Microstructural and rheological investigation of asphalt mixtures containing recycled asphalt materials

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  • ti

    , Gnea

    ials in at (RAP),al backnot affestudy

    RAP and RAS on low temperature properties of asphalt mixtures is investigatedusing microstructural analysis and modeling of rheological data obtained on eight asphalt mixtures.

    porating RAP in new asphalt pavements signicantly reduces theusage of newmaterials, conserves natural resources and solves dis-posal problems [1]. To address this important issue, the NationalCooperative Highway Research Program (NCHRP) has funded anumber of projects, such as NCHRP 9-12 [2] and NCHRP 9-46 [3].

    the aged binders present in old pavements and roong shingles.

    2. Previous research efforts

    Several past studies were performed to investigate the effect ofRAP on recycled asphalt mixtures [58] and concluded that RAPcontent had a signicant inuence on mixture properties. More re-cently, research efforts focused on design procedures, forensicevaluation and modeling [1,9]; specications were also developedwith recommendations for selecting RAP content based on trafc

    Corresponding author. Tel.: +1 612 625 4579; fax: +1 612 626 7750.E-mail addresses: canno125@umn.edu (A. Cannone Falchetto), antonio.

    montepara@unipr.it (A. Montepara), gabriele.tebaldi@unipr.it (G. Tebaldi),

    Construction and Building Materials 35 (2012) 321329

    Contents lists available at

    Construction and B

    evmaras002@umn.edu (M.O. Marasteanu).Keywords:Reclaimed asphalt pavementManufacturer waste scrap shinglesTear-off scrap shinglesCreep stiffnessMicrostructureBack-calculation

    Detailed information on internal microstructure of asphalt mixtures is obtained from digital images ofasphalt mixtures beams and numerical estimations of spatial correlation functions. It is found that thatmicrostructure spatial distribution is not affected by RAP and RAS addition. Mechanical analog (Sharpe,2008 [18]) and semi empirical models are used to back-calculate binder creep stiffness from mixtureexperimental data. Differences between back-calculated results and experimental data suggest blendingbetween new and old binder may be only partial.

    2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

    1. Introduction

    Over the past 2030 years, the search for recycling alternativeshas led federal, state, and local agencies to consider a variety ofpotentially recyclable materials for pavement and other construc-tion applications. The list includes Reclaimed Asphalt Pavement(RAP), reclaimed Portland cement concrete, iron blast-furnace slag,y ash, waste tire rubber, waste glass, and roong shingles. Incor-

    Roong shingles represent another material that is available inlarge quantity for recycling. According to one estimate, about 10million tons of waste bituminous roong materials are generatedin United States each year [4]. The use of Recycled Asphalt Shingles(RAS) in hot mix asphalt has seen increased acceptance from gov-ernment agencies and construction contractors only in recentyears. The main obstacle is the potentially detrimental effect ofrecycled asphalt materials on asphalt pavement durability due toAccepted 25 April 2012emerged in Recycled Asphpaper, the effect of addingh i g h l i g h t s

    " We studied the use of recycled mater" We used Reclaimed Asphalt Pavemen" We used microstructural and analogic" Microstructure spatial distribution is" The analogical model is a good tool to

    a r t i c l e i n f o

    Article history:Received 27 October 2011Received in revised form 31 March 20120950-0618/$ - see front matter 2012 Elsevier Ltd. Ahttp://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.conbuildmat.2012.04.016sphalt mixtures at low temperature.and Recycled Asphalt Shingles (RAS).-calculation modeling.cted by RAP and RAS addition.blending of new and recycled binders.

    a b s t r a c t

    Using increased proportions of Reclaimed Asphalt Pavement (RAP) in asphalt pavements construction hasbecome a top priority due to signicant economic and environmental benets. A similar trend has also

    alt Shingles (RAS), which represent the main roong material in US. In thisUniversity of Parma, Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Viale G.P. Usberti, 181/A, 43100 Parma, ItalyMicrostructural and rheological investigarecycled asphalt materials

