Manual Handling Materials Mini E Book W&L Philippines

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  • 8/4/2019 Manual Handling Materials Mini E Book W&L Philippines


    Wellness & Lifestyles Australia


    prepared byWellness & Li fest yles Aust ral ia


  • 8/4/2019 Manual Handling Materials Mini E Book W&L Philippines


    Table of Cont ents

    Page No.

    IMPORTANT NOTICE .............................................................................................. 1FOREWORD ........................................................................................................ 2INTRODUCTION: MANUAL HANDLING GUIDELINES ........................................................... 3EMPLOYER AND EMPLOYEE RESPONSIBILITIES ................................................................ 4HAZARD IDENTIFICATION, RISK ASSESSMENT, AND CONTROL .............................................. 5METHODS OF MANUAL HANDLING .............................................................................. 7FUNDAMENTAL MOVEMENTS AND POSITIONS ................................................................. 9MANUAL HANDLING OF MATERIALS .......................................................................... 13CONTACT US .................................................................................................... 15


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    The information provided in this document can only assist you in the most general way. This documentdoes not replace any statutory requirements under relevant State and Territory legislation.

    Wellness & Lifestyles Australia (W&L) accepts no liability arising from the use of or reliance on thematerial contained in this document, which is provided on the basis that the Office of W&L is not therebyengaged in rendering professional advice. Before relying on the material, users should carefully maketheir own assessment as to its accuracy, currency, completeness and relevance for their purposes, andshould obtain any appropriate professional advice relevant to their particular circumstances.

    To the extent that the material in this document includes views or recommendations of third parties, suchviews or recommendations do not necessarily reflect the views of the Office of W&L or indicate itscommitment to a particular course of action.

    Copyri ght Aust ral ia 2009This work is copyright. You may download, display, print and reproduce this material in unaltered formonly (retaining this notice) for your personal, non-commercial use or use within your organisation. Apartfrom any use as permitted under the Copyright Act 1968, all other rights are reserved.

    The Office of Wellness & Lifestyles Australia acknowledges the assistance of all the persons andorganisations who contributed to this document, in particular: Wellness & Lifestyles Australia Manual Handling Procedure Manual National Code of Practice for the Prevention of Musculoskeletal Disorders from Performing Manual

    Tasks at Work (2007) Department of Human Services Implementation Strategies, 1998 Workplace Services: Employment Relations Information Centre Occupational Health Safety & Welfare Act, 1986 & Regulations 1995 Manual Handling WorkCover Manual Handling Guide for Nurses (2006) Workcover NSW Health & Community Services Industry

    Reference Group

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    Wellness & Lifestyles Australia (W&L) is a market leader in the provision of mobile allied health services inAustralia. Its core business is aged-focussed health services. This document has been put together by itsteam of physiotherapists and occupational therapists that specialise in aged care.

    The National OHS Strategy 2002-2012, records a commitment by all Australian, State and TerritoryGovernments, the Australia Chamber of Commerce and Industry and the Australian Council of TradeUnions, to share the responsibility of ensuring that Australias performance in work-related health andsafety is continuously improved.

    The National OHS Strategy sets out five national priorities to achieve short-term and long-termimprovements. The priorities are to: reduce high incidence and high severity risks; improve the capacity of business operators and workers to manage OHS effectively;

    prevent occupational disease more effectively; eliminate hazards at the design stage, and strengthen the capacity of Government to influence OHS outcomes.Performing manual tasks can be hazardous, potentially leading to Musculoskeletal Disorders (MSD).Manual tasks at work resulted in 437,852 compensation claims in Australia between July 1997 and June2003. This is equal to 41.6 percent of all compensation claims for that period, with a direct cost, notcounting indirect impacts (such as the long-term impacts on the quality of life of the injured worker) of$11.965 billion.

    This manual provides practical guidance on how to prevent MSD when dealing with elderly clients or whenworking in aged care facilities.

    All W&L policies and codes of practice are guidance and advisory documents only and theirimplementation is dependent on legislation enacted by State/Territory OHS authorities.

