electrostatic forces providing attraction, rather than gravity.The electrons travel in orbits that have discrete quantized speeds, and therefore quantized energies. That is, not every orbit is possible but only certain specific ones, at certain specific distances from the nucleus. The electrons do not continuously lose energy as they travel. They can only gain and lose energy by jumping from one allowed orbit to another.
The Nobel Prize in Physics 1927"for his discovery of the effect named after him""for his method of making the paths of electrically charged particles visible by condensation of vapor
Arthur Holly Compton USACharles Thomson Rees Wilson United Kingdom
Compton scattering In physics, Compton scattering or the Compton effect is the decrease in energy (increase in wavelength) of an X-ray or gamma ray photon, when it interacts with matter
The Nobel Prize in Physics 1929"for his discovery of the wave nature of electrons
Prince Louis-Victor Pierre Raymond de BroglieFrance
De Broglie hypothesisall matter (any object) has a wave-like nature (wave-particle duality). He suggested that the wave-particle dualism that applies to EM radiation also applies to particles of matter.He proposed that every kind of particle has both wave and particle properties. Hence, electrons can be thought of as either particles or waves.
The Nobel Prize in Physics 1932"for the creation of quantum mechanics, the application of which has, inter alia, led to the discovery of the allotropic forms of hydrogen
Werner Karl HeisenbergGermany
Uncertainty principle which lays it down that the determination of the position and momentum of a mobile particle necessarily contains errors the product of which cannot be less than the quantum constant h and that, although these errors are negligible on the human scale, they cannot be ignored in studies of the atom.
The Nobel Prize in Physics 1933"for the discovery of new productive forms of atomic theory
Erwin Schrdinger Austria Paul Adrien Maurice DiracUnited Kingdom
Atomic theory In chemistry and physics, atomic theory is a theory of the nature of matter, which states that matter is composed of discrete units called atoms, as opposed to obsolete beliefs that matter could be divided into any arbitrarily small quantity. Or, in a nutshell, the idea that all things are made of atoms.
The chemists of the era believed the basic units of the elements were also the fundamental particles of nature and named them atoms (derived from the Greek word atomos, meaning "indivisible").
However, around the turn of the 20th century, through various experiments with electromagnetism and radioactivity, physicists discovered that the so-called "indivisible atom" was actually a conglomerate of various subatomic particles (chiefly, electrons, protons and neutrons) which can exist separately from each other.
Schrdinger equationSolutions of the analytical solutions of the time-independent Schrdinger equation can be obtained for a variety of relatively simple conditions.
These solutions provide insight into the nature of quantum phenomena and sometimes provide a reasonable a