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Survey of  brominated flame retardants Part of the LOUS-review  Version of Publ ic Hearing October 20!

LOUS 2013 Hoering Brominated Flame Retardants

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    Survey ofbrominated flameretardantsPart of the LOUS-review

    Version of Public Hearing

    October 20!

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    2 brominated flame retardants

    Title:

    brominated flame retardants

    Authors:

    "arsten Lassen

    #llan #stru$ %ensen 2

    &i'e "roo'es !

    (rans "hristensen

    "hristian )yander %e$$esen

    #nna %uliane "lausen Son*a Hagen &i''elsen

    Published by:

    +he ,anish nvironmental Protection #gency

    Strandgade 2.

    /0 "o$enhagen

    ,enmar'

    www1mst1d'english

    "O34 #S5 ,enmar'2)4PS"+5 ,enmar'! 6uilding 7esearch stablishment 86795 U11

    Year:

    20!

    ISBN no.

    :;;;;;;?

    !1!12 #$$lications of 6(7s 111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111 >@

    !1!1! "onsum$tion of 6(7s in ,enmar' 1111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111 .0

    !1/ Historical trends in use 11111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111 .A

    !1? Summary and conclusions 111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111 .>

    ). -aste mana#ement ......................................................................................... $$

    /1 3aste from manufacture and industrial use of brominated flame retardants 1111111111111111 0

    /12 3aste $roducts from the use of brominated flame retardants in mi;tures and

    articles 111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111 0

    /121 Standards for treatment of $lastics containing 6(7s 1111111111111111111111111111111111111111 0!

    /1212 Uncontrolled final dis$osal of 3 1111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111 0/

    /121! POPs 6(7s in waste in the U and ,enmar' 1111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111 0/

    /1 7ecycling 11111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111 0>

    /12 7elease of brominated flame retardants and degradation $roducts from waste

    dis$osal 11111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111 0>

    /121 &unici$al solid waste incineration and uncontrolled combustion 1111111111111111111 0>

    /1212 6(7s emission from landfills 111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111 0/121! 6(7s in sewage sludge 11111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111 0

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    / brominated flame retardants

    /1! Summary and conclusions 11111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111 /

    /. 0n1ironmental ha2ards and e3%osure .............................................................. $$,

    ?1 nvironmental haBard 11111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111 A

    ?11 "lassification 11111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111 A

    ?112 P6,s 1111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111 >

    ?11! H6",, 11111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111 .

    ?11/ +66P# and derivatives 1111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111 2

    ?11? ,6,P and 6+6P4 111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111 22

    ?11A Other 6(7s 11111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111 2/

    ?12 nvironmental fate 1111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111 2/

    ?121 P6,s 1111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111 2/

    ?1212 H6",, 11111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111 2A

    ?121! +66P# 111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111 2A

    ?121/ ,6,P and 6+6P4 111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111 2.

    ?121? Other 6(7s 1111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111 !0

    ?1! nvironmental e;$osure 1111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111 !?

    ?1!1 Sources of release 1111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111 !?

    ?1!12 &onitoring data 111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111 [email protected]?1/ nvironmental im$act 11111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111/@

    ?1? Summary and conclusions 11111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111 ?

    ,. 4uman health effects and e3%osure ................................................................ $/)

    A1 Human health haBard 111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111 ?/

    A11 "lassification 11111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111 ?/

    A112 P6,s 8with focus on deca6,9 1111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111 ?/

    A11! H6",, 11111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111 [email protected]

    A11/ +66P# and derivatives 111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111 A0

    A11? ,6,P and 6+6P4 111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111 A2

    A11A Other brominated flame retardants 11111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111 A!

    A11> "ombination effects 111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111 A.A12 Human e;$osure 11111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111 A.

    A121 ,irect e;$osure 1111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111 A.

    A1212 4ndirect e;$osure 1111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111 >

    A1! 6io-monitoring data 11111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111 >@

    A1!1 6lood serum and adi$ose tissue 11111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111 >@

    A1!12 Human mil' 111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111 >.

    A1!1! Hair 1111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111 @0

    A1/ Human health im$act 111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111 @

    A1? Summary and conclusions 11111111111111111111111111111111111[email protected]/

    7. Information on alternati1es ............................................................................ $55

    >1 4dentification of $ossible alternatives 1111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111 @@>11 ,eca6, 11111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111[email protected].

    >112 H6",, 11111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111 ..