    Compliance with the recommendations in this Code of Practice will not necessarily mean that a person hasfulfilled their obligations under occupational health and safety acts and regulations relevant to them.Persons should contact their State or Territory or Australian Government health and safety authority forinformation on their obligations.

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    Wellness & Lifestyles Australia promotes a work environment where the health and wellbeing of all staffand clients is not compromised by lifting or manually handling. Manual tasks at work encompass a widerange of physical activities, and are defined as anything that requires the use of force for lifting, lowering,pushing, pulling, carrying, holding or restraining any person, animal, or item. This also includes tasks withrepetitive actions, sustained postures and concurrent exposure to vibration.

    All staff members are required to use the mechanical aids and personal protective equipment provided,and to use manual handling techniques as taught, to reduce or minimise the risk of any injury.

    Duty holders (this includes persons with control of a workplace, employers, workers, and also designers,manufacturers, and suppliers) have a responsibility to identify and eliminate the risk of a musculoskeletaldisorder occurring as a result of performing manual tasks at work. A duty holder has an obligation toprotect all people who could be exposed to risk workers, trainees, apprentices, contractors, and work

    experience students.

    Duty holders are thus required to ensure that appropriate mechanical aids are available and used, and tonotify the key responsibility holder of any further requirements. Until such time as the requiredequipment becomes available the duty holders must determine other strategies to deal with and minimisethe risks of injury that may arise as a consequence.

    A risk assessment must be undertaken to determine if a manual handling hazard exists. All identifiedmanual handling risks and interventions must be documented, monitored and reviewed.

    In some circumstances it may be contrary to the situation to use mechanical lifting devices. In thesecircumstances the manual handling may only occur if it does not involve lifting a significant weight,singularly or repetitively, that places the worker at unacceptable risk. The staffing levels must be

    sufficient enough to ensure the safe use of equipment and that the manual handling needs of the clientare met.

    Employees should not lift in any circumstances other than exceptional or life threatening situations. It iseach individuals responsibility to ensure their own health, safety and welfare and to take reasonable careto avoid adversely affecting the health, safety and welfare of any other person.

    ReferencesWellness & Lifestyles Australia Manual Handling Procedure ManualNational Code of Practice for the Prevention of Musculoskeletal Disorders from Performing Manual Tasks at

    Work (2007)Department of Human Services Implementation Strategies, 1998Workplace Services: Employment Relations Information Centre Health Safety & Welfare Act, 1986 & Regulations 1995 Manual Handling http://www.workcover.comManual Handling Guide for Nurses (2006) Workcover NSW Health & Community Services IndustryReference Group

    Nick Heywood-SmithDirectorWellness & Lifestyles Australia

    Updated February 2010

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    Employer responsibilitiesThis organisation will ensure where reasonably practicable that all employees are safe from the risk ofinjury by: Complying with all statutory legislative requirements Requiring that all employees use safe methods of manual handling Implementing the Code of Practice Manual Handling which is a component of the Occupational

    Health, Safety and Welfare Regulations 1986

    Supervisors must assess all manual handling procedures to ensure the safety of the employee. Assessmentof the manual handling task will require: Risk identification Risk assessment Risk controlAn employer must, in respect of each employee employed or engaged by the employer, ensure so far as isreasonably practicable that the employee is, while at work, safe from injury and risks to health and, inparticular must provide: and maintain so far as is reasonably practicable:

    a safe working environment safe systems of work plant and substances in a safe condition

    adequate facilities of a prescribed kind for the welfare of employees at any workplace that is underthe control and management of the employer

    such information, instruction, training and supervision as are reasonably necessary to ensure that eachemployee is safe from injury and risks to health

    Employee responsibilitiesAll employees must know their responsibilities under the Occupational Health, Safety and Welfare Act1986. These are outlined below: An employee must take reasonable care to protect the employee's own health and safety at work An employee must take reasonable care to avoid adversely affecting the health or safety of any other

    person through an act or omission at work An employee must so far as is reasonable:

    use equipment provided for health or safety purposes obey reasonable instruction that the employer may give in relation to health or safety at work comply with any policy that applies at the workplace published or approved by the Minister after

    seeking the advice of the Advisory Committee ensure that the employee is not, by the consumption of alcohol or a drug, in such a state as to

    endanger the employee's own safety at work or the safety of any other person at work

