Music, the pulse of a people

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  • A time to live...

    A Million Minutes of Peace

    As a contribution to the International Year of Peace, 48 countries from

    five continents jointly launched a "Million Minutes of Peace Appeal" on

    16 September 1986, the International Day of Peace. In the following

    month, people of all ages and origins participated in the Appeal by

    offering "minutes of peace" in the form of prayers, meditation, personal

    messages and minutes of silence. In France the Appeal was launched at

    Unesco Headquarters in Paris in the presence of Mr. Amadou-Mahtar

    M'Bow, Director-General of Unesco (left) and Mr. Nikolai Todorov,

    President of Unesco's General Conference (back to camera), who is seen

    adding a feather to a "dove of peace" created by the French sculptor NieMazodier. The dove was then taken on a tour of French towns and cities

    for the collection of more symbolic "minutes of peace" feathers, before

    being brought back to Paris, where a ceremony was held on 1 6 October to

    mark the close of the Appeal in France. The Appeal ended world-wide on

    24 October, when a round-up of the results achieved in the participating

    countries was presented to the Secretary-General of the United Nationsin New York.

  • Editorial December 198639th year

    Brazil, the largest country of Latin America, the fifth largest in theworld (8.5 million km2) after the Soviet Union, Canada, China andthe United States, possesses more freshwater reserves than any other

    country. It is the "lung of the planet" , producing one-quarter of theworld's oxygen. Through it flows the world's largest river in volumeand area of its drainage basin , the 6 ,500-km-long Amazon , which with

    its tributaries waters one-third of global timber reserves. Brazil also

    has fabulous deposits of precious and semi-precious stones, and is the

    major industrial and commercial centre of Latin America, with one of

    the highest growth rates in the world.

    Brazil has also developed an original culture which respects thebeliefs and customs of the different ethnic groups (some of which livemuch as their ancestors did when the Portuguese conquistadors

    arrived almost 500 years ago) which make up its population . Thedestiny of Brazil has also been shaped by the ethnic intermingling

    which is one of the country's most distinctive characteristics. Among

    the important manifestations of this culture , to take only threeexamples from the arts, are the sculptures of o Aleijadinho, who hasbeen described as a "universal genius" and "the greatest artist born in

    America"; the architecture of Brasilia, the first city of the 21st

    century, called by Andr Malraux the "first capital of the newcivilization"; and Brazilian music, whose popularity at world level is

    rivalled only by that of the tango. Superlatives are unavoidable whereBrazil is concerned.

    This issue of the Unesco Courier highlights some of the most

    original and lesser known aspects of Brazil. We have excluded from

    our coverage problems which lie outside Unesco's fields of

    competence, and have attempted to dispel the stereotyped and insome cases misleadingly picturesque image of the country which may

    be propagated by the tourist brochure. For space reasons alone there

    are bound to be many gaps in the picture. Nevertheless, we hope that

    readers will be able to form a clear impression of a country which ,

    through its dynamism, its vast wealth of natural resources, its

    commitment to progress, and its unfailing gaiety and good humour in

    the face of natural obstacles and serious demographic and economic

    problems, is the pride of a people who readily claim that "God isBrazilian !"

    V\lA land of contrasts

    by Thiago de Mello

    Pilgrims of the Southern Crossby Emile Gardaz

    Brazil and its neighboursby Eric Nepomuceno

    />X

    Caribbean cousins

    by Carlos Castilho

    The African heritageby Gilberto Freyre

    w

    w

    Black theatre, Black consciousnessby tico Vilas-Boas da Mota

    Three continents, one people\j by Carlos Rodrigues Brando

    Clothesline literature

    Stories told on a shoestringby Clelia Pisa

    The concrete poetry movementby Severo Sarduy

    Music, the pulse of a peopleby Trik de Souza

    'Cinema Novo'

    A cultural revolution on the screen

    by Paulo Antonio Paranagu

    Return ticket

    The Brazilian arts make a 'come-back'

    to Portugalby Fernando Alves Cristvo

    The Week of Modern Art, 1922Seven days that shook Brazilian culture

    Unesco and Brazilian literature

    Art for children

    A Unesco project

    The wealth of a nation

    Facts and figures

    1986: Year of Peace/12A tribute to Paulo Freir

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    Editor-in-chief: Edouard Glissant

    Cover: Design based on an oil painting by Tarsila doAmaral, entitled Workers (1933, 205 x 150 cm), which isreproduced in its entirely in the centre of the page.Photo Brazilian Embassy, Paris

    The CourierA window open on the world

    Published monthly in 32 languages by UnescoThe United Nations Educational,

    Scientific and Cultural Organization7, Place de Fontenoy, 75700 Paris.

