Materials Science (MS) & Materials Economics and ...· Materials Science (MS) & Materials Economics

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  • Department of Materials

    Materials Science (MS)&

    Materials Economics and Management (MEM)Prelims Lecture Course Synopses 2012 - 2013

  • 2

    Materials Science 1: Structure of Materials ..................................................................... 3

    Introduction to Materials Structure ............................................................................... 4

    Crystallography & Diffraction ....................................................................................... 5

    Metals & Alloys ............................................................................................................ 7

    Ceramics & Semiconductors ....................................................................................... 8

    Defects in Crystals ...................................................................................................... 9

    Polymers & Composites ............................................................................................ 10

    Elementary Quantum Theory & Bonding ................................................................... 12

    Materials Science 2: Properties of Materials ................................................................. 13

    Introduction to Materials Properties ........................................................................... 14

    Elasticity & Structures ............................................................................................... 15

    Electrical and Magnetic Properties ............................................................................ 16

    Mechanical Properties ............................................................................................... 18

    Kinetic Theory of Gases ............................................................................................ 20

    Materials Science 3: Transforming Materials ................................................................ 21

    Introduction to Processing ......................................................................................... 22

    Thermodynamics ....................................................................................................... 25

    Kinetics ...................................................................................................................... 26

    Electrochemistry ........................................................................................................ 27

    Polymer Synthesis ..................................................................................................... 28

    Microstructure of Materials ........................................................................................ 29

    Mathematics for Materials and Earth Sciences ............................................................. 31

    Vectors ...................................................................................................................... 32

    Matrices & Determinants ........................................................................................... 34

    Ordinary & Partial Differentiation ............................................................................... 36

    Indefinite & Definite Integrals..................................................................................... 38

    Taylor & MacLaurin Series ........................................................................................ 39

    Complex Numbers ..................................................................................................... 40

    Ordinary Differential Equations.................................................................................. 41

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    Materials Science 1: Structure of Materials

  • 4

    MS1: Structure of Materials Michaelmas Term

    1st year MS & MEM

    Prof A I Kirkland

    2 lectures

    Introduction to Materials Structure

    Importance of material structure.

    Physical properties:

    o Intrinsic (lattice/bonding-controlled).

    o Extrinsic (defect-controlled).

    Different types of interatomic bonds:

    o Ionic.

    o Covalent.

    o Metallic.

    Effect of bond type on material structure.

    Defects in lattices.

    o Plane defects, line defects, point defects.

  • 5

    MS1: Structure of Materials Michaelmas & Hilary Terms

    1st year MS & MEM

    Prof A I Kirkland

    14 lectures

    Crystallography & Diffraction

    Geometrical Crystallography

    Characteristics of the crystalline state. Crystal lattices. Types of two-dimensional lattices.

    Unit Cells. Lattice planes. Miller indices. Extension to three dimensions. Symmetry

    elements. Rotations, mirrors and inversion. Stereographic projection. Properties of

    projection. Great circles. Small circles. Zones. Preservation of angular truth. Wulff net.

    Zone axes. Zone symbols. Weiss zone law. Addition rule. Use in plotting stereogram. Point

    groups. Two-dimensional point groups. Two-dimensional Bravais lattices. Three-

    dimensional Bravais lattices. Seven crystal systems. 3D Point groups. Crystallographic

    calculations. Cosine formula for systems with orthogonal axes. Axial ratios of tetragonal

    and orthorhombic systems. Hexagonal systems.

    Diffraction

    Waves - Travelling and standing waves. Interference of waves. Superposition. Group

    velocity. Electromagnetic spectrum. Photon description of light. Wavefronts - Huygens

    construction. Rays. Reflection, refraction. Snell's Law. Diffraction, diffraction gratings. Laue

    and Bragg equations. Diffraction limited resolution. Scattering by atoms. Scattering factors.

    Structure factors. Intensities of reflections. X-ray, neutron and electron diffraction.

