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  • Networks and Services

  • Networks and Services Carrier Ethernet, PBT, MPLS-TP, and VPLS

    Mehmet Toy

    A John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Publication

  • Copyright © 2012 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved

    Published by John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, New Jersey Published simultaneously in Canada

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    Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data:

    Toy, Mehmet. Networks and Services : Carrier Ethernet, PBT, MPLS-TP, and VPLS / Mehmet Toy.

    pages cm.—(Information and communication technology series ; 95) Includes bibliographical references and index.

    ISBN 978-0-470-39119-8 1. Ethernet (Local area network system) I. Title. TK5105.8.E83T69 2012 621.39′81–dc23

    2012015783

    Printed in the United States of America

    10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1

    http://www.copyright.com http://www.wiley.com/go/permission http://www.wiley.com

  • To the memory of my parents To my sister and brothers

    To my wife, Fusun, and my sons, Onur, Ozan and Atilla

  • Contents

    Foreword xiii

    Preface xv

    1 Introduction and Overview 1

    1.1 Introduction 1 1.2 Basic Ethernet 2 1.3 Synchronization 2 1.4 Pseudowires 2 1.5 Protection 2 1.6 Carrier Ethernet Architecture and Services 3 1.7 Carrier Ethernet Traffic Management 4 1.8 Ethernet Operations, Administrations, and Maintenance (OAM) 5 1.9 Circuit Emulation 6 1.10 Ethernet Local Management Interface (ELMI) 7 1.11 PBT 8 1.12 T-MPLS and MPLS-TP 9 1.13 Virtual Private LAN Services (VPLS) 11

    2 Basic Ethernet 14

    2.1 Introduction 14 2.2 CSMA/CD 15 2.3 Full Duplex, Pause, Autonegotiation 16 2.4 Repeaters and Hubs 16 2.5 Bridges 17 2.6 Switches 18 2.7 Physical Layer 19 2.8 Temperature Hardening 26 2.9 Standards 27 2.10 Ethernet Frame Types and the Ethertype Field 27

    vii

  • viii Contents

    2.11 Conclusion 32 References 32

    3 Synchronization 33

    3.1 Introduction 33 3.2 Application Requirements 35 3.3 Synchronization Standards 39 3.4 NTP/SNTP 40 3.5 Precision Time Protocol (IEEE 1588) 44 3.6 Synchronous-Ethernet Networks (SyncE) 51 3.7 Conclusion 61 References 61

    4 Pseudowires 63

    4.1 Introduction 63 4.2 Protocol Layers 63 4.3 Payload Types 64 4.4 Pseudowire Architecture 65 4.5 Control Plane 72 4.6 Multisegment Architecture 74 4.7 Multisegment Pseudowire Setup Mechanisms 77 4.8 Resiliency 80 4.9 Quality of Service and Congestion Control 80 4.10 Operations and Maintenance (OAM) 81 4.11 Security 83 4.12 Conclusion 84 References 85

    5 Ethernet Protection 86

    5.1 Introduction 86 5.2 Automatic Protection Switching (APS) Entities 87 5.3 Linear Protection 89 5.4 Ring Protection 97 5.5 Link Aggregation 102 5.6 Conclusion 108 References 108

    6 Carrier Ethernet Architectures and Services 109

    6.1 Introduction 109

  • Contents ix

    6.2 Standards 111 6.3 Architecture 111 6.4 Interfaces 125 6.5 Services 138 6.6 Conclusion 156 References 156

    7 Carrier Ethernet Traffic Management 158

    7.1 Introduction 158 7.2 Policing 160 7.3 Queuing, Scheduling, and Flow Control 161 7.4 Three CoS Model 161 7.5 SLAs (Service-Level Agreements) 164 7.6 SLAs 168 7.7 Application-CoS-Priority Mapping 168 7.8 Bandwidth Profile 177 7.9 Conclusion 180 References 180

