Multicultural law EnforcEMEnt - Pearson Education Title: Multicultural law enforcement: strategies for

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  • Multicultural law EnforcEMEnt

    StrategieS for PeacekeePing in a DiverSe Society

    Robert M. Shusta Deena R. Levine Aaron T. Olson

    S e v e n t h E d i t i o n

    330 Hudson Street, NY NY 10013

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  • Vice President, Portfolio Management: Andrew Gilfillan Portfolio Manager: Gary Bauer Editorial Assistant: Lynda Cramer Field Marketing Manager: Bob Nisbet Product Marketing Manager: Heather Taylor Director, Digital Studio and Content Production: Brian Hyland Managing Producer: Jennifer Sargunar Content Producer: Rinki Kaur Manager, Rights Management: Johanna Burke Operations Specialist: Deidra Smith

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    ISBN 13: 978-0-13-484918-8 ISBN 10: 0-13-484918-3

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    Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data

    Names: Shusta, Robert M., author. | Levine, Deena R., author. | Olson, Aaron T., author. Title: Multicultural law enforcement: strategies for peacekeeping in a diverse society / Robert M. Shusta, Deena R. Levine, Aaron T. Olson. Description: Seventh Edition. | Hoboken: Pearson, [2017] | Revised edition of the authors’ Multicultural law enforcement, [2015] Identifiers: LCCN 2017037642| ISBN 9780134849188 | ISBN 0134849183 Subjects: LCSH: Police-community relations—United States. | Discrimination in law enforcement—United States. | Multiculturalism—United States. | Intercultural communication—United States. Classification: LCC HV7936.P8 M85 2017 | DDC 363.2/3—dc23 LC record available at 2017037642

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  • Dedication This book is dedicated to police officers and other law enforcement

    professionals who are building collaborative partnerships, based on trust and mutual respect, with the communities they serve.

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    Foreword ix

    Preface xi

    Acknowledgments xiii

    About the Authors xv

    Part 1 Impact of Cultural Diversity on Law Enforcement 1

    Chapter 1 Multicultural Communities: Challenges for Law Enforcement 3

    Introduction 4 The Interface of Law Enforcement and Diverse Communties 5 Attitudes about the Multicultural Society: Past and Present 8 Global Migration, Refugees and Immigrants in the United States 12 Culture and Its Relevance to Law Enforcement 25 Dimensions of Diversity 29 Prejudice and Bias in Law Enforcement 32 Police Leadership in a Multicultural Society 34

    Summary 37 • Discussion Questions and Issues 38 • References 39

    Chapter 2 The Changing Law Enforcement Agency: A Microcosm of Society 42

    Introduction 43 Changing Workforce 44 Racism Within the Law Enforcement Workforce 47 Women in Law Enforcement 53 LGBTQ Employees in Law Enforcement 62 Commitment, Leadership, and Management in the Diverse Workforce 70

    Summary 71 • Discussion Questions and Issues 72 • References 73

    Chapter 3 Multicultural Representation in Law Enforcement: Recruitment, Retention, and Promotion 75

    Introduction 75 Recruitment of a Diverse Workforce 76 Attracting and Retaining Women and Minorities 80 Selection Processes 88 Retention and Promotion of a Diverse Workforce 94

    Summary 98 • Discussion Questions and Issues 99 • References 99

    Chapter 4 Cross-Cultural Communication for Law Enforcement 101 Introduction 101 Language Barriers 103 Attitudes toward Limited English Speakers 106 Cross-Cultural Communication Insights 107 Cross-Cultural/Racial Communication Dynamics 111


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  • vi Contents

    The Importance of Verbal De-Escalation 115 Interviewing and Data-Gathering Skills 117 Nonverbal Communication 119 Male-Female Communication in Law Enforcement 122

    Summary 125 • Discussion Questions and Issues 126 • References 126

    Part 2 Cultural and Community Specifics for Law Enforcement 129

    Chapter 5 Law Enforcement Contact with Asian/Pacific Americans 130

    Introduction 131 Asian/Pacific American Defined 131 Historical Information 132 Demographics: Diversity among Asian/Pacific Americans 135 Labels and Terms 136 Myths and Stereotypes 137 The Asian/Pacific American Family 138 Communication Styles of Asian/Pacific Americans 140 Key Issues in Law Enforcement 142

    Summary 145 • Discussion Questions and Issues 147 • References 147

    Chapter 6 Law Enforcement Contact with African Americans 149 Introduction 150 Historical Information 150 Demographics: Diversity among African Americans 151 Identity and Selected Movements 154 Stereotypes and Cross-Racial Perceptions 156 The African American Family 158 Language and Communication 161 Key Issues in Law Enforcement 164

    Summary 174 • Discussion Questions and Issues 175 • References 176

    Chapter 7 Law Enforcement Contact with Latino/Hispanic Americans 179 Introduction 179 Latino/Hispanic Americans Defined 183 Historical Information 185 Demographics: Diversity among Latino/Hispanic Americans 186 Myths and Stereotypes 189 The Latino/Hispanic American Family 190 Communication Styles of Latino/Hispanic Americans 192 Key Issues in Law Enforcement 194

    Summary 196 • Discussion Questions and Issues 197 • References 197

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  • Contents vii

    Chapter 8 Law Enforcement Contact with Arab Americans and Other Middle Eastern Groups 200 Introduction 201 Middle Easterners and Related Terminology Defined 201 Historical Information and Arab American Demographics 203 Differences and Similarities 205 Stereotypes 206 Islamic Religion 208 Family Structure 211 Communication Styles and Cultural Practices 213 Key Issues in Law Enforcement 216

    Summary 221 • Discussion Questions and Issues 222 • References 223

    Chapter 9 Law Enforcement Contact with Native Americans 225 Introduction 226 Historical Information And Background 226 Native American Populations, Reservations, Tribes, and Identity 229 Similarities among Native Americans 231 Language and Communication 232 Offensive Terms, Labels, and Stereotypes 234 Family and Acculturation Issues 236 Key Issues in Law Enforcement 238

    Summary 249 • Discussion Questions and Issues 250 • References 251

    Chapter 10 Law Enforcement Contact with Gangs, Victims of Human Trafficking, the Homeless, and the Mentally Ill 255 Introduction 256 Types of Gangs and Criminal Activity 256 Reasons for Gang Formation 263 Law Enforcement Strategies to Reduce Gang Problems 263 Victims of Human Trafficking 264 Physical and Psychological Health Consequences on Victims 271 Law Enforcement Strategies to Stop Human Trafficking 271 The Demographcs of Homelessness 274 Peacekeeping Responses to the Homelessness Crisis 280 Understanding Dimensions of Mental Illness 282 Police Protocol in Encounters with People Who have Mental Illness 284 Proactive Response Strategies Between Police and People with Mental Illness 286

    Summary 288 • Discussion Questions and Issues 289 • References 289

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  • viii Contents

    Part 3 Response Strategies for Crimes Motivated by Hate/Bias and Racial Profiling 295

    Chapter 11 Hate/Bias Crimes 296 Introduction 297 The Hate/Bias Crime Problem 297 Definition of Hate/Bias Crime and Hate/Bias Incident 302 Hate/Bias Crime Source Theories 304 Jews and Anti-Semitism 307 Anti-Arab/Muslim Victimization 311 LGBTQ and Gender Identity Victimization 314 Organized Hate Groups 320 Hate/Bias Crime and Incident Investigations 321 Hate/Bias Crime/Incident Control and Prosecution 3