    Augusto Cannone Falchetto a,, Antonio Montepara baUniversity of Minnesota, Department of Civil Engineering, 500 Pillsbury Drive, S.E., Minb

    journal homepage: www.elsll rights reserved.on of asphalt mixtures containing

    abriele Tebaldi b, Mihai O. Marasteanu a

    polis, MN 55455, USA

    SciVerse ScienceDirect

    uilding Materials

    ier .com/locate /conbui ldmat

  • asphalt binder in shingles ranges from 20 dmm to 70 dmm, while

    binders critical cracking temperature. In a recent study [16] on

    5. Microstructural analysis

    In most research efforts, asphalt mixture is considered either asa two-phase material [26,27], or a three phase material [28,29],and different micromechanical models are applied to describeand predict mixture behavior. Using low order microstructuralinformation, such as volume fraction, leads to poor prediction ofmixture properties [30]. More detailed information can be ob-tained from the estimation of spatial distribution of the micro-components of a material; this type of information is needed whenmodeling the effective properties of more complex microstruc-tures. In the case of random heterogeneous materials, higher-ordermicrostructural information is critical and statistical function suchas n-point correlation function, lineal path function, chord-lengthdensity function, are used.

    Two- and 3-point correlation functions were used in severalworks to describe random heterogeneous materials [3135]. In atwo-phase heterogeneous material, with the same volume fraction,the spatial distribution of its particles can dramatically affect themechanical properties as well as the failure properties [36]. Forthis reason, spatial correlation functions can be used as a tool toidentify uctuations in the microstructure of a heterogeneousmaterial.

    The n-point spatial correlation function measures the probabil-ity of nding n points all lying on the space occupied by one of thephases of the specic heterogeneous material [32]. In the case of atwo-phase heterogeneous material the 1-point correlation

    Fig. 1. Bending Beam Rheometer with thin asphalt mixture beam [25].

    andthe use of fractionated recycled asphalt pavement (FRAP) andRAS, it was found that the bers contained in RAS may be benecialto low temperature cracking resistance.

    3. Research approach

    In this research, the addition of RAP, MWSS and TOSS to asphaltmixtures used in pavement applications is investigated based onchanges in mixtures microstructure and on changes in mixturesand binders low temperature properties, respectively. The changesin material microstructure are evaluated using Digital Image Pro-cessing (DIP) and estimating 2 and 3 point correlation functionsof the aggregate phase. Huet [17] analogical model [1820] cou-pled with ENTPE transformation [2123] is used to investigatethe effect of adding recycled material on both asphalt binder andasphalt mixture creep stiffness. Back-calculation of the asphalt bin-der creep stiffness is performed using mixture creep stiffness dataobtained with the Bending Beam Rheometer (BBR) [24]. The goal isto determine if changes in mixture behavior are due to changes inmicrostructure from addition of recycled material, or to blending ofnew and old binder, or due to both.

    4. Materials and testing

    Eight different asphalt mixtures (Table 1) prepared with a PG58-28 binder wereused in this study. The virgin aggregate materials used in the mixtures consisted ofpit-run-sand, quarried 3=4 in. (19 mm) dolostone, and quarried dolostone manufac-tured sand. The recycled material consisted of different amounts of RAP, TOSSand MWSS. More details on these materials can be found elsewhere [15].

    Thin beams of asphalt mixtures (three replicates per mixture) were tested usingthe Bending Beam Rheometer (Fig. 1) following a procedure described elsewhere[25]. BBR tests [24] were also performed on the asphalt binder extracted from mix-tures 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7 and 8; extraction and asphalt binder tests were performed atMnDOT Ofce of Materials. BBR creep stiffness was also obtained on the originalPG58-28 binder after RTFOT aging; this value was assumed as control in the anal-traditional paving binders range from 50 dmm to 300 dmm [11].Reusing asphalt shingles in asphalt mixture poses signicant chal-lenges especially in cold climates, where good fracture resistance iscritical for good pavement performance. This is particularly true forTOSS, which contain highly oxidized binders that are more prone tobrittle failure. Unlike MWSS, only recently a provisional specica-tion on the use of TOSS was released and limits the content to 5%(by weight) with the provision that at least 70% (by weight) of therequired binder is new binder [12].