    Reciprocal space and the Ewald sphere construction. Powder patterns. Indexing cubic

    diffraction patterns. Production of X-rays. X-ray tubes. X-ray spectrum. Continuous and

    characteristic X-rays. X-ray spectrometers. Filters. Applications of powder diffraction.

    Identification of phases. Thermal effects on diffraction patterns. Effects of disorder.

    Recommended text:

    The Basics of Crystallography and Diffraction, 2nd edition, C Hammond, IVC/OUP

    Some reading:

    An Introduction to Crystallography, F C Phillips, Oliver & Boyd, 30PHI/F.

  • 6

    Crystallography & Crystal Defects, A Kelly & G W Groves, Longman 30KEL/F.

    Structure of Metals, C S Barratt & T B Massalski, Pergamon, 31BAR/1H.

    Elements of X-Ray Diffraction, B D Cullity, Addison-Wesley, 31 CUL/F.

    Fundamentals of Optics, F A Jenkins & H E White, McGraw-Hill, 33JEN/A.

  • 7

    MS1: Structure of Materials Trinity Term

    1st year MS & MEM

    Dr C Nrenberg

    4 lectures

    Metals & Alloys

    1. Structures of the metallic elements: trends across the Periodic Table. Typical metallic

    structures (FCC, BCC, HCP); atomic packing factor, unit cell volume, theoretical

    density. Crystal structures of non-close packed elements. Relationship between

    structure, bonding and properties of pure metals.

    2. Alloy systems: Interstitial and substitutional alloys. Hume-Rothery Rules: size factor,

    electrochemical factor & relative valency factor.

    3. The role of valence electron-to-atom ratios in determining phase stability in alloys

    (electron concentration).

    Classification of intermediate phases in alloy systems: electron compounds; normal

    valency compounds; size factor compounds - interstitial compounds, Laves phases;

    transition metal phases, Sigma phase.

    4. Ordered structures and the order-disorder transition.

    Reading list:

    An Introduction to Metallurgy, chapter 14, Cottrell, Inst. of Materials, 1996, 50COT/3.

    An Introduction to Crystal Chemistry, chapters 5, 7 and 13, Evans, CUP, 30EVA.

    The Structure and Properties of Materials, chapters 1 to 3, Moffatt, Pearsall and Wulff,

    Wiley, 50WUL/Ba.

    The Structure of Metals and Alloys, Parts II to V, Hume Rothery, Smallman and

    Haworth, 50HUM/2.

    Structure of Metals, chapters 10 & 11, Barrett and Massalski, McGraw-Hill, 31BAR/1.

    Additional Reading:

    Modern Physical Metallurgy, Smallman, 50SMA.

  • 8

    MS1: Structure of Materials Trinity Term

    1st year MS & MEM

    Dr C Nrenberg

    4 lectures

    Ceramics & Semiconductors

    1. Basic concepts - definition of ceramics and semiconductors.

    Types of bonding: ionic, covalent, metallic, van der Waals. Dependence of

    interatomic forces on distance. Non-directional bonds: van der Waals, metallic; close

    packing. Directional bonds: the covalent bond, hybrids. Electronegativity, ionic

    bonding, co-ordination. Trends in the periodic table.

    2. Ionic structures. Structures of composition AX (CsCl, NaCl, ZnS). Principles of ionic

    bonding: radius ratio criterion, energy considerations, Madelung constant. Structures

    of composition AX2. Paulings Rules.

    3. Covalent structures. Simple covalent structures (diamond, graphite). Structure of

    non-metallic elements (8 N rule). Molecular crystals. Structures of some ceramics.

    4. Relationship between structure and properties. Thermal, mechanical and electrical

    properties of ceramics and semiconductors. Some applications of ceramics. Structure

    and properties of semiconductors.

    Reading list:

    An Introduction to Crystal Chemistry, R C Evans, CUP, 30EVA.