Mohan Kumar Sahu

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    Assignment

    S.D.C. Institute of Management Studies,Kolar

    Mohan Kumar Sahu

    MBA 1stSem.

    2012-14

    12WHCMA030

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    COMMUNICATION

    Communication is the activity of conveying information through the

    exchange of thoughts, messages, or information, as by speech, visuals,signals, written, or behavior. It is the meaningful exchange of information

    between two or more living creatures.

    One definition of communication is anyact by which one person gives to or

    receives from another person information about that person's needs, desires,perceptions, knowledge, or affective states. Communication may be

    intentional or unintentional, may involve conventional or unconventional

    signals, may take linguistic or non-linguistic forms, and may occur through

    spoken or other modes.

    People communicate with each other in a number of ways that depend upon

    the message and its context in which it is being sent. Choice of

    communication channel and your style of communicating also affects

    communication. So, there are variety of types of communication

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    Types of communication based on the communication channels

    Verbal Communication - Verbal communication refers to the form of

    communication in which message is transmitted verbally; communication is

    done by word of mouth and a piece of writing. Objective of every

    communication is to have people understand what we are trying to convey

    Nonverbal Communication - Nonverbal communication is the sending or

    receiving of wordless messages. We can say that communication other than

    oral and written, such as gesture, body language, posture, tone of

    voice or facial expressions, is called nonverbal communication. Nonverbal

    communication is all about the body language of speaker.

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    Types of Communication Based on Purpose and Style

    Formal Communication

    In formal communication, certain rules, conventions and principles are followed

    while communicating message. Formal communication occurs in formal and

    official style. Usually professional settings, corporate meetings, conferences

    undergoes in formal pattern. In formal communication, use of slang and foul

    language is avoided and correct pronunciation is required.

    Informal Communication

    Informal communication is done using channels that are in contrast with formal

    communication channels. Its just a casual talk. It is established for societal

    affiliations of members in an organization and face-to-face discussions In

    informal communication use of slang words, foul language is not restricted.

    Usually. informal communication is done orally and using gestures. In an

    organization, it helps in finding out staff grievances as people express more

    when talking informally. Informal communication helps in building

    relationships.

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    Accounting for Managers

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    Final Account

    Final account consist of Trading and P&L Account and Balance Sheet. Trading

    account shows gross profit or loss, net profit or net loss is calculated from Profit

    & Loss account and Balance Sheet is prepared to know the position of assets

    and liabilities.

    Trading Account

    Profit & Loss Account

    Balance Sheet

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    What is the difference between account and profit and loss account?

    The main difference between trading account and profit and loss

    account is that the gross profit or loss which is derived from the trading

    account shows the trend of the business and the profit and loss account

    reflects on the management of the business the final outcomes of the

    concern. Trading account deals with the cost price of the goods. All the

    expenses directly connected with the buying of goods are entered in it. It

    is credited with the sale proceeds of the goods. Profit and loss account

    deals with the expenses indirectly connected with the goods (expenses

    with the selling of the goods.)

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    Trial Balance

    It is a list of balance extracted from

    the ledger accounts

    It contains the balance of all accounts

    real, nominal and personal.

    It is prepared before the preparation

    of trading and profit and loss account.

    It does not contain the value of the

    closing stock of goods.

    Expenses due but not paid andincomes due but not received do not

    appear in the trial balance

    Balance Sheet

    It is a statement of assets and

    liabilities.

    It contains the balance of only those

    accounts which represents assets and

    liabilities.

    It is prepared after the preparation

    of trading and profit and loss account.

    It contains the value of closing

    stock, which appears on the assets

    side.

    Expenses due but not paid appear

    on the liability side and income due

    but not received appear on the asset

    side of the balance sheet.

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    Financial statement analysis

    Financial statement analysis is an analysis which highlights important relationships in

    the financial statements. It focuses on evaluation of past operations as revealed by the

    analysis of basic statements.

    Purpose

    Assessment of past performance and current position.

    Prediction of net income and growth prospects.

    Prediction of Bankruptcy and failure.

    Loan decision by Financial Institutions and Banks.

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    Organizational Behavior

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    Organizational Behavior

    Motivation

    Motivation represents an unsatisfied need which creates a state of

    tension or disequilibrium, causing the individual to move in a goal

    directed pattern towards restoring a state of equilibrium by satisfying

    the need. The following are the key elements of motivation:

    Creative Freedom

    Love to learn

    Learn to failure

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    Maslow's Need Hierarchy Theory

    Maslow's need hierarchy theory was developed by Maslow, which says that there are

    actually five stages in every need of the human.

    1. Basic needs - The basic amenities that an individual require for his livingness.

    2. Security needs - Once he gets satisfied with his basic needs, he also looks for his

    security.

    3. Social needs - When he/she gets a secured life, they start looking for various social

    aspects like interacting with people and they look for a society for them to be supported.

    4. Self - esteem - The individuals seeks themselves to be respected and recognized in a

    society.

    5. Self - actualization - This is the final stage where the individual makes themselves

    satisfied with all the needs and attains their objective of life.

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    Need ome JobSelf-actualization

    education, religion,

    hobbies, personal growth

    training, advancement,

    growth, creativity

    Esteemapproval of family,

    friends, community

    recognition, high status,

    responsibilities

    Belongingness family, friends, clubs

    teams, depts, coworkers,

    clients, supervisors,

    subordinates

    Safetyfreedom from war,

    poison, violence

    work safety, job security,

    health insurance

    Physiological food water sex Heat, air, base salary

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    Theories of Motivation

    Instinct Theory of Motivation

    Incentive Theory of Motivation

    Drive Theory of Motivation

    Arousal Theory of Motivation

    Humanistic Theory of Motivation

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    Managerial Economics

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    Demand

    Demand refers to the total or a given quantity of a commodity that ispurchased by a consumer in the market at a particular price at a particular

    time. Demand is created by consumers and is dependent on the utility of a

    product or service. A consumer wants to buy more at a lower prices and

    wants to save his money income.

    Types of Demand

    Price Demand

    Income Demand

    Cross Demand

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    Individual Demand

    The individual demand is the demand of one individual or firm. It represents the

    quantity of a good that a single consumer would buy at a specific price point at aspecific point in time. While the term is somewhat vague, individual demand can be

    represented by the point of view of one person, a single family, or a single

    household.

    Market Demand

    Market demand provides the total quantity demanded by all consumers. In other

    words, it represents the aggregate of all individual demands. There are two basic

    types of market demand: primary and selective. Primary demand is the total demand

    for all of the brands that represent a given product or service, such as all phones or

    all high-end watches. Selective demand is the demand for one particular brand of

    product or service, such as the iPhone