    In determining the standard of care applicable to a worker whose native language is not English and who isnot reasonably fluent in English regard must be had to: whether information relating to occupational health and safety has been reasonably available to the

    worker in a language and form that the worker might reasonably be expected to understand whether instruction or training of the worker (if any) has been carried out in a language and form that

    the worker might reasonably be expected to understand

    All employees are required to be responsible for their own safety. Where the weight and condition of theload to be manually handled is likely to cause strain, loss of balance or risk of injury the employee must

    consult with the supervisor.

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    Hazard identificationHazard identification is achieved by identifying the manual handling tasks likely to be a risk to theemployees health and safety in order that they can be examined and assessed as required by the manualhandling regulations. The purpose of hazard identification is to identify and place in priority order thejobs or tasks which require risk assessment. The risk must then be acted upon as decided bymanagement.

    There are three basic steps to hazard identification:

    Analysis of workplace injury recordsAll incident records will be reviewed to identify the areas where the manual handling injuries haveoccurred and will take into consideration:

    Area of workplace concerned Occupation or task of the injured person Part of the body injured Nature of the injury Type of accidentConsultation with employeesAll employees will be consulted to assist with the identification of manual handling risks that can be foundin the workplace.

    Direct observation

    Regular inspection of the workplace will be conducted by the appropriate persons to assist with theidentification of risk. A checklist may be used to assist with hazard identification.

    Risk assessmentWhen a hazardous activity has been identified the employer will ensure that a manual handlingassessment is conducted in an attempt to remove or modify the risk and reduce the risk of injury.

    When an assessment is conducted the following factors will be evaluated: Actions and movements involved in the manual handling Workplace or work station layout Postures and positions that must be used by the employee when involved in manual handling Duration and frequency of the manual handling Location of the load and the distance of movement required Weights and forces involved in the manual handling Characteristics of the load and equipment that is used in the task Work routines Work environment Skill and experience of the employee Personal characteristics of each person who must carry out the manual handling task Clothing worn by the employee Any other relevant factors

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    Risk controlWhen a manual handling task is assessed as being a risk to employees health and safety, such precautionsas are considered reasonably practicable must be used.

    Risk control will be established by: Eliminating the task to totally remove the hazard Where appropriate the employer will redesign the task to ensure that the risk factors are eliminated

    or controlled Ensure that all employees are trained appropriately in manual handling techniques Ensure that adequate supervision is given to all employees If redesign is not appropriate the employer will:

    Provide mechanical aids Provide personal protective equipment Arrange team movers

    The three stage approach to safe manual handling


    Analysis of workplace injury records Consultation with employees Direct observation


    Actions and movements Workplace and workstation layout Working posture and position Duration and frequency of manual handling Location of loads and equipment Weights and forces Characteristics of loads and equipment Work organisation Work environment Skills and experience Personal characteristics Clothing Other relevant factors

    3. RISK CONTROL Job redesign:

    Modify object Modify workplace layout Rearrange materials flow Different actions, movements, forces Modify task mechanical assistance Modify task team lifting

    Mechanical handling equipment Training:

    General Particular Other administrative controls:

    Special needs Clothing

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    Before starting any handling procedure (lifting, lowering, pushing, pulling, carrying, shovelling, sweeping,mopping), first assess the work situation or size up the load.

    In a familiar handling situation, where all the characteristics of the load, surroundings and handlers areknown, this step will be carried out automatically, but in unfamiliar situations, or where the loads arevariable, a deliberate appraisal should be carried out.

    Safe manual handling is based upon a set of fundamental positions, movements, and principles whichcan then be applied to a variety of situations.

