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MEASURING FINANCIAL LITERACY Adele Atkinson OECD

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  • MEASURING FINANCIAL LITERACY

    Adele Atkinson OECD

  • Background

    OECD project on financial education

    OECD tools and instruments

    National Strategies

    Measurement

    Contents

  • BACKGROUND

  • Dedicated OECD work through the International

    Network on Financial Education (INFE)

    under the aegis of the OECD bodies responsible for financial education

    Dedicated OECD project on financial education since 2002

    Including now over 200 institutions from 114 countries and economies

    Different levels of engagement: Full and regular membership

    Global and regional policy platforms and regular meetings to share good practice, collect data, develop analytical and comparative studies, methodologies, policy instruments and practical guidance on key priority areas related to financial education

    deepening in 2008 with the creation of the INFE

    as a complement to consumer protection, financial regulation and financial inclusion policies

    and within the framework of the G20 since 2011

    4

  • The Overall Framework (2012) OECD/INFE High-level Principles

    on National Strategies for Financial Education

    General instruments

    2005

    Principles and Good practices on Financial Education and Awareness

    2015 OECD/INFE Policy Handbook on the Implementation of National Strategies

    Sector-specific Good Practices 2008

    2 Good Practices for Financial Education relating to Private Pensions & for Enhanced Risk Awareness and Education on Insurance issues 2009

    Good Practices on Financial Education and Awareness relating to Credit

    Methodological tools

    2011

    High-level Principles for the Evaluation of Financial Education Programme

    2015

    Toolkit on measuring Financial Literacy and inclusion Core competency framework for youth

    Target Audiences

    2012

    OECD/INFE Guidelines for Financial Education in Schools

    2013

    OECD/INFE Policy guidance on addressing womens and girls needs for financial education

    OECD/INFE tools and instruments

  • NATIONAL STRATEGIES

  • Data

    Policy priorities

    key target groups

    (need data)

    A mandate to an

    organisation or individual to take things

    forward

    Funding and a strategic

    vision of how the funding will be used

    Co-ordination

    and cooperation

    between different

    sectors and across

    countries

    Measurable and realistic

    goals and regular

    assessment

    Essential components of a national

    strategy

  • Practical steps for a national strategy

    Mapping of existing

    resources and stakeholders

    Avoid duplication of

    resources

    Identify successful practices

    Identify trusted

    stakeholders

    Survey of financial literacy

    level Target groups

    Needs and gaps

    Identify/refine main policy

    issues

    Consultation process amongst key stakeholders

    Start elaborating coordination mechanisms

    Build trust and consensus

    National awareness and communication

    Raise awareness

    Attract relevant

    stakeholders

    Reinforce buy-in

    8

  • Sustainability

    Direct government funding

    Departmental budgets

    Levies on the financial service sector

    Money from fees/fines

    In-kind resources (trainers, materials, premises etc)

    Mandated private provision (CSR)

    Potential sources of funding

    9

  • OECD / INFE FINANCIAL LITERACY SURVEY

  • Survey instrument to capture financial literacy

    a combination of awareness, knowledge, skill, attitude and behaviour necessary to make

    sound financial decisions and ultimately achieve individual financial well-being

    in a representative sample of adults, and available in a Toolkit:

    Questionnaire (core) and optional questions

    Methodological notes; Interviewer briefings

    At their summit in St Petersburg in Sep 13,

    G20 Leaders welcomed and supported its use.

    OECD / INFE survey to measure

    financial literacy and financial inclusion

    http://www.oecd.org/daf/fin/financial-education/2015finlitmeasurementexercise.htmhttp://www.oecd.org/daf/fin/financial-education/2015finlitmeasurementexercise.htm

  • Results comparable across countries and over time

    OECD/INFE financial literacy survey

    as well as on its relationship with

    Behaviour

    Budgeting, saving, choosing products, paying

    bills on time, retirement

    planning etc

    Fin knowledge

    Simple and compound interest, Inflation, time value of money, Risk and

    return, Risk diversification

    Fin attitudes

    Propensity to save vs spend,

    Time preference, etc.

    Financial inclusion

    Financial products awareness, use and

    recent choice

    Socio-demographics

    Age, Gender, Education, Work,

    Income,

    Wellbeing; Fraud; self-assessment of

    financial knowledge

  • Developing the questionnaire

    2009: Review of available national surveys to identify good practice questions, typical content & appropriate methodology for data collection and analysis

    Discussions with experts and country representatives to choose the most important questions and the best combination of questions

    2010: Widespread piloting

    Fine-tuning of questionnaire

    Revisited in 2014; slightly updated for 2015

    13

  • Using the Core Questionnaire

    Standalone survey tool for use across a wide range of

    countries

    Questions can also be incorporated with a national survey

    Responses can be analysed alone, or combined to create a score

    Survey exercise can be repeated using the same questionnaire to measure

    changes over time

    Data collection can be coordinated with other

    countries or surveys

    14

  • Albania, Austria, Belarus, Belgium, Brazil, BVI, Canada, Croatia, Czech Republic, Estonia, France, Hong Kong (China), Hungary, Latvia, Lithuania, Netherlands, New Zealand, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Russia, Thailand, Turkey, UK (24 economies

    Initial results from Europe released April 20th

    More detailed results due in October 2016

    Example results: % scoring 5, 6 or 7 on

    financial knowledge (score range 0-7)

  • Example results: household has a

    budget

  • Example results: average overall score

    by gender (score range 1-21)

  • Financial literacy levels depend on a wide range of factors; some of which can be addressed through financial education

    A national approach provides the greatest opportunity to make a significant difference combining efforts to reach key target groups and cover main topics

    Policy makers need data to inform and guide financial education, and to monitor progress

    There is no single question that can be used to measure financial literacy, but we can gauge levels through surveys and tests; focusing on the issues that are most relevant

    There are opportunities to learn from other countries: many issues that are relevant around the world and many of these are being addressed in several countries. The OECD/INFE and co-ordinated measurement exercises help to maximise the benefit of this process

    Conclusions

  • THANK YOU!

    [email protected]

    www.financial-education.org