Minorities during World War II Women Mexican Americans African Americans Japanese Americans Native Americans

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  • Minorities during World War IIWomenMexican AmericansAfrican AmericansJapanese AmericansNative Americans

  • Minorities During World War II

  • Minorities at War

  • Betty Grable: Allied Pinup GirlShe Reminded Men What They Were Fighting For

  • Womens Army CorpsThe Womens Auxiliary Army Corps (WAAC) bill passed Congress on March 15, 1942. With the exception of nurses, never had women served within ranks of the United States Army.Over 140,000 women served in the WAAC during World War II.The WAAC volunteers were not treated fairly: They experienced unequal payThey lacked military rank

  • Join the Womens Army Corps

  • Womens Army CorpsThis changed after the passing of the Womens Army Corps Bill.It was put into law on July 1, 1943.Under this the WAAC became the WAC (Womens Army Corps) and the women received full military status.

    * This is a WAC Service Medal

  • The Army Nurses CorpsMore than 59,000 American nurses served during WWII.

    Nurses had many jobs. Such as: Serving under fire in field hospitals and evacuation hospitalsServing on hospital trains and hospital shipsServing flight nurses on medical transport planes

    Fewer than 4% of American soldiers who got medical care in the field or underwent evacuation died from wounds or disease.

  • The Army Nurses Corps

    The Army Nurses Corps had only 1,000 nurses listed on December 7 1941.

    On the day of the bombing of Pearl Harbor, 82 nurses were stationed in Hawaii.

    After Pearl Harbor there were 12,000 listed nurses. Most of these nurses had no previous training or experience.

    In July 1943, Lieutenant General Brehon B. Somervell authorized a formal four week training course for all the newly commissioned Army Nurses.

  • The Army Nurses CorpsFrom July 1943 through September 1945 approximately 27,330 newly inducted nurses graduated from 15 Army training centers.

    She was a First Lieutenant in Army Nurses Coprs.She was the first woman to receive The Purple Heart Medal because of combat.Annie G. Fox

  • Women Air force Service PilotsMany women pilots all over the United States quit their jobs, and left the safety of their homes and families to go to Texas.

    In 1942 there was a shortage of pilots.

    Jackie Cochran and Nancy Harkness Love were the two women who were the driving forces behind the forming of the WASP.

    The women pilots would take the place of the men the Army were sending overseas.

    Once the women heard about this about 25,000 women volunteered.

  • Womens Army Air Corps Pilots

  • Women Air force Service PilotsOnly 1,830 of those women were accepted for training because the pilot requirements for women were more difficult than for men.

    There was only one base in the entire country for training women Air force pilots.

    Only 1,037 women graduated the training out of of the 1,830 who were accepted.

    On December 20, 1944 the WASP were disbanded. WASP Wings

  • Despite discrimination many minorities joined the armed forces -300,000 Mexican Americans-1 million African American (served in segregated units and were limited to mostly non combat roles until the last year of the war)-Asian Americans, 13,000 Chinese, 33,000 Japanese (spies and interpreters)-25,000 Native Americans (800 women)

  • Just carve on my tombstone, Here lies a black man killed fighting a yellow man for the protection of a white man.

    Why die for democracy for some country when we dont even have it here?

    African Americans called for Double V- a victory against fascism overseas and at home

  • Tuskegee AirmenAll-Black 99th Pursuit SquadronTrained at the Tuskegee Institute in AlabamaReceived 1st victory in SicilyShot down 111 enemy aircraft and destroyed 150 on groundLost only 66Won 2 Distinguished Unit CitationsHighest military commendationBenjamin O. Davis Jr.- Leader

  • BuffaloesNicknamed by Native Americans 92nd Infantry Division6 months of fighting won7 Legion Merit awards65 Silver Stars162 Bronze Stars for courage under fire

  • Received a Medal of Honor due to his actions during the bombing of Pearl Harbor aboard the USS West Virginia.

  • Japanese in MilitaryJan 1944- reinstated draft for Japanese315 Nisei refused to report 267 convicted of draft resistanceVolunteers (prove loyalty)Translated documents, interrogated Japanese POWs, and convinced enemy soldiers to surrenderEnd of war 18,000 joined army442nd Infantry- awarded 3,000 Purple Hearts, 810 Bronze Stars, 342 Silver Stars, 47 Distinguished Service CrossesLost 3x its original strength

  • Navajo Code Talkers used their native language of Navajo to code communication against the Japanese.

