New Fowler Proficiency. Writing Skills 2

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A

NEW.

FOWLERPROFICIENCY

WRITING ^ S K ILLS

Introduction

INTRODUCTIONNew Fowler Proficiency Writing Skills 2 is t h e second part

of a t w o - p a r t c o u r s e which aims to teach the t e c h n i q u e s s t u d e n t s r e q u i r e t o a t t e m p t any o f t h e variations among the six forms of writing task s e t in the revised Cambridge Proficiency examination. Approximately ten per cent of t h e material in Writing Skills has b e e n r e v i s e d f o r this b o o k . All t h e o t h e r material in this book is new. Each of the twenty units c o n s i s t s of f o u r - p a g e s , w h i c h s h o u l d , under normal c i r c u m s t a n c e s , be c o m p l e t e d in t w o l e s s o n s , with a writing task to be done later in approximately o n e hour, the time allowed for it in the examination. The changes in the examination The biggest change in the writing paper of the revised Cambridge Proficiency examination is that it n o w has t w o parts, as do FCE and CAE. P a r t I c o n s i s t s of a c o m p u l s o r y q u e s t i o n comprising i n s t r u c t i o n s and a t e x t or t e x t s w h i c h p r o v i d e candidates with a clear c o n t e x t . T h e r e is always m o r e than o n e p o i n t to a d d r e s s in this q u e s t i o n , and candidates should learn to identify t h e s e points and ensure that they c o v e r t h e m w h e n writing. The q u e s t i o n is discursive, and candidates are e x p e c t e d to w r i t e o n e o f t h e following:an an a a article essay letter proposal

For t h o s e c a n d i d a t e s w h o have s t u d i e d o n e o f t h e three set texts, Question 5 consists of three q u e s t i o n s , o n e for each o f t h e s e t t e x t s . Candidates are required t o w r i t e o n e o f t h e following:an an a a a article essay letter review report

T h e t i m e limit (2 hours) and length of writing tasks ( 3 0 0 - 3 5 0 w o r d s ) remain unchanged. T e a c h i n g w r i t i n g skills It is important for students to understand that while credit is given to Proficiency candidates for their use of s t r u c t u r e and v o c a b u l a r y , t h e s e a r e n o t t h e o n l y considerations to be taken into account; organisation and the relevance of the answer to the task are at least equally important. Different writing tasks require s p e c i f i c t e c h n i q u e s t o deal w i t h t h e m , and s u c h t e c h n i q u e s can be taught effectively t h r o u g h m o d e l s written within the capacity of a g o o d student that can be analysed, imitated and practised. T h e s e models are supported with revision of t h e necessary grammatical structures and lexical items by means of accompanying exercises and the reference section and the appendix at t h e end. Doing justice to oneself in an examination T h e Proficiency examination requires a considerably m o r e sophisticated use of English than First Certificate and t h e difference b e t w e e n t h e s e t w o levels is often underestimated by students. The difference, however, is n o t s o m u c h a m a t t e r o f using m o r e c o m p l i c a t e d s t r u c t u r e s or a w i d e r range of vocabulary as of providing a n a n s w e r r e l e v a n t t o t h e q u e s t i o n , well organised in g o o d , clear sentences and paragraphs. The range of q u e s t i o n s o p e n to the e x a m i n e r is considerable, as indicated by the contents pages of this book, but learning the right technique to deal with each is half t h e battle. T h e r e f o r e , it is r e c o m m e n d e d that students pay particular attention to the tips provided throughout the book. These consist of practical advice on what to do and what not to do in a given situation and should make it possible for s t u d e n t s taking t h e exam to realise their full potential.

In P a r t 2, candidates choose one question comprising instructions which give candidates guidance to t h e c o n t e x t . In o r d e r to be successful in Part 2, candidates should be c o m p e t e n t at narrating, analysing, h y p o t h e s i s i n g , d e s c r i b i n g , giving r e a s o n s , persuading, judging priorities, evaluating, making recommendations, giving information and summarising. Candidates are e x p e c t e d t o w r i t e o n e of t h e following, from a c h o i c e of t h r e e :an a a a a article letter proposal review report

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1

Contents

UNIT

PART

TECHNIQUE

MODELSS E C T I O N 1: A R T I C L E S

REVISION

PAGE

!