    In one of the rst comprehensive studies on the inuence of RASon HMA mixture properties, Newcomb et al. [11] found that up to5% of MWSS could be used in asphalt mixtures with a minimumimpact on the mixture properties. However, addition of TOSS re-sulted in an embrittlement or stiffening of the mixture that wasnot desirable for cracking resistance at low temperatures. The 5%limit for MWSS was also proposed by other authors [13,14].McGraw et al. [15] investigated the combined use of RAP andRAS showing the negative effect of TOSS on mixture strength andlevel. For example, Minnesota Department of Transportation(MnDOT) Specication 2350/2360 (2008) [10] allows up to 40%(by weight) RAP based on trafc level and binder grade.

    Regarding the use of Recycled Asphalt Shingles (RAS), two dis-tinct categories are available in the roong market: Tear-off ScrapShingles (TOSS), from old roofs that have been exposed to solarradiation and high temperatures for extended periods of time,and Manufacturer Waste Scrap Shingles (MWSS). Both TOSS andMWSS contain amuch harder asphalt binder compared to that usedin pavement applications: at 25 C, the penetration values for

    322 A. Cannone Falchetto et al. / Constructionysis. To avoid any errors associated with timetemperature superposition, binderand mixture experimental data were obtained at the same test temperature of6 C, which represents the binder PG low temperature limit +22 C.Table 1Mix design for the eight mixtures investigated.

    Mix Recycled material VMA VFA

    ID Description RAP(wt.%)

    TOSS(wt.%)

    MWSS(wt.%)

    1 PG58-28 Control 0 0 0 15.9 76.62 15% RAP 15 0 0 15.2 72.93 25% RAP 25 0 0 15.3 73.04 30% RAP 30 0 0 15.0 45.45 15% RAP 5%

    MWSS15 0 5 15.6 75.0

    6 15% RAP 5% TOSS 15 5 0 15.9 77.27 25% RAP 5% TOSS 25 5 0 15.4 73.98 25% RAP 5%

    MWSS25 0 5 14.8 72.5

    Building Materials 35 (2012) 321329function (S1) is the probability that any point lies on phase 1; thiscorrespond to the volumetric fraction of phase 1. The 2-point cor-relation function (S2) is the probability that two points separated

  • The 3-point correlation function for a heterogeneous materialcan be dened according to following equation:

    Si3 x1; x2; x3 hIix1 Iix2 Iix3i 5In the case of a translationally invariant isotropic material, and

    when there is no long-range order, the 3-point correlation functioncan be expressed as:

    lim Sijr1j; jr2j; u12 /3 6

    rr1

    r2r1

    r

    u12

    u12

    A. Cannone Falchetto et al. / Construction and Building Materials 35 (2012) 321329 323by a specic distance are located both in the phase of interest. The3-point correlation function (S3) is the probability that all the ver-tices of a triangle are all located in the same phase. Fig. 2 provides ageometric interpretation of the 1-, 2-, and 3-point correlation func-tions of aggregate phase; single points, segments, and triangles re-fer to S1, S2 and S3 respectively.

    n-point correlation functions of a two-phase random heteroge-neous material in i-dimensional Euclidian space can be expressedas [34,35]:

    Sin x1; x2; x3; ; xn hIix1 Iix2 Iix3 Iixni 1where hi is the ensemble averaging; I(i)(x) indicator function denedas:

    Iix 1; x 2 Vi0; x 2 Vi

    2

    The n-point correlation function is translationally invariant for astatistically homogeneous material. It means that the function de-pends on the differences in the coordinate values of the xi vectorsbut, not on their absolute position [34,35].

    The 1-point correlation represents the volume fraction /i of the

    r r

    2

    Fig. 2. Geometric interpretation of S1, S2 and S3 correlation functions.ith phase. S1 is constant and it is the probability that a randomlyselected point in the material belongs to ith phase:

    Si1 hIixi /i 3The 2-point correlation function Si2 x1; x2 is dened as:

    Si2 x1; x2 hIix1 Iix2i 4When microstructure of the material does not present long

    range order, the initial value of the 2-point correlation functionis /i(r = 0) and for very large r(r?1) it reaches the asymptoticlimit of /2i .