    General principlesThe general principles for most manual handling procedures are: Position the body correctly before commencing the lift maintaining good body alignment (natural

    spinal curves) for ALL tasks regardless of how trivial they appear Use the legs (thigh muscles) to raise or lower the load, to set the load moving, and to provide

    momentum for horizontal movement when pushing or pulling Use body weight together with the above to counter any loss of balance, and to assist with the

    moving of loads Keep the load close to the body as possible When leaning over anything, support upper body weight bracketing on a surface Turn by pivoting/moving your feet and not twisting the trunk When moving people prompt them to assist as much as possible

    BAD! GOOD!

    Key factors

    The following key factors set the patterns for the recommended posture and movements in the handling ofloads.

    Placement of feet

    The feet should be placed comfortably apart, one foot forward and the other foot back, beforecommencing handling procedures, this helps maintain balance

    When lifting, the feet should be placed either around the load or as close to the load as possible.Where neither position can be reached, the load should be moved to a suitable position, clear ofobstruction before lifting or manual or mechanical assistance should be sought

    When lowering a load it should, if possible, be lowered between the feet When forward movement is anticipated, the front foot should be placed beside the load and pointing

    in the direction of movement When moving backwards (e.g. when moving loads from a shelf or bench), one foot should be placed

    backwards to receive the combined weight of load and body. Most of the weight should be on thisfoot before any movement is made

    When the feet are correctly positioned the centre of gravity is within the span of the feet, this positionresults in stability sideways, backwards and forwards. All handling movements should be carried outsmoothly and rhythmically. Having the legs apart during lifting does not increase risk of hernia

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    Bent knees straight back

    The knees should be bent before the hands are lowered to lift or set down loads. When a load istaken from a shelf or received from another person, conveyor or chute, the knees should be bent so

    that the force of the load can be absorbed When a load is lifted from the ground, the knees should preferably not be bent beyond a right angle.If the knee is bent acutely, the mechanical efficiency of the leg muscle is lessened. Bending of kneesis greatest when the load is being taken up from the floor. When the load is on the floor, loads shouldbe limited, with certain loads, group lifting may be necessary

    In a typical lifting posture with the knees and hips bent, the lumbar spinal curve is flattened, resultingin the straight back but not necessarily in a vertical back

    When only one hand can be used in lifting, overloading the back muscles can be reduced by placingthe other hand on the knee or against a firm support. Lifting and carrying of heavy loads with onehand should be avoided

    Arms close to the body correct grip

    The arms if possible should hang between the thighs when lifting or lowering loads. The load shouldbe carried close to the body with elbows by the sides. Wide loads may be handled obliquely, orvertically, provided that the load does not obscure the vision of the handler. If the load obscuresvision, an assistant is required to help carry the load, or mechanical handling should be employed

    Loads should not be held out from the body when they are being raised, lowered or supported In manual handling the arms should act as links not sources of power. Muscles of the legs and buttocks

    not arm muscles are used to move the load In lifting, the hand on the same side of the body as the forward foot, should grasp the side of the load

    furthest from the body. The other should grasp the opposite side of the load When carrying, the hand supporting the far side of the load should clasp the load to the body. In

    some cases it may be necessary to have both hands underneath to support the load In all handling procedures a grasp should be used to keep control of the load. The load should be

    grasped with the whole length of the fingers and part of the palm of the hand, not just the fingertips

    In continuous carrying of light loads by only one hand, the hand being used should be alternatedHead erect

    Raising the head at the commencement of lifting automatically assists in keeping a straight backduring the lift. The straight back is necessary to ensure that uniform pressure is applied to discsbetween the spinal bones

    Turning the head may cause the spinal column to rotate and should be avoided during handlingprocedures when a change in direction of movement is required, or if it is necessary to look around,the body should be turned by pivoting on the feet

    Use of body mass

    Body mass used as a source of momentum acts with the muscles to set loads in motion and to propelmoving loads. When setting loads in motion, jerky actions should be avoided by applying force slowlyto the load through shoulders, arms and hands

    Body mass is also used as a counter balance in handling procedures

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    Semi-squat lift/bench positionThe semi-squat lift is the preferred technique for the manual handling of materials because it: Minimises strain on spinal discs and other body areas Is adaptable for a variety of activities and situationsOther techniques can put enormous strain on the lower spine or knees and may not be adaptable.