    >11! +66P# and derivatives 1111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111 22

    >11/ #lternatives to 6(7s in te;tiles 1111111111111[email protected]

    >11? #lternatives to other 6(7s 11111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111 2.

    >12 Historical and future trends 11111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111 2.

    >1! Summary and conclusions 1111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111 220

    5. 61erall findin#s and conclusions .................................................................... &&&

    @1 &ain findings 111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111 222

    @12 ,ata ga$s 1111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111 22?

    . Abbre1iations and acronyms .......................................................................... &&5

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    brominated flame retardants ?

    'eferences ............................................................................................................ &*&

    #$$endi; C 6ac'ground information to cha$ter 2 on legal framewor' 1111111111111111 2/@

    #$$endi; 2C Physical and chemical $ro$erties 11111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111 2?/

    #$$endi; !C 6(7s mar'eted by ma*or manufacturers 11111111111111111111111111111111111111111111 2A?

    #$$endi; /C Substance flow diagram for deca6, and H6",, 11111111111111111111111111111 2>

    #$$endi; ?C Su$$lemental data on the a$$lications of the 6(7s 111111111111111111111111111 2>!

    #$$endi; AC Self classification of selected brominated flame retardants [email protected]

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    A brominated flame retardants

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    brominated flame retardants >

    Preface

    Bac"#round and obecti1es

    +he ,anish nvironmental Protection #gencyDs List of Undesirable Substances 8LOUS9 is intended

    as a guide for enter$rises1 4t indicates substances of concern whose use should be reduced or elimi-

    nated com$letely1 +he first list was $ublished in [email protected] and u$dated versions have been $ublished in

    20005 200/ and 200.1 +he latest version5 LOUS 200. 8,anish P#5 209 includes /0 chemical

    substances and grou$s of substances which have been documented as dangerous or which have

    been identified as $roblematic using com$uter models1 (or inclusion in the list5 substances must

    fulfil several s$ecific criteria1 6esides the ris' of leading to serious and long-term adverse effects on

    health or the environment5 only substances which are used in an industrial conte;t in large =uanti-

    ties in ,enmar'5 i1e1 over 00 tonnes $er year5 are included in the list1

    Over the $eriod 202-20? all /0 substances and substance grou$s on the LOUS will be surveyed1

    +he surveys include collection of available information on the use and occurrence of the substances5

    internationally and in ,enmar'5 as well as information on environmental and health effects5 alter-

    natives to the substances5 e;isting regulations5 monitoring and e;$osure5 and on-going activities

    under 7#"H5 among others1

    On the basis of the surveys5 the ,anish P# will assess the need for any further information5 regula-

    tion5 substitution$hase out5 classification and labelling5 im$roved waste management or increased

    dissemination of information1

    +his survey concerns certain brominated flame retardants1 +hese substances were included in the

    first LOUS in [email protected] and have remained on the list since that time1

    +he entry in LOUS for these substances is E"ertain brominated flame retardants E with three e;am-

    $les from the grou$C ,ecabromdi$henyl ether 8deca6,95 additive use of tetrabromobis$henol #

    8+66P#9 and he;abromocyclododecane 8H6",,91

    +he main reason for the inclusion in LOUS is that FCertain brominated flame retardants are either

    persistent or can be degraded to persistent compounds, bioaccumulative or toxic.

    +he main ob*ective of this study is5 as mentioned5 to $rovide bac'ground for the ,anish P#Ds con-

    sideration regarding the need for further ris' management measures1

    The %rocess

    +he survey has been underta'en by "O34 #S 8,enmar'9 in coo$eration with )4PS"+ 8,enmar'9

    and 6uilding 7esearch stablishment 8U119 from &arch to October 20!1 +he wor' has been fol-

    lowed by an advisory grou$ consisting ofC

    &i''el #aman SGrensen5 ,anish P#5 "hemicals

    ,orte 6*erregaard Lerche5 ,anish P#5 "hemicals

    atrine Smidt5 &il*Gstyrelsen5 Soil and 3aste

    Lulu rger5 ,anish Veterinary and (ood #dministration

    Hilde 6alling5 ,anish Health and &edicines #uthority

    Helle (abiansen5 +he ,anish Plastics (ederation Lone &i''elsen5 +he cological "ouncil

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    @ brominated flame retardants