    Fig. 3. Matrix representation ojr1 j; jr2 j!1 3 i

    where r1 = x2 x1 is the vector; r2 = x3 x1 the vector; and u12 is thecosine of the angle h12 between vectors r1 and r2.

    The calculation of all the n-point correlation functions is re-quired when a complete description of the microstructure of a ran-dom heterogeneous material as asphalt mixture has to be assessed.However, this computation may become particularly complex bothanalytically and numerically [34,35]; for this reason alternativesolutions are required.

    5.1. Image processing

    Estimation of properties such as volumetric fraction of aggre-gates, particle size distribution, and n-point correlation functionscan be obtained from digital images of the material through DigitalImage Processing (DIP). Color (RGB) images of the asphalt mixturesBBR beams were acquired with a scanner at a resolution of 300 dpi(dots per inch) allowing for detection of aggregates larger than0.150 mm. MATLAB Image Processing Toolbox was used to obtainmastic and aggregate phases through a conversion procedure ofRGB images of asphalt mixture to binary images (Fig. 4); white(1) represents aggregates larger than 0.150 mm, and black (0) rep-resents voids + asphalt binder + aggregates smaller than 0.150 mm.

    The following procedure was used to obtain the binary images(Figs. 3 and 4): (a) conversion of RGB images to (b) gray scale, (c)equalization of the histogram of the image to enhance the contrast,(d) noise ltering and (e) nal conversion to binary image throughglobal thresholding.

    5.2. 2 and 3-Point correlation functions

    The 2-point correlation function can be computed using a dis-cretized expression of Eq. (4) accounting for the width and theheight of the digital binary image of interest. However, for highresolution images containing a large number of pixels, a bruteforce method is time consuming and sometimes even prohibitive.For this reason, 2- and 3-point correlation functions of the aggre-gate phase are hereafter calculated by means of a simplicationof the algorithm proposed by Velasquez [34,35]. This procedureis based on Monte Carlo simulations and on binary images of theasphalt mixture BBR specimens. For purpose of comparison withthe initial values of 2 and 3-point correlation functions (r = 0 andr1 = r2 = 0, respectively), the volumetric fraction of the aggregatephase was also estimated.f an M N binary image.

  • and324 A. Cannone Falchetto et al. / ConstructionIn the case of 2-point correlation, vectors of increasing lengthand random orientation angles are dropped in the digital imageN times, and the number of times both end points of the vectorsare in the phase of interest (Fig. 5) are recorded. The procedure isiterated for vectors of lengths varying from 0 to half the size ofthe image for a number of drops N > 10,000 [34,35].

    The binary images of the different specimens were used to com-pute the 2-point correlation functions of the aggregate phase. Thesingle values of the 2-point correlation function for each specimenis calculated as average of the two larger sides of each specimen.Fig. 6 presents the curves of the average 2-point correlation func-tion for all the eight mixtures investigated. Small coefcients ofvariation were obtained with a maximum of 5.3%.

    The value of the 2-point correlation function does not uctuateas the distance (r) increases for all the eight mixtures investigated.

    Fig. 4. Image processing of asp

    y

    x

    Randomly selected angle

    r

    Randomly selected pixel

    Check end points positions

    Fig. 5. Schematic of simplied algorithm for 2-point correlation function.

    0.00.10.20.30.40.50.60.70.80.91.0

    0 1 2 3 4 5

    Two -

    poin

    t C

    orr

    elat

    ion

    Fun

    ctio

    n

    r (mm)

    Mix 1 Mix 2Mix 3 Mix 4Mix 5 Mix 6Mix 7 Mix 8

    Fig. 6. 2-Point correlation functions for aggregate phase.Two-point correlation function starts at approximately /aggregateand smoothly drops to /2aggregate, corresponding to the asymptoticlimit of Eq. (4) as r approaches to innite. All the curves are veryclose and almost overlapping, suggesting an almost identical auto-correlation length among the different mixtures [32,33]. Thus, itseems that, although the content and type of recycled materialsare different, there is no signicant effect on the microstructuredistribution when adding RAP, TOSS, and MWSS.

