Nh³m 3 - S¯c K½ Kh­

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  • NHM 8 - K THUT O LNG 1

    Tiu Lun:

    Ging vin hng dn : Ts. Nguyn Trung Khng

    Sinh vin : Nhm 3

    Lp : K1 - Lc Ha Du

    Trn Th Thy Tin

    Phm Quyt Tng

    L Duy Ph

    Nguyn Nng Lng

    Hong Tr Dng

    TP ON DU KH VIT NAM

    TRNG I HC DU KH VIT NAM

  • NHM 8 - K THUT O LNG 2

    Mc Lc

    I. Cc Phng Php Xc nh Nng Hydrocacbon. ............... 4 1. Phng Php in Ho: ......................................................................... 4

    1.1 Phng php in dn: ......................................................................................... 4

    1.2 Phng php in th: .......................................................................................... 5

    2. Phng Php Ion Ha: ........................................................................... 5 2.1 Chn khng k: .................................................................................................................. 6 2.2 Khi ph k: ....................................................................................................................... 6 2.3 Phng php ion ho nhit:.............................................................................................. 6

    3. Phng Php Ph: .................................................................................. 6 3.1 Phng php in thanh: ................................................................................................. 7 3.2 Phng php siu m: ....................................................................................................... 7 3.3 Phng php ph k v tuyn: ......................................................................................... 7 3.4 Phng php in quang: ................................................................................................. 7 3.5 Phng php phng x: .................................................................................................... 7

    4. Phng Php Phit T V in Dung: ................................................ 8 4.1 Phng php phn tch nhit: .......................................................................................... 8 4.2 Phng php phn tch theo t thm v thm in mi: .................................... 8

    5. Phng Php Sc K:............................................................................. 8 5.1 Lch S: .............................................................................................................................. 8 5.2 nh ngha: ......................................................................................................................... 9 5.3 Qu trnh sc k: ............................................................................................................... 9 5.4 Phn loi: .......................................................................................................................... 10

    II. Phng Php Sc K Kh. .............................................................. 12 1. Gii Thiu Sc K Kh: ........................................................................ 12

    2. Vi Nt Lch S: .................................................................................... 13

    3. S Khi Ca H Thng Sc K Kh: ............................................ 13

    4. Cc B Phn Ca My Sc K Kh: ................................................... 13 4.1 H thng cung cp kh mang: .................................................................................... 14 4.2 H thng tim mu: ...................................................................................................... 15 4.3 H thng ct: .................................................................................................................. 15 4.4 H thng Detector: ........................................................................................................ 17

    5. K Thut Xc nh Nng ............................................................... 28 5.1 Nguyn l hot ng: ................................................................................................... 28 5.2 Cc phng php tin hnh tch sc k: ................................................................. 30 5.3 K thut xc nh nng : ........................................................................................ 31

    6. Phn Tch nh Tnh ............................................................................ 34

    7. Phn Tch nh Lng ......................................................................... 35 7.1 Phng php chun ha din tch: ........................................................................... 35 7.2 Phng php tnh theo h s hiu chnh: ................................................................ 36 7.3 Phng php lp ng chun ................................................................................. 36 7.4 Phng php dng chun ni .................................................................................... 36

  • NHM 8 - K THUT O LNG 3

    M U

    Cng nh than , du m v kh t l hai ngun nguyn liu c bit rt quan trng

    trong vic cung cp nng lng cho ton th gii, chng chim gn 60% tng nng lng

    tiu th ton cu. Du kh c gi l Vng en, ng vai tr quan trng trong nn kinh

    t ton cu. y cng l ngun nguyn liu chnh dng sn xut in v vn hnh cc

    phng tin giao thng vn ti. Bn cnh , du kh cng s dng trong cng nghip ha

    du sn xut cc cht do v nhiu sn phm khc phc v cho i sng con ngi.

    i vi nc ta, vai tr v ngha ca du kh ni chung trong du m v kh t ni

    ring cng tr nn cc k quan trng trong thi k y mnh s nghip cng nghip ha,

    hin i ha. Khng ch l ngnh cng nghip n thun, trong nhng nm qua du kh

    gp phn ng k vo ngun ngn sch quc gia, gp phn to nn s pht trin n nh

    nc nh trong nhng nm i mi t nc.

    Trong khi hydrocacbons l nhng cu t ch yu (>98%) trong thnh phn ca du m

    v kh t. Ngoi ra cn cc hp cht vi oxy, lu hunh, nit l nhng cu t ph. Vi vai

    tr to ln v c ngha quyt nh ti s sng cn ti vn mnh ca mt quc gia nh

    vy, vic phn tch thnh phn v xc nh nng hydrocacbon sm c ch trng

    v pht trin vi nhiu phng php khc nhau. Trong bi tiu lun ny, nhm xin c

    a ra mt s phng php c ng dng rng ri trc y cng nh hin nay.