    %ette 6*erre Hansen5 ,anish "om$etence "entre on 3aste5 ,#O(#

    "arsten Lassen5 "O34 #S

    #llan #stru$ %ensen5 )4PS"+

    Data collection

    +he survey and review is based on the available literature on the substances5 information from da-

    tabases and direct in=uiries to trade organisations and 'ey mar'et actors1

    +he literature search included the following data sourcesC

    Legislation in force from 7etsinformation 8,anish legal information database9 and U7-Le;

    8U legislation database9I

    Ongoing regulatory activities under 7#"H and intentions listed on "H#Ds website 8incl1

    7egistry of 4ntentions and "ommunity 7olling #ction Plan9I

    7elevant documents regarding 4nternational agreements from HL"O&5 OSP#75 the Stoc'-

    holm "onvention5 the P4" "onvention5 and the 6asel "onventionI

    ,ata on harmonised classification 8"LP9 and self-classification from the "JL inventory data-

    base on "H#s websiteI

    ,ata on ecolabels from the ,anish ecolabel secretariat 8)ordic Swan and U (lower9I

    Pre-registered and registered substances from "H#Ds websiteI

    Production and e;ternal trade statistics from urostatDs databases 8Prodcom and "ome;t9I

    ;$ort of dangerous substances from the de;im databaseI

    ,ata on $roduction5 im$ort and e;$ort of substances in mi;tures from the ,anish Product

    7egister 8confidential data5 not searched via the 4nternet9I

    ,ate on $roduction5 im$ort and e;$ort of substances from the )ordic Product 7egisters as

    registered in the SP4) databaseI

    4nformation from "irca on ris' management o$tions 8confidential5 for internal use only5 not

    searched via the 4nternet9I

    &onitoring data from the )ational "entre for nvironment and nergy 8,"95 the Keological

    Survey for ,enmar' and Kreenland 8KUS95 the ,anish Veterinary and (ood #dministration5and the uro$ean (ood Safety #uthority 8(S#9I

    3aste statistics from the ,anish P#I

    "hemical information from the 4"4S databaseI

    7e$orts5 memorandums5 etc1 from the ,anish P# and other authorities in ,enmar'I

    7e$orts $ublished at the websites ofC

    +he )ordic "ouncil of &inisters5 "H#5 the U "ommission5 O",5 4#7"5 4P"S5 3HO5

    OSP#75 HL"O&5 and the 6asel "onventionI

    nvironmental authorities in )orway 8lif95 Sweden 8em4 and )aturvrsver'et95 Kerma-

    ny 8U6#95 U 8,(7# and nvironment #gency95 the )etherlands 8V7O&5 74V&95 #us-

    tria 8U6#91 4nformation from other U &ember States was retrieved if =uoted in identified

    literatureI US P#5 #gency for +o;ic Substances and ,isease 7egistry 8US#9 and nvironment "ana-

    daI

    Pub&ed and +o;net databases for identification of relevant scientific literature1

    ,irect en=uiries were also sent to ,anish and uro$ean trade organisations and a few 'ey mar'et

    actors in ,enmar'1

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    brominated flame retardants .

    Conclusion and summary

    Over the $eriod 202-20?5 all /0 substances and substance grou$s on the ,anish nvironmental

    Protection #gencyDs List of Undesirable Substances 8LOUS9 will be sub*ect to survey and review1 On

    the basis of the results5 the ,anish P# will assess the need for any further regulationC substitu-

    tion$hase out5 classification and labelling5 im$roved waste management or increased dissemina-

    tion of information1

    +his survey concerns brominated flame retardants 86(7s91 +he brominated flame retardants were

    included in the first list in LOUS in [email protected] and have remained on the list since that time1 +he entry in

    LOUS for the brominated flame retardants is Ecertain brominated flame retardantsE with three

    e;am$les from the grou$C ,ecabromdi$henyl ether 8deca6,95 additive use of tetrabromo-

    bis$henol # 8+66P#9 and he;abromocyclododecane 8H6",,91 4t is not further s$ecified whichother brominated flame retardants are considered to be included1 +his survey addresses to some

    e;tent all brominated flame retardants5 but focuses in some cha$ters on the three main brominated

    flame retardantsC deca6,5 +66P# and H6",,5 as well as two of the main brominated alternatives

    to deca6,5 decabromodi$henyl ethane 8,6,P9 and ethylenebis8tetrabromo$hthalimide9

