MARTIN LUTHER & BEYOND The Protestant Reformation

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Political Causes Monarchs challenged the Church for power in Europe (like Henry VIII) Many leaders viewed the pope as a foreign ruler and challenged his authority

Text of MARTIN LUTHER & BEYOND The Protestant Reformation

MARTIN LUTHER & BEYOND The Protestant Reformation Social Causes The values of humanism and secularism led people to question the Church. The printing press helped to spread ideas critical of the Church. Political Causes Monarchs challenged the Church for power in Europe (like Henry VIII) Many leaders viewed the pope as a foreign ruler and challenged his authority Religious Causes Some Church leaders had become worldly and corrupt. Many people found Church practices no longer acceptable Martin Luther ( ) Priest and Professor from Wittenberg, Germany. Grew tired of the Church and its corruption, especially indulgences. Started the Reformation Luthers 95 Theses A list of 95 critiques that he posted on the door of his towns church. Against the selling of indulgences. Thought people were trying to buy there way into heaven and the Church was OK with it. Luthers teachings People could win salvation only by faith. All Church teachings should be based on the words of the Bible. All people with faith were equal. His teachings were written in pamphlets and distributed across Europe. Response to Luther Excommunicated in 1520 by Pope Leo X Holy Roman Emperor Charles V issues the Edict of Worms in 1521 declaring Luther an outlaw. In 1524, German peasants revolt seeking an end to serfdom. Protestant Church Two sacraments Baptism & Eucharist Bible and Sermons in native language Allows people to make their own decisions on Christianity Focus on the individual Elimination of the Pope Catholic Reformation Council of Trent Illegal to sell offices or religious goods Established the seminary to teach priests Bishops cannot reside outside their seat of authority Creation of the Jesuit order, their goal was to: Establish public institutions Convert as many people as possible Be warriors for God Effects of the Reformation Calvinism Predestination Creation of the Church of England by Henry VII Catholic reformation Emphasis on role of education Enlightenment