    For the 3-point correlation function, a set of lattice commensu-rate triangles [34] and the symmetries (shaded area of symmetryin Fig. 7) of the 3-point correlation function can be used to reducecomputational time. The set of triangles used for the estimation ofthe spatial correlation function are dened by three integers, l, m,and n (Fig. 7a) which are related by the following conditions:

    m 6 l=2 and m2 n2 6 2ml 7Each triangle dened by the integers (l, m, n) is randomly

    dropped N = 100,000 times in the binary image [34,35]. The num-ber of times (Nhits) the three vertices of the triangle are in theaggregate phase is counted (Fig. 7b).

    The results of the 3-point correlation function are shown inFig. 8 for a set of triangles dened by L = 2, M = 1, N = 1, and a sizefactor p = 032. As in the case of the 2-point correlation function,the coefcients of variation were small with a maximum of 5.5%for mixture 2.

    halt mixtures BBR beams.Building Materials 35 (2012) 321329The average 3-point correlation functions computed for asphaltmixtures materials have a similar pattern for all eight asphalt mix-tures considered. No large uctuations on S3 are observed as thesize factor p increases. S3 begins at /aggregate and smoothly dropsto /3aggregate, as described by Eq. (6), showing no evidence of cluster-ing or preferred paths in the aggregate spatial distribution [36].The similar pattern shown by all the curves conrms the resultsof the 2-point correlation function that the recycled material addedto the mixtures does not affect the microstructural spatial distribu-tion of the aggregate phase.

    6. Back-calculation of asphalt binder creep stiffness

    Since no changes were found in the mixtures based on themicrostructural investigation, the change in rheological propertiesdue to the addition of aged binders is investigated next.

    6.1. Analogical and semi empirical models

    In a previous study [37,38], analogical models were used to ob-tain creep stiffness of asphalt binders from creep stiffness of the

  • y`

    x`

    n

    m

    ion f

    A. Cannone Falchetto et al. / Construction andl

    Fig. 7. (a) Schematic symmetry for triangles used for calculation of 3-point correlat

    0.00.10.20.30.40.50.60.70.80.91.0

    0 4 8 12 16 20 24 28 32

    Thre

    e-po

    int

    Cor

    rela

    tion

    Func

    tion

    p (size factor)

    Mix 1 Mix 2Mix 3 Mix 4Mix 5 Mix 6Mix 7 Mix 8corresponding asphalt mixtures (inverse problem). It was foundthat Huet model [17] tted very well the experimental data ob-tained from BBR tests at low temperatures for both asphalt bindersand mixtures. This model is composed of two parabolic elements,D1(t) = a(t/s)h and D2(t) = b(t/s)k, plus a spring with stiffness E1,combined in series (Fig. 9).

    The analytical expression of the Huet model for creep compli-ance is:

    Dt 1E1

    1 d t=sk

    Ck 1 t=sh

    Ch 1

    !8

    where D(t) is the creep compliance; E1 the glassy modulus; h, k theexponents such that 0 < k < h < 1; d the dimensionless constant; tthe time; C the gamma function; s the characteristic time varyingwith temperature accounting for the Time Temperature Superposi-tion Principle (TTSP): s = aT(T)s0(TS), aT the shift factor at tempera-ture T; s0 is the characteristic time determined at referencetemperature TS.

    Fig. 8. 3-Point correlation functions for aggregate phase.

    Fig. 9. Huet model.The authors [38] also found the following relationship betweenthe characteristic time of mixture, smix and the characteristic timeof the corresponding binder, sbinder, at the reference temperature T:

    smixT 10asbinderT 9where smix is the characteristic time of mixture at temperature T;sbinder the characteristic time of binder at temperature T; a is theregression coefcient depending on mixture and aging.

    This expression is identical to the equation proposed by DiBenedetto [22,23] and obtained from 2S2P1D model for complexmodulus data [22,23].

    From Eqs. (8) and (9), the following transformation that relatesthe creep stiffness of the asphalt binder Sbinder(t), to the creep stiff-ness of the corresponding asphalt mixture Smix(t) can be written:

    Smixt Sbindert10a E1 mixE1 binder 10

    where Smix(t) is the creep stiffness of mixture; Sbinder(t) the creepstiffness of binder; E1_mix the glassy modulus of mixture; E1_binderis the glassy modulus of binder.