    86+6P491 #s a conse=uence5 this summary contains sections for each of the focus substances as

    well as sections addressing all brominated flame retardants1

    The substance #rou%

    (lame retardants are added to $olymeric materials5 both natural and synthetic5 to enhance the

    flame-retardancy $ro$erties of the $olymers1 (ire safety regulations are to a large e;tent the driver

    for the use of flame retardants1 (ire safety regulations in general do not include any s$ecific re-

    =uirements for the use of brominated flame retardants or other flame retardants1 +he regulations

    ty$ically define some fire tests which the materials5 articles or building com$onents should $ass5

    but it is u$ to the manufacturer or the builder to decide how the re=uirements are to be met1

    6rominated flame retardants have in common that they contain bromine and are used to $revent

    the ignition of $lastic materials and te;tiles1 +hey all act by the same mechanismC through the re-

    lease of hydrogen bromine during when the material is ignited which interru$ts the further com-

    bustion $rocess1 Otherwise5 the brominated flame retardants form a com$le; grou$ of substancesC

    aromatic5 cycloali$hatic5 ali$hatic5 $olymeric and inorganic substances5 all containing bromine1

    Some of the substances are used as additives5 where the substances are not chemically bound in the

    $olymer material5 while others are used as reactive substances build into the $olymer structure and

    not $resent as the original substance in the final $olymer 8e;ce$t for trace amounts of un-reactedsubstances91 +his survey has identified A. brominated flame retardants which have been $re-

    registered under 7#"H andor are $roduced by the ma*or international manufacturers of bromin-

    ated flame retardants1 (urthermore5 / substances described in the literature5 but not $re-

    registered or mar'eted by the ma*or manufactures5 are e;amined in the survey1

    Production and use of brominated flame retardants

    8lobal- +he total global $roduction of brominated flame retardants increased from ?05000 ty in

    ../ to a$$ro;imately !A05000 ty in 201 +he increase in $roduction and consum$tion has $ri-

    marily been in #sia1 On a global scale5 the brominated flame retardants account for a$$ro;imately

    20M of the consum$tion of flame retardants1 Historically5 the P6,s and +66P# 8and its deriva-

    tives9 have been the main brominated flame retardants5 accounting for nearly 2! of the global

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    0 brominated flame retardants

    $roduction in ../1 Klobally5 the ma*ority of the brominated flame retardants are manufactured by

    four ma*or manufacturers5 and the substances are manufactured in the U at one site only1

    # detailed brea'down by substance and a$$lication area is not available1 +he ma*or use area is

    electrical and electronic e=ui$ment5 where the brominated flame retardants are also the dominating

    flame retardants1 Other a$$lication areas include wiring and $ower distributionI te;tiles5 car$ets

    and furnitureI building materialsI means of trans$ortation 8vehicles5 trains5 air$lanes5 shi$s5 etc195and $aints and fillers1

    09 - 4n the U5 detailed data are available for three of the main brominated flame retardantsC

    deca6,5 H6",, and +66P#5 together accounting for a$$ro;imately /0M of the total consum$-

    tion1 (or other brominated flame retardants5 data on the total $roduction in and im$ort to the U

    are available in tonnage bands 8e1g1 00-5000 ty9 from the registration database from "H#s

    website for brominated flame retardants for which the total im$ort and $roduction in 20! was

    above 00 ty1 (or $olymeric brominated flame retardants no registration data are available1 +he

    consum$tion volumes are described further in the following sections1

    Denmar" # com$rehensive inventory of the use of brominated flame retardants in ,enmar' was

    carried out in ...1 6rominated flame retardants in im$orted articles and mi;tures accounted for

    a$$ro;imately .0M of the total content of brominated flame retardants in end-$roducts $laced on

    the mar'et in ,enmar' in ...1 Of the total turnover of !!0-AA0 tonnes of brominated flame re-

    tardants in end-$roducts5 more than >0M was in electrical and electronic e=ui$ment1 +his is li'ely

    still the situation1 +he brominated flame retardants in articles on the ,anish mar'et are more a

    reflection of the general use $atterns in the U and globally rather than of the use $attern in ,anish

    industry1 # full u$date of the ... inventory has been beyond the framewor' of this survey1

