LPN 240 - BIOETHICSProf. Jan-Michael T. Moscoso, RN, USRN, CMTFaculty-in-Charge
BioethicsIs a living study of the conduct of human lifeIt is a relatively new disciplineThe term was originally coined in America by Van Reusselaer Potter, a cancer researcherIts essence is derived from morality principles and ethics
The basis for our moral conduct primarily comes from our origin. This includes:
family and traditions customs, beliefs, practices society and environment time, season or epoch we live in
Ethics came from the Greek Ethos (characteristic way of acting) and from the Latin Mos, morrs (way of acting)It is a generic term for various ways of understanding and examining the moral life of a person (Beauchamp and Childress, 1994)
Approaches to Ethics: Normative actions are based on standards of society and acts are judged by standards of what is accepted as right or good. Descriptive what people believe and how they act are phenomenologically described Analytic people analyze the concepts and methods of ethics in the light of what they observe, believe and practice
Ethics studies of human acts or conduct from a moral perspective as to whether they are good or they are bad.
Customs are acts approved by a group or society.
Etiquette social observance required by good breeding.
Parts of Ethics:
1. General Ethics deals with the basic principles which are the morality of human acts.
2. Social Ethics tackles the basic principles in the life of man as a member of the society.
Objectives of Ethics:
To make clear to us why one act is better than another.To live an orderly social life.To appraise and criticize intelligently the moral conduct and ethical systemTo seek the true value of life
Development of Bioethics
There are five waves of development in the field of bioethics, each belonging to a certain time and with a certain theme. This presentation leans heavily on Judeo-Christian tradition, although there are, of course, many other belief systems to be considered.
Wave no.Significant figuesBioethical principles and epochICreationJusticeHammurabbiJusticeMosesJusticeIIHippocratesPaternalismIIINew Testament: Jesus ChristAutonomyIVMedia, Research, Economics, PluralismCompassion and VeracityVPoverty, super-rich, migrantsSharing and allocation of resources
Justice- In the Bible, the principle of justice was the main conduct of life. When Adam and Eve succumbed to pride by disobeying Gods command, man began to feel the pang of pain in life. Justice was defined. If you disobey, you deserve a corresponding action. What is shown here is that we get what we merit. Justice, then demands that we give what is due and we get what we merit for our conduct in life
This principle of justice was also emphasized in the Hammurabbi.
During their fights for land and resources, whoever won the battle will get all the oxen, women, children and belongings of the losing party. If you win, you get all; if you lose, you have nothing.
Another significant event that defined this principle was when Moses came down from the mountain of Yahweh. He brought back two tablets containing the Ten Commandments. Those who lived by these commandments enjoyed prosperity and peaceful living. Those who did not, suffered all sorts of malediction.
Justice is giving everyone his due. If you are good, you get rewarded, if you are bad, you get punished.
In contemporary times, the principle of justice applies to everyone. In court trials, those who are guilty are punished, those who have not committed crimes are set free
In healthcare however, the principle of justice implies that we give each one his/her due. If an individual needs care, he/she has the right to be cared for because care is his/her due. No one therefore has the right to refuse health care to someone who is in need. This is emphasized in times of emergency regardless of the individuals capacity to pay. As health care professionals, our first duty is to save lives.
The client / patient has the right to receive care
The health care professional has the obligation to give that person the needed care
The principle of justice also applies to the working condition of nurses. In health care, appeals to justice or fairness rule out certain profitable practices, such as the exploitation of nurses through unpaid overtime, and overcharging the govt for services w/c are not done. There is a need to know what is fair and just but there is also a corresponding obligation to render quality service.
Hippocrates set the stage for paternalism. We see this concretely in family physicians who are often seen as the supreme health authority of the familys health. The physicians orders are often obeyed at all cost because of the paternalistic philosophy. The physicians orders are often obeyed at all cost, no questions asked.
Paternalism is good if this takes a parental model of benevolent intervention, one that likens the state to a protective parent caring for one incompetent minor. However, paternalistic acts typically involve force or coercion, deception, lying, manipulation, non disclosure of information. A paternalistic action necessarily places a limit on autonomous choice.
With the New Testament, the principle of Autonomy was born. Jesus Christ showed through His teachings the primacy of mans freedom to make choices and decisions. He never forced any of his disciples to follow His ways but He always prefaced with If you wish to become one of my disciples, then come and follow me
The word autonomy comes from the Greek word autos meaning self and the word nomos meaning rule, governance, or law.
With autonomy, patients now have the choice and freedom to seek other opinions to validate or enhance what the physician advised them to do. Autonomy has given us the freedom to grow and develop towards maturity and responsibility.
Compassion and Veracity
This was made possible through the widespread development of media avenues: print, visual and audio. Immediate dissemination of information moves the world to empathy, thus compassion is practiced.
For communication to be credible, it must contain three elements:Logia substantial views of world truthPathos which means an element of empathy, ability to put oneself in a true situationEthos which means morally correct and true to the event.These 3 elements comprises the principle of veracity.
Sharing and allocation of resources
The increasing number of Filipinos living below the poverty line, and the existence of a very small percentage living in the super rich income bracket, evokes this practice. It is lamentable to see individuals die because of inability to buy needed medicine. On the other hand, we see the rich waste money on vices and unnecessary leisure activities.
Ive seen five individuals fight over the use of only one available pacemaker. With such scarce resources and with so many individuals needing help, what guidelines should we follow to answer everyones needs?- Govt policies need to give importance to the poor: more should be shared with them so that they can live decent lives.
Get a sheet crosswise and answer the following:Give examples that show:How the principle of justice applies to the nursing profession.How the principle of veracity is practiced in nursing care.How do Filipino migrant overseas workers illustrate the principle of sharing and allocation of resources?