    English Italian Turkish Macedonian Finnish A selection in Braille is

    French

    SpanishRussian

    German

    Hindi

    Tamil

    Hebrew

    Persian

    Urdu

    Catalan

    MalaysianKorean

    Serbo-Croat

    Slovene

    Chinese

    Bulgarian

    Swedish

    BasqueThai

    published

    quarterly in English,French,

    Spanish and Korean

    Arabic Dutch Swahili GreekISSN 0041-5278

    N 12 - 1986 - CPD - 86 - 1 - 440 AJapanese Portuguese Croato-Serb Sinhala

  • From the waters of the Amazon

    to the drought-stricken Northeast

    by Thiago de Mello BRAZIL, a country the size of acontinent, covering an area ofmore than 8.5 million square

    kilometres, contains differences and con

    trasts within its geographical frontierswhich shape the lives of its people andleave their imprint on society in each ofits regions. An impressive variety of climates conditions local customs and cul

    tural practices. Foreign travellers evenBrazilians journeying through the

    country are inevitably and disturbinglystruck with the impression that they areentering a different country when theymove from one region to the next. Thisimpression is softened only by the factthat a single language is shared by thepeople of very different cultures andethnic groups who make up a nationwhich, by some historical and politicalmiracle, has succeeded in remainingunified, and even united, as a federal

    republic.The mountains of the Serra dos Orgos

    in Rio de Janeiro, with their gentle,baroque contours, and the mineral-richSerra da Mantiqueira, in Minas GeraisState (literally "General Mines"), in thecentrai southern area, bear no resemblance to the flood-plains of the West orthe green grasslands of the South, wherethe gently rolling pampas, swept by thekeen minuano wind, stretch as far as the

    eye can see. Nor do they have anything incommon with the long valleys where thecoffee plantations abound, often decimated by frost since the temperature canfall to several degrees below zero, butwhere the fertile soil favours the development of the primary sector and the agricultural enterprises which play such animportant role in the Brazilian economy.

    Left, aerial view of the sea-front at Rio deJaneiro's Copacabana beach. With over 5million inhabitants (1980) Rio ranks asBrazil's second most populous city (afterSo Paulo) and Latin America's third. (Itstotal population, including the surrounding metropolitan area or Baixada, is some9 million.) Rio was the capital of Brazilfrom 1763 until 1960, when its place wastaken by Brasilia, and since 1975 has beenthe capital of the State which bears itsname. Situated on the Atlantic coast in the

    Sudeste (Southeast), Rio plays a majorrole in Brazil's economic life as a leadingindustrial centre and busy port, but aboveall through activities connected with transport, commerce and tourism, especiallyduring the annual Carnival.

    Right, the Iguagu Falls, in the State ofParana, southern Brazil. A major touristattraction, the falls are located on a stretchof the Rio Iguagu (a Guaran wordmeaning"Great Water") which forms the frontierbetween Brazil andArgentina, about20km 1above the point where the Iguagu flows into the Paran. The 275 cataracts, 60 to 80 1metres high, are broken up by rocky ^vegetation-covered islets which spread out in the form ofa horseshoe almost 4 km Iwide. Two nationalparks, one on the Brazi- $lian side (some 200,000 hectares), the s>other on the Argentine side, constitute a Jvast reserve for the protection of the sregion's rich animal and plant life.

  • A land ofcontrasts

  • Vttna

    Pono Alegre

    600km

    ^ The cold, ash-laden drizzle of So

    Paulo, which shrouds the largest industrial complex in Latin America and hasentered into the soul of Brazil's most

    populous city, is a far cry from the gentlebreeze that blows in the central planalto(tablelands), where stands the capital,Brasilia. Around this city famed for thebeauty of its architecture and urban planning stretch the chapades dos cerrados,an area of flattened hills with stunted

    vegetation and scrub, where soya-beanplantations are steadily gaining ground.In the Northeast, a seemingly infinitegreen expanse of hemp-fields forms ashimmering sea which contrasts with theparched aridity of the stony badlands dotted with thorns; here, the heat is suddenlytransformed by the caressing force of thewind that sweeps a coastline bathed by