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Nervous System Pathologies

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Nervous System Pathologies. Hyperopia. Typically a genetic issue where the eye is too short or cornea is too flat, so that images focus at a point behind the retina. “Farsighted”. - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

Text of Nervous System Pathologies

  • Typically a genetic issue where the eye is too short or cornea is too flat, so that images focus at a point behind the retina. FarsightedIf you have normal 20/20 vision, you are emmetropic (have emmetropia)

  • With myopia, the eyeball is too long, or the cornea is too steep, so images are focused inside the eye rather than on the retina. Nearsighted

  • Clouding of the lens leading to weakened vision Cataracts develop from a variety of reasons, including long-term exposure to ultraviolet light, exposure to radiation, secondary effects of diseases such as diabetes, hypertension and advanced age, or trauma.

  • Irregularly shaped cornea or lens leading to blurred

  • excess pressure in eye (humors cant drain)

  • Eyes are not properly aligned with each other. It typically involves a lack of coordination between muscles. Strabismus can be either a disorder of the brain coordinating the eyes or a disorder of one or more muscles. Cross

  • Middle ear infection; usually occurs early in life due to horizontal Eustachian tubes. Constant infections require putting tubes in to allow ear to drain

  • An unpredictable disease of the central nervous system.Many investigators believe MS to be an autoimmune disease -- In the case of MS, it is the nerve-insulating myelin being destroyed

  • Inflammation of the meninges of the brain and spinal cord.Two formsbacterial and viral. Bacterial form is usually more deadly than viral form.

  • Hereditary, degenerative brain disorder. HD slowly diminishes the affected individual's ability to walk, think, talk and reason. Eventually, the person with HD becomes totally dependent upon others for his or her care. Huntingtons is caused by a dominant gene

  • A disease that involves the loss of cells to a specific part of the brain (the section that creates dopamine). May be related to genetics and/or environmental causes.

  • The excessive accumulation of cerebrospinal fluid within the cranium

  • Caused by a blocked ventricle Blockage resulting from: meningitis, tumors, genetic, fluid filled cysts, and many unknown causes.

  • The disorder is caused by faulty development of or damage to motor areas in the brain that disrupts the brain's ability to control movement and posture.


  • Condition is which child is born missing significant portions of brain/skull. Causes: Still not known, possibly triggered by genetic and environmental factors.Statistics: 450 births/year in the U.S.

  • Spina bifida is a birth defect that involves the incomplete development of the spinal cord or its coverings. The term spina bifida comes from Latin and literally means "split" or "open" spine.Spina bifida occurs at the end of the first month of pregnancy when the two sides of theembryo's spine fail to join together, leaving an open area. In some cases, the spinal cord or other membranes may push through this opening in the back. The condition usually isdetected before a baby is born and treated right away.


  • A chronic pathological condition in which the muscles are affected by persistent spasms and exaggerated tendon reflexes because of damage to motor nerves of the central nervous system.CausesThe disease is hereditary and is developed at birth.

  • Polio is a contagious viral illness. In its most severe form, polio causes paralysis, difficulty breathing and sometimes death. No treatment; early prevention through vaccinationThere were 1876 reported cases of Polio in 2006; most were in endemic-prone areas. Polio has been eradicated throughout most of the worldSources:,

  • An injury to the brain that results in temporary loss of normal brain function. It is usually caused by a blow to the head. It is the most common cause of Traumatic Brain Injury. Many people assume that concussions involve a loss of consciousness, but that is not true. In most cases, a person with a concussion never loses

  • The main cause of contusion is a direct blow to any part of the body. Its when blood pools around the injured area. The main treatment is to control bleeding and swelling by RICE (rest, ice, compression, elevationContusions can be fatal but most are not. However, many fatal contusions result from a brain contusion.

  • Cerebral Edema can be caused by a number of things, including blunt force, shaking, or an exposure to high altitude, usually for a period of time.Cerebral Edema is the result of fluid buildup in the brain causing swelling. As the brain swells, neurons cannot function.

  • A stroke occurs when a blood clot blocks an artery or a blood vessel ruptures, interrupting blood flow to an area of the brain. When either of these things happen, brain cells begin to die and brain damage occurs.Stroke is the third leading cause of death in America and the No. 1 cause of adult disability.

    80% of strokes are preventable; you can prevent a stroke!

  • Aprogressive andfatal brain disease.As many as5 million Americans are livingwith Alzheimers disease.Alzheimer'sdestroys brain cells, causing problems with memory, thinking and behavior severe enough to affectwork, lifelong hobbies or social life.Alzheimers gets worse over time, and it is fatal. Today it is the sixth-leading cause of death in the United States.

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