  • Code TalkersTalk and transmit information on tactics, troop movements, orders and other vital battlefield information in their native dialectSecure communicationsNative Americans served in all six Marine divisions, Marine Raider Battalion, and Marine parachute units

  • Code Talkers

  • Code Talkers

  • Native American Code TalkerAccomplishmentsMay 1942 first twenty-nine Navajo Recruits attended boot camp and established the codeNavajos could encode, transmit, and decode a three line English message in twenty seconds compared to machines that took half an hourApril 2000, legislation passed that awarded original twenty- nine Navajo Code Talkers the Congressional Gold Medal, and a silver medal to each man qualified as Navajo Code Talker

  • Minorities at Home

  • Women at Home

  • All-American Girls Professional Baseball League From softball to baseballPhilip Wrigley (1943-1954) Kept the sport going during the war as a sense of moral supportShows women doing anything possible to help

  • South Bend Blue Sox (1943)They won the League Playoff Championship in 1951 and 1952. One of the only teams that participated in every season of All-American Girls Professional Baseball League from 1943 to 1954.

  • African-Americans at Home

  • African-Americans in the WorkforceAt the beginning of World War II about 5 million African-Americans moved from rural areas to urban areas in the north and west to find work.Many found work in industrial factories and defense plants.Did not make the best wages or have the right to unionize, still great advance since Depression.

  • Phillip A. RandolphBorn in Crescent City, Florida April 15, 1889Moved to New York City in 1911 to study at the City College of New YorkSupporter of African-American integration into the union movement. Organized the Brothers of Sleeping Car Porters 1st African-American unionPlanned a mass protest on Washington for African-Americans in the workforce.Phillip A. Randolph

  • March on WashingtonWanted Roosevelt to pass executive order to give more African-American freedoms in the workforce.Roosevelt convinced Randolph to call off the protest by passing Executive Order 8802-Prohibited the discrimination of race in defense plantsEstablished First Fair Employment Practice Committee

  • The Detroit Race RiotsTensions between races rose in June 1943. June 20, 1943- The riots began in an amusement park named Belle Island. There had been manyfights between teenagers of different races, the white teenagers were aided by sailors who were located nearbyFights began between 200 African-Americans and white sailorsRumors Spread-African-Americans claimed the riots began because a group of white men threw an African-American woman and her baby over the bridge connecting Belle Island to the cityWhites that a black man raped and killed a white woman on the Belle Island Bridge.

  • Detroit Race Riots (cont..)June 21, 1943- an angry group of whites attacked African-Americans as they got off streetcars at around 4am6 policemen were shot, 75 injuredWhites overturned cars belonging to African Americans and looted storesRiots overwhelmed the 2000 police officersIn the end, 34 people died, 25 of them were African Americans1800 people were arrested for looting and disturbing the peace13 murders remain unsolved$2 million- property damage

  • Streetcar that was set afire during early hours of the 1943 Detroit Riots.White mobs overturning an African-Americans car during the Detroit Race Riots.

  • A white mob attacks an African-American boy during the race riots.Detroit Tribune headline about the race riots and racial tensions throughout the city

  • Mexican-Americans at Home

  • Mexican Americans Wartime needs demand for employees Reversed Depression policy forcing Mexicans south Thousands flock north for work, Los Angeles Menial jobs, yet plenty of work availableRising living standards for Mexicans Greater ratio than national average in armed forces

  • The Zoot SuitZoot suits were part of the jazz cultureDefied segregationMinorities were expected to go unnoticed and blend in as much as possibleZoot suits were bold and noticeable.Young people who wore zoot suits were usually confidentMany of these young men were Mexican Americans.They were singled out as criminals and considered gangsters.A young man sporting the popular zoot suit in the 1940s.

  • Zoot-Suit RiotsA pair of Zoot-Suiters can be seen in this picture.

  • The Zoot Suit RiotsJune 1943- The tensions between servicemen and Mexican Americans escalated into a week of fighting.

    May 30, 1943 a group of servicemen taunted a group and Mexican American young men dressed in zoot suits. This turned into a brawl after a servicemen was hit. He was badly hurt.

  • The Zoot Suit RiotsOn June 3, 1943 servicemen went into the city with makeshift weapons hoping to avenge the previous fight. They firs