Multilingualism & Multilingual Education in Friesland / Fryslân Alex RIEMERSMA Workshop Minority Languages and Multilingual Education European Centre for

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  • Multilingualism & Multilingual Education in Friesland / Frysln

    Alex RIEMERSMAWorkshop Minority Languages and Multilingual Education European Centre for Modern Languages ECML

    Graz, Austria / sterreich, February 16, 2011

    Mercator European Research Centre on Multilingualism and Language

  • EarlyMiddle agesLate Middle agesTodayFrysln in history

  • Characteristics of FrisianTsiis CheeseKaasKseTsjerkeChurchKerkKircheKaaiKeySleutelSchlssel twa skieptwo sheeptwee schapen zwei Schfe Ik haw west / I have been Ik ben geweest / Ich bin gewesen

  • Frisian as First Language

  • Frisian Language Command640.00 inhabitants province of Frysln:94 % Understanding74 % Speaking65 % Reading26 % Writing 54 % Frisian Mother tongue (350.000)

  • Relative Position FrisianUnesco Language Vitality scale (2003): unsafe, but not threatened by extinction Euromosac (1996): nr. 14 out of 48Intergenerational language transmission - decline of 10% per generationLanguage policy: - attitude & use

  • Domains of Frisian language useStrong oral language, weak in writingStrong community languageMedia: radio full day service; tv 2 hours per day (with re-run)Culture: amateur theatre & choir singingSocial & economic life: strong oral (= informal) use

  • Legal position FrisianNo mention in Netherlands constitution Covenant Frisian Language and Culture (2001-2010) between Dutch governement and province of Frysln Announcement of Frisian Language Act: equal footing of Dutch & Frisian

  • International recognitionEuropean Charter for Regional and Minority Languages (ratified 1998) Frisian in part III: 48 undertakings - education - judiciary - public authorities & services - media - cultural affairs - social life

    Framework Convention for National Minorities (ratified 2005) Frisians = ethnic minority

  • Implementation of CharterProgrammatic versus static approach: - key word to protect & to promoteMinimum StandardsApplication of the Common European Framework of Reference (CEFR)Teaching time Teacher qualifications

  • Implementation of Charter - EducationTeachers qualifications: - language proficiency - didactic skillsInspectorate: - assessment & evaluation of core goalsFurther comparative analysis: - media & cultural provisions

  • Minimum Standards EducationReport Minimum Standards in Education of / in RMLs (2007) Analysis & Recommendations: - Educational goals - Teaching time (subject & medium) - Teaching materials - Teacher training - Inspectorate

  • CEFR further developmentsEuropean Language Portfolio = Documentation on individual levelCommon European Framework of Reference (CEFR): - to apply to RMLs (L1, L2)Attainment target in terms of CEFRResult: common minimum standards

  • Frisian in educationPre-school (age 0- 4 year) (started 1989); now: 100 (out of 300) Frisian medium / bilingual provisionsSecondary education: 1948: optional subject 1970: optional exam subject 1993: obligatory subject in lower grades

  • Frisian in primary education1937: Optional subject1980: Obligatory subject 1955: Optional medium of instruction1985: Attainment targets similar to Dutch1986: English obligatory subject

  • Frisian in school practiceAt most schools Frisian as a subject: - only for 1 hour per week - continuity in all classes Use of Frisian as medium of instruction: - mainly oral use - development towards Frisian (half)dayConcept of trilingual school: Dutch, English and Frisian both as subject and language of instruction

  • Trilingual Schooling in FryslnLanguage proficiency in three target languages: Dutch, Frisian, EnglishResearch related to CEFRChallenges for the future: - bridging pre-school primary - bridging primary secondary school - teacher training

  • Project Trijetalige SkoalleGoal: full bilingualism & biliteracy as regards Frisian and Dutch and basic communicative competence in EnglishStart in 1997-19987 project schoolsResearch results: 1997 2005Ongoing research at Fryske Akademy

  • Trilingual education in FryslnModel used (with flexibility):- Group 1-6: 50 % Frisian, 50 % Dutch- Group 7-8: 40 % Frisian, 40 % Dutch, 20% EnglishSystematic use of Frisian, Dutch and English as a medium of instructionConcious and strictly separated use of languages: person / time / themesInteractive language education

  • Trilingual education in FryslnExpected (& proved) results:- Good quality of Frisian- Results of Dutch at the same level at the end of grade 8 as all other pupils in the Netherlands- Results for English slightly better, but not significantly- Self consciousness in English better, but not significantly