    Preparation for the semi-squat technique involves: Bringing the chin in Pulling the shoulder blades together Lifting the breast bone by adjusting vision to a point in front Dynamic abdominal bracing (pulling umbilicus towards spine helps to maintain the natural lumbar

    curve and reduce strain)

    Poking the bottom out Bending the knees Having the feet shoulder width apartLifting well using this technique involves: Keeping the load close to the body Bending the knees Using a firm grip Placing the body over the load Bracing the spine using dynamic abdominal bracing Keeping the load as close to the body as possible Lifting and lowering using the legs

    If straining occurs and the load is not comfortable, use a 2 person lift, i.e. assess the load before the lift

    USE: lifting and lowering

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    Lunge Feet flat, pointing forward Weight through rear leg Maintain natural spinal curves Brace arms against body Smoothly transfer body weight forwardUSE: pushing and pulling (eg trolley)

    Sideways lunge Feet slightly wider than shoulder width Weight through one side Maintain natural spinal curves Brace if possible Transfer weight to the other legUSE: sliding

    If you havent moved the object far enough, ensure you do not follow-through by using arms/twistingtrunk reposition feet, and perform again!

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    Knights position Place one knee on floor Maintain natural spinal curves Keep toes-up position Rest on soft surface if availableUSE: working at low levels

    Counterbalance Ensure area behind is free of obstacles Firm grip In bench/semi-squat position Move COG/bodyweight backwards Maintain natural spinal curvesUSE: pre-tension/initiate movement

    Anticipate need for step response!

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    Pivot Feet shoulder width apart Load close to body Brace if possible Pivot on ball of foot Maintain natural spinal curves Avoids trunk rotation under loadUSE: turning in confined areas

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    Manual handling of materials includes the movement or storage of anything that is handled on the job.Materials handling can be very hazardous and every year can cause many disabling injuries. These injuriescan be prevented if you: Stay alert Be safety conscious Handle the materials appropriatelyShovelling, sweeping, mopping

    The selection of the correct shovel, mop or broom for a specific purpose is fundamental Where material is being handled by a shovel in a confined space, or where granular material is being

    placed in a hopper, a short shovel may be preferred Where materials are being transferred to other than a specific area, the long handled shovel may be

    found to be ideal In any case it is essential that the length of the handle of the shovel, mop or broom is adequate for itspurpose. As a general rule, the longer the lever, the less the force required to move

    Pallet handling

    Always use a pallet jack or forklift when available Place the front foot by the side of the pallet, rear foot close behind the pallet. Bend knees but not

    beyond a right angle Grasp pallet in corner using gloves on hands. Lift pallet up and forward onto front edge by

    straightening knees and advancing rear foot

    Team lifting Assess and discuss the lift with a partner Use clear commands when performing any manoeuvre Wear gloves when handling rough loads Using clear commands, with both hands under the load, lift on signal by straightening legs Use clear commands during the procedure and for setting down the load

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    Principles for all procedures Keep back firm and straight Brace low abdominal muscles Knees bent and feet apart Maintain good balance Firm forehand grasp Lift by using the power in the thigh and bottom muscles Lift the load as close to the body as possible Allow the patient to assist as much as possible to minimise the lift needed. If they can do it, you

    assist less and therefore lessen risk of injury The height of the staff must be considered for all procedures. If there is a large difference, the taller

    carer must get into a wide lunge position to be level with the other carer for 2 person assisttechniques

    Evaluation of all manual handling procedures

    At the completion of each transfer or lift, staff shall evaluate the technique used and identify anddocument changes as necessary.

    Review the performance of the technique and identify: Any problems encountered Causes of any problems Possible solutions Determine the most appropriate alternative technique for the patient Report any changes that may be required on the Manual Handling Assessment by communicating with

    the Physiotherapist via referral or using the physiotherapy diary

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