    4n ,anish industry5 the main a$$lication of brominated flame retardants in ... and 202 was

    reactive brominated $olyols used for $roduction of flame-retarded $olyurethane foams for building

    insulation1

    'e#ulatory focus

    +he regulatory focus in the U and ,enmar' has so far been on the two substance grou$s $olybro-

    minated di$enylethers 8P6,s9 and $olybrominated bi$henyls 8P66s95 while H6",, has only very

    recently become sub*ect to authorisation under 7#"H and listed under the Stoc'holm "onvention

    on Persistent Organic Pollutants 8POPs91 +he legislation is further described for each substance

    grou$ below1 One legal instrument at the U level addresses the brominated flame retardants as a

    grou$C +he 3 ,irective on waste electrical and electronic e=ui$ment 839 re=uires selective

    treatment and $ro$er dis$osal for materials and com$onents of 3 with brominated flame re-

    tardants1 (urthermore5 )ordic ecolabelling criteria for some $roduct grou$s address all brominated

    flame retardants in common5 while the )ordic and U ecolabelling criteria for many $roducts focus

    on s$ecific brominated flame retardants or brominated flame retardants assigned s$ecific ris'-$hrases1

    PBD0s and PBBs

    'e#ulatory frame(or" +he P6,s and P66s have so far been considered the most $roblemat-

    ic of the brominated flame retardants1 6oth grou$s are additive flame retardants1 +he ,anish #c-

    tion Plan for brominated flame retardants from 200 had as one of its main aims an international

    restriction on the use of the P6,s and P66s1 +he use of he;a665 tetra6,5 $enta6,5 he;a6,

    and he$ta6, 8refers to $articular substances within the grou$s9 is today strictly restricted by the

    Stoc'holm "onvention5 and are addressed by the POPs 7egulation 87egulation 8"9 )o @?0200/9

    and the 7oHS ,irective in the U which are the main im$lementing instruments for the $rovisions

    of the convention in the U1 +he ,anish national im$lementation $lan for the Stoc'holm "onven-

    tion furthermore includes an action $lan for the further im$lementation of the $rovisions of the

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    brominated flame retardants

    Stoc'holm "onvention in ,enmar'1 +etra6, and $enta6, are main constituents of the com-

    mercial c-$enta6,5 while he;a6, and he$ta6, are some of the constituents of the commercial

    c-octa6,1 +he restriction of the substances is a de facto restriction of the commercial $roducts1

    +he substances are furthermore addressed by the "LP 7egulation on classification and labelling5

    waste legislation5 im$orte;$ort restrictions5 emissions legislation and environmental monitoring

    legislation1

    +he deca6, is restricted in electrical and electronic e=ui$ment by the 7oHS ,irective5 as are the

    other P6,s and P66s5 with some e;em$tions and some a$$lication areas outside the sco$e of the

    directive1 +he e;em$tions for P6, and P66S in the 7oHS directive are not included in the ,anish

    7oHS statutory order1 )o harmonised classification has been established for deca6, and the

    substance is not individually addressed by U legislation5 e;ce$t for the electrical and electronic

    e=ui$ment and some ecolabelling criteria1 4t is however listed in the 7#"H "andidate List and

    has5 on the basis of an #nne; NV dossier5 been $ro$osed by "H# for inclusion in the list of sub-

    stances for authorisation1 +he substance has been nominated for inclusion in the list of restricted

    substances under the Stoc'holm "onvention and is currently under review by the POPs 7eview

    "ommittee1 4n the US# and "anada5 voluntary agreements on $hasing out deca6, have been

    entered into between the most of the ma*or international manufacturers and the federal authorities1

    9se +he global consum$tion of the P6,s in 200 was ?A500 ty5 of which deca6, accounted

    for nearly .0M1 )o u$dated global data on the consum$tion of deca6, have been available1 +he

    consum$tion of $enta6, and octa6, has more or less ceased globally today5 while the consum$-

    tion of deca6, in recent years has li'ely been decreasing due to regulatory action 8the 7oHS ,i-

    rective9 and the above-mentioned $artly voluntary $hase out of $roduction and im$ort in )orth

    #merica1 4n the U5 the average consum$tion of deca6, for the $eriod 200-20 was ?5000-

    >5?00 ty1 #$$ro;imately ! was used for te;tiles5 while the remaining $art was used for $lastic

    $arts for means of trans$ort and electrical and electronic e=ui$ment e;em$ted from or out of the

    sco$e of the 7oHS ,irective1 ,eca6, was not used in $roduction $rocesses in ,enmar' in signifi-

    cant amounts either in ... nor 2025 but deca6, may be $resent in various im$orted articles e1g1

    cars and other means of trans$ort1 4n $roduction $rocesses in ,enmar'5 deca6, was mainly re-$laced by +66P# and its derivatives in the ..0s1 +he $hase out in ,enmar' occurred as a conse-