  • NHM 8 - K THUT O LNG 4

    I. Cc Phng Php Xc nh Nng Hydrocacbon.

    Phn tch vt cht c ngha rt quan trng, nh c th tin hnh chnh xc qu

    trnh nghin cu cc lnh vc ho hc, sinh hc, y hc, v tr... i tng kho st l

    tt c cc cht trong cn xc nh nng v thnh phn ca cht kh, cht lng v

    vt rn.

    Nhim v phn tch thng rt phc tp do phi o nng ca ring tng cht hoc mt

    nhm cht trong mi trng nhiu thnh phn vi nhng iu kin khc nhau nh nhit

    , p sut, tc di chuyn.... Di nng thay i kh rng vi cc iu kin khc

    nhau nn cc phng php v dng c o cng rt khc nhau. y ta ch xt n

    phng php in dng o nng v thnh phn ca vt cht.

    1. Phng Php in Ho

    Phng php in ho l cc dng c o nng ca vt cht da trn s ng dng cc

    chuyn i in ho. Cc phng php in ho ph bin l phng php in dn, in

    th, culng v phn cc.

    1.1 Phng php in dn:

    Nguyn l hot ng: o in dn ca dung dch nh cc chuyn i in dn

    tip xc v khng tip xc.

    Hnh 1.1: S cu trc ca thit b o nng dung dch bng phng php in dn

    Hnh 1.2: Mch o ca thit b o nng dung dch bng phng php in dn s dng

    cc dng c c mch o tn s

  • NHM 8 - K THUT O LNG 5

    c im, phm vi ng dng: phng php ny dng o nng mui trong

    dung dch, trong nc ngng v nc ca cc my hi nc, mn ca nc bin...

    N cn c dng xc nh nng cht kh do s thay i in dn ca dung dch

    khi a vo cc cht kh cn phn tch.

    1.2 Phng php in th:

    Nguyn l hot ng: l phng php o in th cc, trong o s dng cc chuyn

    i Ganvanic, o nng thp ca oxi trong hn hp kh.

    Hnh 1.3: S ca mt thit b phn tch kh vi chuyn i

    Dng c o pH ca dung dch (pH-mt): o pH ca dung dch (pH-mt), n c

    s dng rng ri kim tra cc qu trnh ha hc khc nhau

    Ngoi ra cn c mt s cc phng php khc nh:

    Phng php Culong: l phng php o s lng in tch hoc dng in khi

    in phn cht cn nghin cu c s dng o nng v thnh ca cht lng v

    cht kh cng nh o m ca kh.

    Phng php phn cc: l phng php da trn hin tng phn cc y l mt

    trong cc phng php in ho nhy nht, n cho php phn tch dung dch gm nhiu

    thnh phn.

    2. Phng Php Ion Ha

    Nguyn l hot ng chung: y l phng php da trn s in ho cc cht

    cn phn tch v o dng in in ho xc nh nng ca cc cht .

    Phn loi: da trn cc phng php in ho c s dng ph bin:

    o Chn khng k

    o Khi ph k

    o Cc thit b phn tch in ho nhit

  • NHM 8 - K THUT O LNG 6

    2.1 Chn khng k:

    Chuyn i t pht x in t vi katt lnh:

    o Nguyn l hot ng: l s ion ho cht kh xy ra di tc dng ca in p cao.

    Chuyn i pht x nhit in t

    o Nguyn l hot ng: l qu trnh ion ho do katt b t nng lm cc in t

    bn ra vi nng lng n 15eV, in ho cht kh.

    Chuyn i phng x in:

    o Nguyn l hot ng: l cc chuyn i s dng cc ngun bc x v ion

    ho cht kh vi chu k bn phn hu ln.

    2.2 Khi ph k:

    phn tch hp cht c nhiu thnh phn c th dng dng c phn tch khi

    ph trong cng s dng phng php in ho.

    Hnh 1.4: s nguyn l ca khi ph k (s dng phng php ion ho)

    Thc cht ca thit b phn tch kh phi ph l phn tch t ng, lin tc

    cht kh v iu khin qu trnh cng ngh.

    2.3 Phng php ion ho nhit:

    Mun t nhy cao hn na c th dng phng php in ho nhit: da

    trn s in ho cc phn t ca cht cn nghin cu trong kh hyr chy.

    3. Phng Php Ph

    Nguyn l hot ng chung: phng php ph l phng php da trn kh nng

    hp th, bc x, tn x, phn x hoc khc x c chn lc ca cc cht khc nhau vi

    cc loi bc x khc nhau. y l nhm cc phng php s dng ph rng c chiu

    di sng t di m thanh 103Hz n