Music Final Review

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MUSIC FINAL REVIEW 2009 by Akon and Zeng. All rights reserved

------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------The 4 Properties of Sound - Pitch - Dynamics - Duration - Timbre Music is an art based on the organization of sounds in time There is no sound without vibration Pitch : You can know sound as its organized Noise: Blurred lines. 440 vibrations per second for vocals. 1.Pitch(frequency of vibrations) -Overtone -Unique Voice Print 2. Timbre (color and quality) Oscilloscope gives you a picture of your voice. 3.Dynamic (how loud or soft) 4. Duration (length) The elements of Music -Melody -Harmony -Texture -Dynamics -Timbre -Tempo(Speed) -Rhythm(Meter) -Form/Structure Melody: Meaning full succession of pitches; series of single tones that add up to a recognizable whole phrase. Cadence: Point where you take a breath after a line Harmony: More than one pitch; usually supports melody Texture: Weave of music; layers of music; melody/harmony Overall: Dense; thick; heavy; thin; light

Monophonic: Melody alone Homophonic: Melody and Harmony Polyphonic: Multiple melodies at once (harmony created) Orchestra- Largest Musical Ensemble Concerto- A instrument) work, extended long composition for orchestra (single

Harmony is usually supports melody by two or more pitches. Rhythm is changed as piano plays harmony called variation, when melody isnt always the same 3 different movements. Virtuoso: Someone who plays very well at what they do such as professional pianist. Chord: When you have 3 or more pitches at the same time Arpeggio: Broken chord Major: Happy Harmony Minor: Sad Harmony Characteristics of Harmony Dissonance: Something in music that clashes Consonance: Harmony that sounds well together -You always need dissonance and harmony to make music balanced Characteristics of Dynamics Dynamics: Volume in Music Pianissimo: Very Soft (pp) Piano: Soft (p) Mezzo Piano: Medium Soft (mp) Mezzo Forte: Medium Loud (mf) Forte: Loud (f) Fortissimo: Very Loud (ff) (ppp) pp-p-mp-mf-f-ff (fff.) Softest to Loudest Crescendo: When your volume/ or volume in general gradually becomes louder Diminuendo/ Decrescendo: Becoming softer, lower Characteristics of Timbre Timbre or Tone is the quality of sound

-Tool by which we identify different voices and instruments -Very subjective- differently interpreted and heard and described -Gloomy, dark, clear, bright, harsh, rough, delicate, full, wide, and narrow. The violin as an instrument is brighter. The characteristics of Tempo Tempo: Basic speed of music (pace) Largo: Very slow Adagio: Slow Andante: Walking Pace Moderate: Allegretto- Moderate Allegro: Fast Vivace: Lively Presto: Very fast Prestissimo: As fast as possible ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Metronome: Divides time into units per min/ equally gives beats - Remember, concertos always have 3 movements Musical Eras Middle Ages (400-1450) Renaissance (1400-1650) Baroque (1600-1750) Classical (1750-1825) Romantic (1825-1900) 20th Century (1901-2000) Contemporary (2001- Continuing) The names of pitches are: A, B, C, D, E, F, G An octave is a span of 8 pitches ABCDEFGA Interval is A Pitch Blend Tonic: A tonality, a minor Scale: An arrangement of pitches within an octave -Major/minor scales Keys sound different -Lighter/ Darker/ Exciting What is beat? -Beat is steady, recurring pulse that divides music into equal units of time -Beat is a basic unit of time by which all notes are measured What is Rhythm?

- Rhythm refers to a particular arrangement of sounds and silences in a piece of Music. - Its an essential of a personality of a piece - We can recognize pieces based on rhythm only. Whats Meter? Meter is the sub divisional grouping of beats Grouping of 3- Triple Meter -llllllll Grouping of 2- Duple Meter -llllllll Waltz is always in Triple Meter MeterSome beats are more stressed than others Stress has to come regularly Meter refers to the pattern of strong and weak beats Downbeat - Triple meter, Duple Meter, Mixed meter.

Johann Straus 2 (1825-1895) was an Austrian composer from the Romantic Era who was known for his waltzes King of Waltz and King of or triple meter John Philip Sausa(1854-1932); an American composer from Washington D.C. Known for his marches - Stars and Stripes forever Sounds like something used on July 4th. - Also, strings are never used in a march. -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

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The Instruments of the Orchestra-Strings -Woodwinds -Brass -Percussion -Keyboards (somewhat) How the rows are arranged, 3rd: Piano, Harps, French Horns, Trombones, Double Bass 2nd: First Violins, Second Violins, Clarinets, Bassoons, Violas, Cellos 1st: Flutes, Oboes The conductor stands in front of them all. Instruments of the Orchestra Strings: sound comes from vibration of a string String Family

