Tips to improve your memory
Recreate the scene you saw
MemoryThe capacity to retain and retrieve information as well as the structures that account for this capacity.
Allows us to:Be competentConvey a personal identityHave a personal and cultural historyHelps guide decision-making
MemoryMemory is selectiveUsually disjointed Memory is reconstructiveWe reproduce some informationBut with complex information, we alter it in ways to help us make sense of it
Fading Flashbulb Some unusual events produce a strong memoryMay seem frozen in time, with photographic detailMay not always be perfectFacts may be mixed in with other memories or stories from others
EyewitnessesWatch the following video
Answer the questions that are on the paper
Summarize the events of the accident on the back of the paper
The Eyewitness ConundrumEyewitness testimonies are not always reliableMay have input from other sourcesSubtle word changes may affect a persons perceptionHit/crash & a/theBugs Bunny experiment
JournalWhy might eyewitness accounts be so unreliable?
Use what you have learned about memory to explain your opinion.
Why Eyewitnesses Are UnreliableRe-imagining the eventCorroboration with othersLeading questions and unconscious influence from authoritiesDisjointed memoryConformity effectDouble Identification effect
Source MisattributionThe inability to distinguish an actual memory of an event from information you learned elsewhere.
Think of a very early memoryHave you seen pictures or videos from that day that may have influenced you?
ConfabulationConfusing an event that happened to someone else with one that happened to you.Thought, heard, or told others about the event many timesThe event contains many details that make it feel realThe event is easy to imagine
Memory AbuseRead article about how behavior affects memory
Answer questions about the article
Explicit MemoryConscious, intentional recollection of an event or item of informationRecall - retrieve and reproduce informationfill-in-the-blank, memory gamesRecognition - identify information previously read, observed or heard true/false, multiple choice
RecallName the 7 dwarves
RecognitionCheck off the names of the 7 Dwarves
Implicit MemoryUnconscious retention in memory, usually based on previous experience
Relearning method - Learn a topic twiceIf you learn faster the second time, you are clearly remembering from the first lesson
Priming - a person reads or listens to information and is later tested to see if the information affects later performance
Using Implicit and Explicit Memory How are the 2 types of memory useful outside of the academic field?
Why would some companies take advantage of a persons implicit memory?
How is it possible to utilize a persons implicit memory to manipulate them?
MemoryThe brain is most similar to a computerYou retrieve info when you need to use itOrganized into schemas (networks of topics)
Short Term Memory
Limited capacity Brief period (30 seconds to few minutes)Also holds information retrieved from long-term memory
Lasts a few minutes to a decadeMay even be permanentUnlimited capacityInformation is organizedInformation passes between STM and LTM
Serial PositioningWhen shown a list of items, you are most likely to remember the items at the beginning and end of the list.
Usually occurs without us thinking about itListening to othersWhere things are in your locker
Effortful Encoding (aka studying)Memorizing the plot of a storyLearning specific facts
RehearsalRepeating information over and over in order to remember itFlashcardsPracticing a scriptForgetting a number or directions
Elaborative rehearsal - associating new information with old to make it more memorable.
MnemonicsStrategies and tricks to remember informationEven Godzilla Buys Dog Food30 days hath SeptemberROYGBIVPlease Excuse My Dear Aunt SallyMy Very Excellent Mother Just Served Us Noodles
Memory ExperimentUsing the strategies discussed today, think of a NEW way to study for an upcoming test/quiz.
Write down your strategy, what you are studying for, materials you will use, and how it differs from your normal routine.
After the test/quiz: record how effective you think the strategy was, and if you would be willing to use the strategy for other exams. Use full sentences, explain your answers
Why We ForgetDecayReplacementInterferenceCue-Dependent ForgettingRepression/AmnesiaChildhood amnesia
DecayMemory fades with time unless we rehearse them
Some memories do remain because of emotional significanceSome memories can also randomly stick around
ReplacementNew information drives out the old
Leading questions can change your memory
InterferenceSpecific memories are confused with similar onesNamesaddresses
Cue-Dependent ForgettingYou remember better if you can repeat the environment that you learned inSame:seatpeople aroundtimetemperaturenoisesphysical state
** may explain dj vu - similar scene from a book, movie, dream etc.
Repression - AmnesiaRepression - involuntary pushing of threatening info into the unconsciousAmnesia - partial or total loss of memory for an important personal reasonPsychogenicLose entire memory for several weeksOccurs after shock, embarrassment, shame etcTraumatic Forget specific events for long parts of timeMemory returns with high accuracy
Childhood Amnesia Tendency to forget events that happened in the first 4 years of life
There are fewer memories for ages 0-8 than any other stage in a persons life
Possible Explanations: fewer connections between neuronsLower ability to understand the world
Study GuideEyewitness conundrumSource MisattributionConfabulationExplicit (recall, recognition)Implicit (re-learning, priming)Short TermLong Term (mnemonics, serial positioning, chunking)State dependent memoryForgettingAmnesiaRepression