    Expression (10) is independent of the model used to derive itand it represents a special case of ENTPE transformation [2123]for low temperatures.

    A different back-calculation method based on the semi empiri-cal Hirsch [39] formulation was used by several authors [1,35,38,40]. In this model, the effective response of the material isobtained assembling the elements of the mixture (air voids,asphalt binder and aggregate) in parallel and in series. The generalequation is:

    Emix PcEaggVagg EbinderVbinder" #1

    y

    x Randomly selected angle

    Check trianglevertices positions

    unction; (b) schematic of Monte Carlo simulations for 3-point correlation function.

    Building Materials 35 (2012) 321329 325 1 Pc VaggEagg

    1 Vagg2

    EbinderVbinder11

    where Emix is the effective modulus of the mixture; Eagg, Vagg themodulus and volume fraction of the aggregate; Ebinder, Vbinder themodulus and volume fraction of binder, and Pc is the contactvolume is an empirical factor dened as:

    Pc 0:1 ln Ebindera

    0:609 12

    where Ebinder is the relaxation modulus of the binder in GPa; and a isthe constant equal to 1 GPa.

    6.2. Back-calculation procedure

    In this section, asphalt binder creep stiffness is estimated fromcreep stiffness experimental data of asphalt mixture. The resultscan provide useful information on the blending process between

  • Table 2Huet model parameters for mixtures and corresponding back-calculated binders.

    ID Material d k h E1 (MPa) Log(s)

    Binder 1 PG 58-28 control 6.67 0.28 0.71 3000 0.7702 15% RAP 6.46 0.24 0.59 3000 0.8243 25% RAP 6.01 0.30 0.58 3000 0.6584 30% RAP 6.84 0.22 0.61 3000 0.8245 15% RAP 5% MWSS 6.83 0.27 0.65 3000 0.5096 15% RAP 5% TOSS 6.84 0.24 0.63 3000 0.4567 25% RAP 5% TOSS 6.02 0.28 0.59 3000 0.4098 25% RAP 5% MWSS 6.11 0.28 0.59 3000 0.495

    Mixtures 1 PG58-28 control 6.67 0.28 0.71 30,000 2.3902 15% RAP 6.46 0.24 0.59 30,000 3.6463 25% RAP 6.01 0.30 0.58 30,000 3.4924 30% RAP 6.84 0.22 0.61 30,000 3.7265 15% RAP 5% MWSS 6.83 0.27 0.65 30,000 3.5916 15% RAP 5% TOSS 6.84 0.24 0.63 30,000 4.2747 25% RAP 5% TOSS 6.02 0.28 0.59 30,000 4.1718 25% RAP 5% MWSS 6.11 0.28 0.59 30,000 3.965

    326 A. Cannone Falchetto et al. / Construction and Building Materials 35 (2012) 321329the new virgin binder and the aged binder contained in RAP andRAS and help understand whether total or partial blending occurs.

    Expression (10) was manipulated using Huet model to obtainthe following formula:

    Smixt;h; k; d; smix Sbindert; h; k; d;10asbinderE1 mixE1 binder

    13

    The ve constants (d, k, h, E1, and s) are determined through theminimization of the sum of the distances between asphalt mixtureexperimental data and the predicted values from expression (13)(Huet-ENTPE) at n time points (14).

    minXni1

    Sexpt SHuet-ENTPEt2 !

    14

    where Sexp(t) is the experimental creep stiffness; SHuet-ENTPE(t) is themodel creep stiffness.

    In previous studies [2123,38], it was found that Huet modelparameters are the same for binder and for corresponding mixture.Therefore, the difference between asphalt binder and asphaltmixture is represented by a (Eq. (9)); this parameter relates thecharacteristic time of binder to the characteristic time of mixture.The value of a was obtained during the minimization processTable 3a Parameter for mixtures and corresponding back-calculated binders.