Violin Viola Cello (violoncello) Double Bass Harp Strings Plucked 47 strings, color coordinated

-Seven pedals raise or lower the pitch of strings Guitar Details: -Timbre associated with the human voice -Played with a BOW Long String: low note Shorter String: higher note Unstopped string: OPEN string -Fingers press on the string and make it shorter, raising the pitch because frequency of vibration increases -The wooden body vibrates and acts as a resonator MUTES dampen the vibrations and soften the sound PIZZICATO pluck the strings VIBRATO light wavering of the tone CONCERTMASTER leader of the strings, first violinistTones are produced by blowing across a reed, causing the air and reed to vibrate -Covering the holes makes tube longer, lowering the pitch -Most made of metal No reed: flute, piccolo, recorder Single reed: clarinet, saxophone Double reed: oboes, bassoons Recorders Clarinets -Made in several keys; B-flat most used -Range over 2 octaves; variety of tone colors -very athletic: can go from high to low note easily Bass Clarinet: 2x as long, an octave lower Flute -played sideways Piccolo A flute; smaller; higher pitch by an octave; piccolo means small in Italy Oboe -Air is blown through and produces a nasal tone -gives orchestra an A-440 to tune English Horn An oboe -NOT a horn, NOT English -Alto oboe sounds lower

Woodwinds

Contrabassoon A bassoon -16ft long, bent for convenience, -lowest instrument of the orchestra Bassoon -8ft long, bent for convenience Saxophone -Soprano, alto: female voice; tenor, baritone, base: male voice -Similar to clarinet, made of BRASS Brass -Long ago, man blew into animal horns and produced pitches; beginning of brass -Brass tubes are coiled and bent -Longer the tube, lower the pitch -All (except trombone) have valves that are attached to extra tubing -All have a cup shaped mouthpiece -Tones produced by buzzing the lips/spitting into the mouthpiece -Embouchure/ adjustment of the lips/face while playing can alter timbre Trumpet -Smallest brass -> the highest pitch French Horn -Mellow timbre -Often combines with woodwinds -Also called Horns Trombone -Means big trumpet -Made of two brass tubes -No valves or key -Slide is moved by sliding the tubes in or out Tuba -Largest Brass -16ft long Percussion -All things you hit and strike Pitched: produce pitches, plays melodies Unpitched: use for rhythm Pitched Timpani (Kettle Drum) Played with mallets softer mallet-round timbre harder mallet-short timbre Xylophone Marimba Glockenspiel Known as bells Mallet Keyboard arrangement 30 Keys

Celesta Looks like small piano instead of strings, hits steel bars Chimes Hollow tubes produces ringing tones top of chimes is struck longer tube, lower pitch Unpitched Snare Drum Rattling sound due to netting; fast rhythm Tom Toms Two drums Tambourine Castanet Triangle Cymbals Gong Chinese Block Wood Block (Keyboard) Piano (percussion) Harpsichord (string; cant change dynamics by how hard you strike the keys) Clavichord Organ Pipe Organ: forcing pressurized air through pipes smallest organs: few dozen pipes largest: tens of thousands King of Instruments swell box: dynamics control

Ensembles Orchestra: strings, woodwinds, brass, percussion -Band, marching band, stage band, and jazz band -Chorus, choir (soprano, alto, tener, and bass) -Chamber music- one player per part; no conductor; intimate music making -Duet, duo -Trio -Quartet -Quintet -Sextet -Septet -Octet Human Voices Female, -Soprano Coloratura Soprano -Alto/ Mezzo Soprano

-Contralto Male, -Tenor -Counter Tenor -Baritone -Base -Basso Profundo Coloratura: Fast passages, high notes, and extreme ranges Contralto: Really low female voices, almost to the rate of men Basso profoundo: Profound bases, sing very low Acapella: Voices just by itself Strophic Form: Repeating A(chorus) - cadence, ideas 1 B (solo) 1 A (chorus) 1 B(solo) ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Aria: Solo song

Mariam Anderson-1690s, first African American women to step on stage and play an opera Exoticism: Glorification of a distant land Falsetto -Falsetto: Males singing with false chords -Popular songs from the 1960s -Big Girls Dont Cry by Frankie Vallie and the 4 seasons -In the Jungle by the Tokens Unison: All voices sing same pitch at same time The difference between a chant and a song is A chant is spiritual and has different characteristics while a song is mainly for entertainment. Also, saying a song is strophic is mainly used for songs and not in chants. Modal: An ancient scale Modal Music: No feeling (major/minor) music Terraced Dynamics: Sudden changes in dynamics

Opera is staged Oratorio is not staged -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

BAROQUE ERA (1600-1750)Political Situation - Monar