tard histo y museams: lets get moving!
Born New York, 1936. Graduate (Cand. real.) in fish biology. University of Oslo. Regional Fisher- ies Adviser for Northern Norway, 1968-73: Lec- turer in zoology, Tromsc? Museum, University of Tromss, 1973-78. Aquarium director and mu- seum lecturer, Norwegian Forestry Museum 1978. President, Association of Norwegian Mu- seum Educators, 197s-8 I. Editor, Muserimsnytt, 1984-86. President, Association of Natural History Museums in Norway since 1986.
The continued existence of natural his- tory museums is-in the last resortde- pendent on public awareness of the im- portance of environmental protection and preservation. Without a general ac- ceptance of the need to preserve our na- tural and cultural inheritance, and of the role played by natural history museums in this process, natural history museums face a bleak future. It is that kind of future we wish to avoid. Unfortunately, in my daily work, in my contact with schools, and in an increasingly more complicated and technological world, it seems to me (and many others) that na- tural history is attracting less and less attention.
Yet, at a time when ecology is becom- ing more and more the science of the survival of life, natural history museums should be pointing the way forward: re- searching and publicizing, explaining consequences, and suggesting courses of action. Natural history museums are of vital importance, not only to the techni- cal development of natural resources- that is the systematic and scientific man- agement of the environment for econ- omic gain-but also to remind people that nature consists of thousands of inter- dependent living organisms (human be- ings included), and that the management of nature is, in consequence, also a matter of ethics.
Mztseums and research
Research is for the most part linked to a museums collection of exhibits and artefa&. When national and local auth- orities are planning construction projects (motorways, dams, etc.), there is usually a need to evaluate the environmental, and possibly historical, consequences of their
plans. Schemes of this sort require on-site tests and field work, and public works authorities seldom have personnel quali- fied to make that sort of evaluation. Con- sequently, they apply to local centres of expertise-museums being those most readily available. This is of benefit to both parties. The authorities acquire the test results and reports that they need, while the museums benefit financially from the reimbursement they receive for their services. This, in times of economic recession and, dare I say, government parsimony, is a welcome addition to meagre resources. Museums may further benefit from new additions to their col- lections, while museum staff are given the opportunity to widen their experi- ence.
Recent developments, however, have witnessed an expansion of such field work, with the dubious consequence that other bodies have been drafted to carry out tests and research. In such cases, authorities frequently consider museum participation unnecessary, which is unfortunate. Other agencies tend to approach the task from a different perspective, and seem not to consider the long-term research possibilities inherent in their samples and work. Thus valuable artefacts or important research material can be lost.
The museum, a s m i c e institution?
It is essential that museums bear in mind that they are primarily service insti- tutions. Thus, it is important to establish and maintain contact with as broad a spectrum of opinion as possible, and par- ticularly with environmental protection institutions and the numerous voluntary
43 Aerial view of the Norwegian Forestry Museum and the outdoor exhibits.
organizations dedicated to the preser- vation of our environmental and cultural heritage. In Norway, the natural history museums have established a network of contacts with a wide range of individuals and groups-societies, collectors, en- vironmentalists, amateur naturalists, his- torians, etc. These have a dual function. Not only do they supply facts and infor- mation about the various regions of the country, but they also provide all- important feed-back, signalling public reaction and stimulating new impulses. All this enables the museums to provide a better and more interesting public ser- vice, thereby awakening public interest not only in natural history as such, but also in the importance of museums to the discipline as a whole.
In Norway, the most important natural history museums are found at the universities of Oslo, Bergen, Trond- heim, and Tromsa Indeed the university museums, fifteen in all, are those which have the best resources, as regards both finances and the number of qualified staff. The remaining natural history mu- seums are, in reality, a mixture com- prising regional museums and national museums, each with a close connection to, or with main emphasis on, cultural history. These have been situated in areas remote from university centres.
A number of cultural history museums have natural history sections, or would like to include natural history material in their exhibitions. Recognizing this fact, natural history museums are strongly in favour of close co-operation with other museums. Such co-operation, it is hoped, will increase the level of natural history expertise in local, regional and county museums, and thereby lead to a general widening of interest in natural history.
Natural histo y in cultural histo y environments
Following on this line of thought, and in the hope of stimulating naturalists and ecologists to action, the Norwegian As- sociation of Natural History Museums recently organized a seminar entitled Natural History in a Cultural History Environment. One of the aims of the seminar was to amplify and define the Associations policy with regard to the future organization of the Norwegian museum service. The seminar discussed ways and means, first, of strengthening the position accorded to natural history, and, secondly, of effecting greater inte- gration and co-operation between natu- ral history and cultural history.
Natural history mttsetiins: let's get mooing! 219
44 Royal hunting h v e s (from Sweden. Norway and Denmark).
The seminar was of the opinion that, politically, the time was ripe for such a discussion. This conclusion followed upon the publication of the National Museum Council's programme for 1987-90, which advocates the establish- ment of at least one natural history mu- seum in each county. In the short run this can at best only be realized by a re- organization of existing collections and exhibitions.
The idea of a greater decentralization within the Norwegian museum service has at first a superficial attraction. There exists the danger, however, that such a plan would be at the expense of those museums which, today, are the centres of natural history expertise. A prerequisite of any decentralization would be a strengthening of these institutions, for it is essential to have competent and re- sponsible research and teaching centres, providing a reservoir of knowledge and expertise for local and district museums.
The introduction of natural history material in a museum of cultural history can easily end up in a separate and dis- tinct natural history department, inde- pendent of, and isolated from, the rest of
the museum. The purpose would be far better served by integrating ecological viewpoints and perspectives into already existing displays and exhibitions. The starting point will be the interplay of a variety of factors: how prevailing natural conditions affect harvests, how human beings influence natural conditions, and the consequences resulting from the numerous ways in which different re- sources are used. If ecology is to be given more recognition, it is necessary to pres- ent material in the context of an ecologi- cal system into which human activity intrudes, but always keeping in mind that once upon a time human beings were an integral part of the whole.
A museum cutting across the tra- ditional patterns, and presenting multi- subject displays and information in the context of an ecological system, will have a much greater possibility of linking his- torical research to local conditions, and in this way build up its own special iden- tity. This, in turn, is likely to attract greater local interest. The most impor- tant aspect of this method of organizing and presenting material, however, is that it contributes to increasing awareness and understanding of the interdependence of cultural development and natural en- vironment. My own museum can pro- vide appropriate examples.
The " w e g i d n Forestry Museum
The Norwegian Forestry Museum (Fig. 43), founded in 1954 and averaging some IOO,OOO visitors a year, is unique in that it is the only museum in the country whose sphere of research comprises the utilization of the wilds and forests, that is, forestry, hunting, trapping, and fresh- water fishing. The museum is, basically, a museum of cultural history. In recent years, however, the museum has sought, by means of its exhibitions, displays, etc., to throw light on the close connec- tion between natural history and cultural history. The aquarium, presented under the title From Mouiztain Lake to River Estuary and concentrating on the main species of freshwater fish found in Nor- way, is a case in point.
Besides presenting the fish in a simu- lated natural environment, the museum provides instruction in the relevant areas of nature and environmental studies. It hopes thereby to stimulate individuals to undertake their own field studies and observations. In its presentation of fresh- water fish, the emphasis is placed upon
220 Christian A