Managing your co‐creation mix: co‐creation ventures in distinctive contexts

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  • European Business ReviewManaging your cocreation mix: cocreation ventures in distinctive contextsThorsten Roser Robert DeFillippi Alain Samson

    Article information:To cite this document:Thorsten Roser Robert DeFillippi Alain Samson, (2013),"Managing your co#creation mix: co#creationventures in distinctive contexts", European Business Review, Vol. 25 Iss 1 pp. 20 - 41Permanent link to this document:http://dx.doi.org/10.1108/09555341311287727

    Downloaded on: 23 November 2014, At: 13:48 (PT)References: this document contains references to 60 other documents.To copy this document: permissions@emeraldinsight.comThe fulltext of this document has been downloaded 1316 times since 2013*

    Users who downloaded this article also downloaded:Hannu Saarijrvi, P.K. Kannan, Hannu Kuusela, (2013),"Value co#creation: theoretical approaches andpractical implications", European Business Review, Vol. 25 Iss 1 pp. 6-19Nicholas Ind, Nick Coates, (2013),"The meanings of co#creation", European Business Review, Vol. 25 Iss 1pp. 86-95Robert Randall and Brian Leavy, Francis J. Gouillart, (2014),"The race to implement co-creation of valuewith stakeholders: five approaches to competitive advantage", Strategy & Leadership, Vol. 42 Iss 1 pp.2-8 http://dx.doi.org/10.1108/SL-09-2013-0071

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  • Managing your co-creation mix:co-creation ventures in distinctive

    contextsThorsten Roser

    Department of Social Psychology,London School of Economics and Political Science (LSE), London, UK

    Robert DeFillippiDepartment of Strategy and International Business,Suffolk University, Boston, Massachusetts, USA, and

    Alain SamsonDepartment of Management,

    London School of Economics and Political Science (LSE), London, UK

    Abstract

    Purpose The purpose of this paper is to make a contribution to co-creation theory by integratingconceptual insights from the management and marketing literatures that are both concerned withco-creation phenomena. It aims to develop a reference model for comparing how differentorganizations organize and manage their co-creation ventures. It also aims to apply the authorsframework to four distinct cases that illustrate the differences in co-creation practice within differentco-creation environments.

    Design/methodology/approach The authors compare four different companies based on caseprofiles. Each company is employing its own distinct approach to co-creating. The authors employ amethod mix including literature analysis, structured interviews, document and web site analysis, aswell as participation.

    Findings The reference model offers a set of useful dimensions for case-based inquiry. The casecomparisons show how firms may decide to systematise and manage a mix of co-creation activitieswithin B2B versus B2C contexts, utilising either crowd-sourced or non-crowd-sourced approaches.Further, the case comparisons suggest that there are less differences in B2B versus B2C co-creation ascompared with crowd-sourced versus non-crowd-sourced approaches. Ultimately, implementationdecisions in one dimension of co-creation design (e.g. whom to involve in co-creation) will affect otherdimensions of implementation and governance (e.g. how much intimacy) and thus how co-creationneeds to be managed.

    Originality/value The paper presents case comparisons utilising B2B versus B2C, as well ascrowd versus non-crowd-sourcing examples of co-creation and an original decision support frameworkfor assessing and comparing co-creation choices.

    Keywords Decision support systems, Business performance, Value chain, Managing co-creation,Decision support framework, Contrasting case studies

    Paper type Conceptual paper

    The current issue and full text archive of this journal is available at

    www.emeraldinsight.com/0955-534X.htm

    The authors acknowledge the permission of Xerox Corporation to utilize insights into Xeroxsco-creation practices derived from interviews with Xerox executives as part of a case studyconducted by one of the authors.

    EBR25,1

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    European Business ReviewVol. 25 No. 1, 2013pp. 20-41q Emerald Group Publishing Limited0955-534XDOI 10.1108/09555341311287727

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  • 1. IntroductionBusinesses in todays economy have to continuously reinvent themselves in order toadapt to complex and dynamic market realities. With greater interconnectedness andinterdependence of actors involved in the marketplace, value creation increasinglytakes place through networks and becomes less dependent on a firms (intended) valueproposition alone (Prahalad and Ramaswamy, 2004). As customers are demandinggreater levels of personalisation in their consumption experience (Prahalad andRamaswamy, 2000), firms have to re-assess their business model in order to becomemore responsive to consumer needs and demands (Sheth et al., 2000). Although the firmis no longer taking centre stage in all value creation, it is a catalyst through whichvalue creation can be enabled, shaped and accelerated (Sawhney et al., 2005).

    Co-creation is advocated as a means to expand the innovation and value creationcapability of the firm, while nurturing customer relationships and lowering cost formarketing and research and development (R&D) (Sawhney et al., 2005; Prandelli et al.,2006; von Stamm, 2004). The benefits of co-creating value include better productquality (Fuller et al., 2007), greater customer satisfaction (Nambisan and Baron, 2007),as well as reduced risk for the firm (Maklan et al., 2008), specifically in relation to themarket entry of a new product or service.

    Increased inter-connectivity with co-creators allows firms to generate and leveragea range of benefits which seem to cut both ways. While customers and other co-creatorsbenefit from greater personalisation and value as a result of co-creation processes,companies can build competitive advantage by turning just-in-time knowledgefrom co-creators into just-in-time learning for their organisation (Roser et al., 2009b).

    As a consequence, more and more companies adopt strategies that allow them toco-create value with a range of stakeholders, including customers, in order to developfuture products and enhanced business models that improve an organisationscompetitiveness and brand perception (Prahalad and Ramaswamy, 2004). There is,however, no one-size-fits-all approach to co-creation (Kohlbacher and Mukai, 2007) andorganisations need to decide on how they will implement and manage their specificco-creation activities. The question for most organisations is thus not whether theyshould co-create, but how they can best involve co-creators, as well as which availableapproaches and tools to use to govern their relationships.

    Firms benefit from engaging in a range of co-creation activities across the valuechain, involving various touch-points and domains, rather than just one way ofco-creating value with a particular type of co-creator (Ramaswamy, 2009). In thispaper, we want to learn from a comparison of different approaches to co-creation andco-creator involvement across distinct business contexts that can help organisationsimplement and govern their unique mix of co-creation activities. More specifically, weare interested in business-to-business (B2B) versus business-to-consumer (B2C)co-creation, as well as examples leveraging crowd-sourced versus non-crowd-sourcedapproaches as these represent intrinsically different forms of co-creator engagement(Howe, 2006; Whitla, 2009).

    Our work aims to show a range of distinct co-creation possibilities available todecision makers. The contexts we explore are indicative of the choices organisationsmay face when involving co-creators into the value chain. In addition, we want to learnfrom noteworthy differences when involving external stakeholders into a firmsinnovation process. In doing so, we contribute to current debates on the concept

    Managing yourco-creation mix

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  • of co-creation and how to manage co-creator involvement. More sp