    8 Carrier Ethernet OAM&P (Operations, Administration, Management, and Performance) 181

    8.1 Introduction 181 8.2 Link OAM 183 8.3 Service OAM 186 8.4 Maintenance Entities 188 8.5 Maintenance Points 190 8.6 OAM Addressing and Frame Format 193 8.7 Continuity Check Message (CCM) 198 8.8 Loopback and Reply Messages (LBM and LBR) 202 8.9 Link Trace and Reply Messages (LTM and LTR) 206 8.10 Ethernet Alarm Indication Signal (ETH-AIS) 210 8.11 Ethernet Remote Defective Indication (ETH-RDI) 213 8.12 Ethernet Locked Signal (ETH-LCK) 214 8.13 Performance Measurements 215 8.14 Performance Monitoring 217 8.15 Loss Measurements 218 8.16 Availability 221 8.17 Frame Delay Measurements 224 8.18 Interframe Delay Variation (IFDV) Measurements 225 8.19 Testing 225 8.20 Security 232

  • x Contents

    8.21 OAM Bandwidth 232 8.22 Conclusion 233 References 233

    9 Circuit Emulation Services (CES) 234

    9.1 Introduction 234 9.2 Circuit Emulation Functions 237 9.3 Adaptation Function Headers 238 9.4 Synchronization 241 9.5 TDM Application Signaling 242 9.6 CESoETH Defects and Alarms 244 9.7 Performance Monitoring of CESoETH 245 9.8 CESoETH Service Configuration 245 9.9 Conclusion 246 References 246

    10 Carrier Ethernet Local Management Interface 247

    10.1 Introduction 247 10.2 ELMI Messages 250 10.3 ELMI Message Elements 252 10.4 ELMI System Parameters and Procedures 257 10.5 UNI-C AND N Procedures 260 10.6 Conclusion 261 References 261

    11 PB (Provider Bridges), PBB (Provider Backbone Bridges), and PBT (Provider Backbone Transport) 262

    11.1 Introduction 262 11.2 IEEE 802.1AB 264 11.3 Provider Backbone Bridges (PBB) 270 11.4 PBT (Provider Backbone Transport) 278 11.5 Conclusion 287 References 287

    12 T-MPLS (Transport MPLS) 288

    12.1 Introduction 288 12.2 Differences from MPLS 290 12.3 Architecture 291 12.4 T-MPLS Frame Structure 294

  • Contents xi

    12.5 T-MPLS Networks 296 12.6 Conclusion 301 References 302

    13 MPLS-TP(MPLS-Transport Profile) 303

    13.1 Introduction 303 13.2 Frame Format 306 13.3 Architecture 307 13.4 OAM (Operations, Administration, and Maintenance) 320 13.5 Protection Switching 330 13.6 Security Considerations 331 13.7 Conclusion 331 References 331

    14 Virtual Private LAN Services (VPLS) 333

    14.1 Introduction 333 14.2 Data Plane 338 14.3 LDP-Based VPLS 340 14.4 BGP Approach 353 14.5 Security 360 14.6 External Network–Network Interface 360 14.7 Conclusion 360 References 361

    Index 363

  • Foreword

    As Carrier Ethernet becomes the dominant delivery service and network for end- users (enterprises, mobile operators, wholesale providers, etc) worldwide, more telecommunications service providers are responding to end-user demand for Ethernet services to deliver efficient, high-bandwidth, and QoS-enabled networks.

    In 2012, the MEF (the industry’s defining body for Carrier Ethernet) advanced networks and services by a generation through introduction of Carrier Ethernet 2.0- CE 2.0; expanding the original 3 services to 8, and delivering three powerful, standardized features: Multi-CoS (Multiple Classes of Service), Manageability, Interconnect.

    Multi-CoS defines performance objectives (based on Frame Delay, Inter- Frame Delay Variation, Frame Loss Ratio, Frame Delay Range, Mean Frame Delay, Availability, etc.) for 3 classes of service over 4 distance related “Per- formance Tiers” and maps more than 20 application types into these 3 classes. In other words, Multi-CoS standardizes each of 3 classes of service in terms of clearly defined performance objectives and it categorizes 20 applications into these 3 classes of service based upon required performance objectives of each application.

    For the first time, Standardized Multi-CoS enables industry-wide adoption to deliver unprecedented network efficiency. It’s unprecedented because the abil- ity to quantify and predict network performance by application makes it viable to optimize bandwidth usage with resultant significant cost savings and while actually improving quality of service. This standardization reates a compelling case to implement Multi-CoS because the previous complexity, risks and costs of ad-hoc implementations are now minimized. Inherent in the MEF work is the ability to maintain this efficiency across interco