2

Describing

My working day A working day in the life of a florist

Adverbs of frequency Prepositions of time Tenses

6

2

2

Describing and narrating

A key moment in my childhood

Past & Perfect Tenses Indirect Speech

10

3

1

Discussing an issue

Should mothers go out to work?

Passive Voice: impersonal structures14

4

1

Responding to generalisations

Crime: genes or upbringing?

Compound Adjectives

18

S E C T I O N

2:

L E T T E R S

S

2

Describing

Teacher of the Year The most unpleasant person 1 have ever met

Adjectives

22

6

1

Giving opinions

The aims of education

Connectors and modifiers: developing an argument

26

7

2

Complaining

A letter of complaint to an airline

Indirect Speech ConditionalsShould

30

8

2

Applying for a job

Voluntary summer job Student conference

hypothetical

would

34

S E C T I O N

3:

E S S A Y S

9

1

Expressing opinions

The future of entertainment

Tenses Inversion

38

1

1

Comparing

Films vs Books

Comparison

42

4

UNIT

PART

TECHNIQUE

MODELSS E C T I O N 4 : P R O P O S A L S

REVISION

PAGE

2

Applying for funds

Keeping a museum open

Connectors and modifiers: Clauses of Reason

46

1210

2

Assessing choices

The Opera House: renovation or demolition?

Formal language

50

2

Evaluating a situation

Traffic problem in town centre

54

214

Giving reasons

Promoting a new snack

Connectors and modifiers: Clauses of Reason

58

18

S E C T I O N

5 :

R E V I E W S

Reviewing a festival

The Edinburgh Festival

Gerunds and infinitives

62

Reviewing a holiday22

A weekend break in Venice

Participle clauses

66

2

Reviewing a magazine

National

Geographic

Connectors and modifiers: developing an argument

70

26

S E C T I O N

6 :

R E P O R T S

Discussing the findings30

Maintown residents' opinions on how best to spend a donation

Quantifiers Passive Voice: impersonal and personal structures

74

of a survey

Providing solutions34

Threatened closure of The Catherine Wheel restaurant

78

2

Evaluating

Mr Quick Dry Cleaner'sTravel the World game

Indirect Speech

82

Reference section38

86

Appendix

94

42

CPE Writing S h e e t s

96

WmHmmMm

1a b c d e

Articles

Describing

Before reading t h e question and article below, l o o k at Reference section 3 o n page 8 6 and c o m p l e t e this e x e r c i s e . Put t h e adverb in brackets in t h e m o s t suitable place in t h e s e n t e n c e . I get up at seven o'clock, (usually) My first a p p o i n t m e n t is at 8.45. (generally) I d o n ' t h a v e t i m e to r e a d t h e p a p e r after breakfast, (often) I have k e p t up with t h e latest r e s e a r c h , (always) I have h a d to go o u t in t h e m i d d l e of t h e night, ( s o m e t i m e s )

2

N o w read t h e q u e s t i o n and t h e article b e l o w and t h e n do t h e e x e r c i s e s that follow. You live and w o r k locally. T h e c a r e e r s office In t h e t o w n publishes a m o n t h l y magazine for s t u d e n t s . T h e magazine has invited local business p e o p l e , d o c t o r s , t e a c h e r s , e t c to w r i t e articles describing their w o r k i n g day. You have d e c i d e d to w r i t e an article for t h e magazine describing y o u r normal w o r k i n g day.

My working dayM o s t G P s t h e s e d a y s b e l o n g , as I d o , to a m e d i c a l p r a c t i c e s h a r e d with four o t h e r d o c t o r s . This has the advantage of o u r being able to employ two n u r s e s a n d two s e c r e t a r i e s . U n l i k e t h e o t h e r doctors in my practice, I am married with two young children and my husband, Michael, has a full-time job in London. Michael and I usually get up every day about six thirty and have a shower and get dressed before we wake the children. We have breakfast at 7.30 and get the children ready for school. Fortunately, my husband passes the school on the way to the station so he d r o p s t h e m off. My first a p p o i n t m e n t is n o t u s u a l l y u n t i l 8.45 b u t t h e c h i l d r e n n e a r l y always n e e d something at the last minute so I don't often have time to read the paper after breakfast. In our practice, we ask patients to telephone for an a p p o i n t m e n t unless they are seriously ill. Most of those who come to the surgery just need a prescription for the chemist or a certificate to stay away