    ID 1 2 3 4 5

    Material PG 5828 control 15% RAP 25% RAP 30% RAP 15% RAPa 3.16 4.47 4.15 4.55 4.10

    y = 2.3350ln(x) - 2.4853R = 0.9987

    02468

    101214161820

    0 200 400 600 800 1000

    Asp

    halt

    Mix

    ture

    St

    iffne

    ss (G

    Pa)

    Asphalt Binder Stiffness (MPa)

    Simplified mixture stiffness function

    Fig. 10. Simplied mixture stiffness funcstarting from initial values of d, k, h, E1, s found in the literature[17,22,38]. Table 2 presents the Huet model parameters for theeight asphalt mixtures tested at 6 C and for the correspondingback-calculated asphalt binders. The values of a are given inTable 3. As expected, there is a signicant difference in the charac-teristic times of binders and corresponding mixtures. The valuesfor parameters h and k are in agreement with the values deter-mined in previous studies [2123,37,38], however higher valuesof d were obtained for the materials studied in this research.

    Hirsch model was also used to back-calculate asphalt bindercreep stiffness. First, based on the volumetric properties of themixtures (Table 1), plots of binder creep stiffness versus predictedmixture stiffness using Eq. (12) are generated for binder stiffnessvalues between 50 and 1000 MPa. Fig. 10 shows the predictedcurves for mixtures 1 and 2.

    Then, a simple function is tted to the log of mixture stiffnessversus log of binder stiffness curves:

    Emix a lnEbinder b 15

    where a and b are regression parameters. Finally, the binder stiff-ness is simply calculated using Eq. (15) over the entire range ofloading times.6 7 8

    5% MWSS 15% RAP 5% TOSS 25% RAP 5% TOSS 25% RAP 5% MWSS4.73 4.58 4.46

    0 200 400 600 800 1000

    y = 2.3495ln(x) - 2.4959R = 0.9986

    02468

    101214161820

    Asp

    halt

    Mix

    ture

    St

    iffne

    ss (G

    Pa)

    Asphalt Binder Stiffness (MPa)

    Simplified mixture stiffness function

    tion for mixtures 1 and 2, T = 6 C.

  • 6.3. Comparison with experimental data

    The asphalt binders creep stiffness values predicted from Huet-ENTPE formulation and Hirsch model, respectively, were comparedto the experimentally determined creep stiffness values obtainedon the RTFOT condition of original binder and the extracted asphaltbinders (mixtures 28). The BBR data on the recovered binders wasobtained at MnDOT Ofce of Materials for the standard time of240 s. The original binder (short term aged) and the asphalt mix-tures were tested at University of Minnesota for 240 s and1000 s, respectively. For this reason, in the plots shown in Figs.1114, the creep stiffness curves of asphalt binders are shorterthan those obtained through back-calculation from mixture data.

    Hirsch model predictions are higher at shorter time and tend tobecome smaller at longer time compared to experimental data. TheENTPE transformation predicts very well the creep stiffness of theRTFOT original binder. The stiffness curves of asphalt bindersobtained from the recycled mixtures (28) experimental data donot match the creep stiffness curves of extracted binder, howevera common trend is observed: the back-calculated and the

    experimental data appear to reach the same asymptote. The ex-tracted binder curves are atter, suggesting less relaxation capabil-ities compared to the back-calculated ones. It can be reasonablyhypothesized that two mechanisms may be responsible for thisobservation:

    The extracted binder still contains very ne particles, in spite ofthe extraction process. However, this would also contribute to ahigher asymptotic value, which is not observed.

    Blending of the new and old binder occurred only partially.Therefore, the mixture creep behavior was affected by all newbinder and only a part of the aged, oxidized binder. The extrac-tion and recovery process resulted in a 100% blending and,therefore, the resulting binder had worse relaxation propertiessince all of the aged binder contributed to the properties ofthe blend.

    The second mechanism was also discussed by other authors;Bonaquist [41] suggested that due to insufcient heat transfer dur-ing mixing there may be a partial or little melting of the aged RAP

    1

    10

    100

    1000

    10 100 1000

    Asp

    halt

    Bind

    er C

    reep

    St

    iffne

    ss (M

    Pa)

    Time (s)

    Hirsch

    Huet - ENTPE1

    10

    100

    1000

    10 100 1000

    Asp

    halt

    Bind

    er C

    reep

    St

    iffne

    ss (M

    Pa)

    Time (s)

    Huet - ENTPE

    RTFOT Binder

    Hirsch

    Huet -ENTPE

    Extracted Binder

    Hirsch

    Huet -ENTPE

    Mix 2Mix 1

    Fig. 11. Creep stiffness of back-calculated and extracted asphalt binder for mixture 1 and 2, T = 6 C.

