Neurological Disorders Lesson 4.6 What causes epilepsy?

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Text of Neurological Disorders Lesson 4.6 What causes epilepsy?

The Five Senses In the Brain

Neurological DisordersLesson 4.6

What causes epilepsy?

Do Now:Examine the circuit below. The two red neurons are excitatory and the two blue neurons are inhibitory.

What effect would removing the two blue inhibitory neurons have on this circuits activity? +--+Removing Inhibition: The Effect LocallyXX+--+

Removing Inhibition: The Effect DistantlyXXLocalDistant+--+++Can anyone think of a condition caused by abnormal disordered neuronal activity?

EpilepsyChronic neurological condition that results in unprovoked seizures.

Seizures are the changes in behavior caused by disordered abnormal electrical activity in the brain.

Symptoms of SeizurePositiveAcquiring an abnormal behaviorEx. Jerking an arm

NegativeLosing a normal behaviorEx. Temporary loss of sight

Normal VisionLoss of Vision7Symptoms of Seizure

VisualAuditorySomatosensoryMotor in limbsMotor in face and head8Types of SeizuresPartial SeizuresOccur when abnormal electrical activity remains in a limited area of the brain

Generalized SeizuresOccur when abnormal electrical activity extends throughout the entire brain9Partial SeizureOriginate within a small group of neurons called a seizure focusStart due to loss of inhibitory control

Seizure Focus

Partial Seizure: Spread from Seizure FocusSeizure FocusThalamus11

Partial Seizure: Spread from Seizure FocusSeizure FocusThalamus12Generalized SeizuresOriginate within the thalamusStart simultaneously in both sides of the brain

Thalamus13Measuring SeizuresEEG measures the electrical activity of the brain.

Measuring SeizuresEEG measures the electrical activity of the brain.Placement of ElectrodesF Frontal LobeT Temporal LobeP Parietal LobeO Occipital LobeC Motor CortexNumber systemOdd Left hand sideEven Right hand side

Measuring Seizures

EEG measures the electrical activity of the brain.

Measuring SeizuresNormal Partial SeizureGeneralized Seizure

17Analyzing EEGs

Patient 1

FP2-F8F8-T4T4-P6P6-O2FP2-F2F4-C2C4-P4P4-O4FP1-F7F7-T3T3-T5T5-O1FP1-F3F3-C3C3-P3P3-O1Patient 2

FP1-F7F7-T7T7-P7P7-O1FP2-F8F8-T8T8-P8P8-O2FP1-LCheekLCheek P1FP2-RCheekRCheek P2Patient 3

TreatmentMedicinesSurgeryVagus Nerve Stimulation