  • Research design7 project schools, > 90 pupils10 control schools, >130 pupilsAchievement tests Frisian, Dutch and EnglishMother tongue taken into account in analyses

  • Research in grade 7 and 8Frisiandecoding, reading comprehension, spellinglanguage attitude Frisian (grade 8)Dutchdecoding, reading comprehension, spellingEnglishlistening, reading comprehension, vocabularyselfconfidence using English (grade 8)

  • Developments - 1 More attention for implementation English as language of instructionIntroduction of Early EnglishIntroduction native speakers of English as class room assistantsOfficial Anglia-test for EnglishParallel test for Frisian

  • Developments - 2Network of Trilingual Primary Schools: - 2010: 40 participating schools - 2012: aiming at 50 schools = 10% of all primary schools in Frysln - 2020: aiming at 100 schoolsCertification of quality (periodical assessment)

  • ChallengesContinuity of teaching and learningBridging pre-school to primaryBridging primary to secondary schoolQuality of teachers: language command, didactic behaviour and toolsICT methods

  • Bridging pre-school to primaryDay care centres: age 0 4 years; full timePjutteboartersplakken: age 2,5 4 / two half days per weekCertification of qualityTraining of practitioners

  • Bridging primary to secondary Project on trilingual secondary school: age 12 16 yearsActual situation: Frisian as a compulsory subject only in grade 1 / one lesson per week Frisian as optional exam subjectDevelopment: English and Frisian as medium of instruction

  • Teacher TrainingGeneral training for primary school: 2 EC for English; 3 EC for FrisianTraining for secondary school is subject oriented Challenges: language command language use as medium of instruction2011: Introduction Trilingual stream at teacher training

  • Mercator Research Centreat Fryske Akademy1987-2006: EU funded Documentation & Information Centre2 Partners: Media: Aberystwyth & Legislation: Barcelona2007-2008: transition to Documentation and Research Funded by province of Frysln and municipality of Ljouwert/Leeuwarden

  • Mercator Network 2009-2011: EU funded Mercator Ljouwert lead partnerAberystwyth University of WalesBarcelona CiemenBoedapest Hungarian Academy of SciencesEskilstuna (Sweden) Mlardalen University

  • Mercator Research Centreat Fryske Akademy

    Scientific research & data collectionInformation centre & platform functionData base of expertsNewsletter & websiteNetwork of SchoolsQ & A serviceRegional Dossiers

  • 40 language descriptionsAuthor = local expertUpdate every 5-7 yearsOnline availableRegional Dossiers

  • Research themesMinimum Standards of RML education Added value of multilingualism Trilingual Schooling

  • Report on Minimum Standards on Education in RMLs (2007)On request of the Congress of Local and Regional Authorities (CLRAE) of the Council of Europe Recommendations to the Council of Ministers of the Council of Europe

  • Themes of analysis

    Educational goals & modelsTime spentTeaching materialsTeacher trainingInspectorateLegal position

  • Member States & LanguagesAustria: Slovenian, CroatianGermany: SorbianNetherlands: FrisianSlovakia: Hungarian Slovenia: ItalianSpain: Catalan Sweden: SamiUnited Kingdom: Welsh

  • Added Value of MultilingualismCooperation with the Ministry of Eduation of the Basque Autonomous Community (BAC)

    Focus on secondary schoolFocus on English as a third language

  • Future research projectsMonitoring longitudinal language proficiency in all three target languages; 6 levels of the Common European Framework of Reference (CEFR)

  • Trilingual primary schoolingInventory study on provisions of trilingual primary education10 case studies, a.o.: - Basque Country; Catalunya; - Finland (Vaasa); Italy (Ladin); - Luxembourg; - North-Frisia (Germany); - Frisian (the Netherlands):

  • Trilingual education in FryslnModel used (with flexibility):- Group 1-6: 50 % Frisian, 50 % Dutch- Group 7-8: 40 % Frisian, 40 % Dutch, 20% EnglishSystematic use of Frisian, Dutch and English as a medium of instructionConcious and strictly separated use of languages: person / time / themesInteractive language education

  • Mercator Network of Schools> 90 members> 30 language communities15 EU member statesNews bulletinsWebsite:- teaching materials- projects

  • Kaart fan NOS

  • Partner in European ProjectsNPLD: Network to Promote Linguistic Diversity (regional authorities)MELT: Multilingual Early Language Transmission (= pre-school sector) EUNoM: European Network of Universitites on MultilingualismLanguage Rich Europe Civil Society Platform on Multilingualism

  • Intended Network of Teacher Training Institutes Aiming at:Strenghtening relationship between teacher training and primary / secondfary educationTeacher