    100

    1000

    Bi

    nder

    Cre

    ep

    ess

    (MPa

    )

    100

    1000

    Bi

    nder

    Cre

    ep

    ess

    (MPa

    )

    Mix 3 Mix 4

    tract

    A. Cannone Falchetto et al. / Construction and Building Materials 35 (2012) 321329 3271

    10

    10 100 1000

    Asp

    halt

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    iffn

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    Hirsch

    Huet - ENTPE

    Fig. 12. Creep stiffness of back-calculated and ex

    1

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    reep

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    Mix 5Time (s)Fig. 13. Creep stiffness of back-calculated and extract1

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    ed asphalt binder for mixture 3 and 4, T = 6 C.

    1

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    Mix 6Time (s)ed asphalt binder for mixture 5 and 6, T = 6 C.

  • ract

    andlated from recycled mixtures data do not match the creep stiffnesscurves of extracted binder. It is hypothesized that the extractedbinder still contains very ne particles; however, this would alsocontribute to a higher asymptotic value, which is not observed. An-other explanation is that blending of the new and old binder oc-and shingle binder when mixed with virgin material in the asphaltmixture production plant. This can explain the discrepancy be-tween the actual binder stiffness in the mix and that obtained fromextraction.

    7. Summary and conclusions

    In this paper, the effect on low temperature properties of as-phalt mixtures due to the addition of various percentages of RAP,MWSS and TOSS was investigated. Microstructural analysis of themixtures was rst performed, followed by the analysis of changesin rheological properties of asphalt mixtures and corresponding as-phalt binders. Asphalt mixture specimens (two-dimensional pro-jections of BBR beams) were analyzed based on digital imageprocessing, and microstructure properties were determined usingcorrelation functions. Since no large variations were observed be-tween 2- and 3-point correlation functions of the mixtures, it ishypothesized that the recycled materials added to the mixturesdid not affect the spatial distribution of the aggregate phase.

    Huet model coupled with ENTPE transformation and semi-empirical Hirsch model were used to back-calculate the asphaltbinder creep stiffness of the binder present in the mixtures.Back-calculation results were compared to experimental creepstiffness data obtained on the RTFOT aged original binder and onthe binders extracted from the other seven recycled mixtures.

    Hirsch predictions overestimate the creep stiffness of RTFOToriginal binders and of the seven extracted asphalt binders. ENTPEtransformation predicts very well the creep stiffness of the RTFOToriginal binder. The stiffness curves of asphalt binders back-calcu-

    1

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    Mix 7

    Fig. 14. Creep stiffness of back-calculated and ext

    328 A. Cannone Falchetto et al. / Constructioncurred only partially. Therefore, the mixture creep behavior wasaffected by all new binder and only a part of the aged, oxidized bin-der. The extraction and recovery process resulted in a 100% blend-ing and the resulting binder relaxes less since all aged bindercontributed to the properties of the blend.

    The ndings of this study suggest that, at low temperature, thestiffness properties of asphalt mixture is little inuenced by thespatial distribution of the aggregate skeleton. Asphalt binderblending appears to control the creep stiffness when recycled as-phalt materials are added in the mixture.

    Acknowledgment

    The authors gratefully acknowledge Minnesota Department ofTransportation (MnDOT) for providing the asphalt mixtures usedin this investigation and the asphalt binder creep stiffness dataand Dr. Raul Velasquez for his suggestions.References

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    A. Cannone Falchetto et al. / Construction and Building Materials 35 (2012) 321329 329

    Microstructural and rheological investigation of asphalt mixtures containing recycled asphalt materials1 Introduction2 Previous research efforts3 Research approach4 Materials and testing5 Microstructural analysis5.1 Image processing5.2 2 and 3-Point correlation functions

    6 Back-calculation of asphalt binder creep stiffness6.1 Analogical and semi empirical models6.2 Back-calculation procedure6.3 Comparison with experimental data

    7 Summary and conclusionsAcknowledgmentReferences

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