    =uence of the voluntary $hase out by Kerman manufacturers of $lastics materials because the

    P6,s could not meet the re=uirements of the Kerman dio;in ordinance1 #t the U level5 deca6,

    in electrical and electronic e=ui$ment has mainly been re$laced by ,6,P and5 a$$arently5 to a

    smaller degree by 6+6P45 ++6P-+# 85!5?-+riaBine5 25/5A-tris825/5A-tribromo$heno;y9-95 $oly-

    meric brominated flame retardants and non-brominated flame retardants 8in some cases with a

    change in the base resin as well91

    4n 2025 about A0 ty octa6, in $olycarbonate was im$orted for use in the electronics industry in

    ,enmar'1 +he use of octa6, is sur$rising5 as the $roduction of the substance has been $hased out

    in most countries and the substance is banned for all uses in ,enmar'1

    4n terms of P6+ $ro$erties5 he;a66 and four P6,s are listed as $ersistent organic $ollutants

    8POPs9 in #nne; # of the Stoc'holm "onvention1 ,eca6, has been suggested as a SVH" 8Sub-

    stance of Very High "oncern9 under 7#"H on the basis that it can undergo debromination in the

    environment to form substances with P6+ or vPv6 $ro$erties1

    0n1ironmental and health issues - Some P6,s and P66s can affect neurodevelo$ment and

    have been associated with re$roductive im$airment5 but e$idemiological evidence and to;ico'inetic

    information are still s$arse1 4t has become a$$arent that non-descended testes in young boys are

    P6+ Persistent5 bioaccumulative and to;ic to organisms in the enviroment1 vPv6 very bioaccumulative and very $ersistent

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    2 brominated flame retardants

    lin'ed with e;$osure to P6,s and that P66s are lin'ed to an early age menarche and $ubic hair

    develo$ment1

    Alternati1es +he successful re$lacement of deca6, in and the voluntary $hase out in the

    US# clearly demonstrates that alternatives are available1 +he advantage of deca6, is mainly that

    it is chea$er than the alternatives1 ,ro$-in alternatives as ,6,P and 6+6P4 seem on some

    $arameters to have a better environmental and health $rofile than deca6,5 but some concernshave been raised about their environmental $erformance1 Polymeric brominated flame retardants

    and non-halogenated alternatives are also mar'eted for the main use areas5 but at higher costs1 (or

    use in $lastics H4PS and #6S5 some of the main alternatives have been the co$olymeric $lastics

    blends PPH4PS and P"#6S with non-halogenated flame retardants1 3hile there is no single

    re$lacement flame retardant for deca6, for te;tiles5 the multitude of o$tions on the mar'et5 in-

    cluding alternative flame retardants5 inherently flame retarded fibres5 fibre blends5 barrier layers5

    nonwovens and other a$$roaches5 ma'e it clear that viable mar'et-ready a$$roaches e;ist1 +he

    same a$$lies to the use of H6",, in te;tiles1

    # restriction of deca6, is not e;$ected to have any negative im$act on manufacturers of $lastic

    $arts5 te;tiles or furniture in ,enmar'1

    4BCDD

    'e#ulatory frame(or" H6",, has recently been sub*ect to authorisation under 7#"H 8#n-

    ne; N4V to 7#"H9 with a sunset date of 2 #ugust 20?1 H6",, has in &ay 20! been listed for

    restriction under the Stoc'holm "onvention with a time-limited e;em$tion for building materials of

    e;$anded $olystyrene 8PS9 or e;truded $olystyrene 8NPS91 4n the U5 the restriction enters into

    force by &ay 20/1 # dossier for a harmonised "lassification and Labelling has been submitted1

    9se +he global consum$tion of H6",, has increased from A5>00 ty in 200 to !5000 ty in

    201 4n the U5 the average consum$tion of H6",, for the $eriod 200-20 was 05000-25?00

    ty and H6",, is currently the 6(7 used in the highest =uantities in the U1 #$$ro;imately .0 M

    of the consum$tion of H6",, in the U is used as additive flame retardant in $olystyrene1 PS-containing H6",,5 in the form of PS or NPS5 is mainly used as rigid thermal insulation $an-

    elsboards for buildings5 and for road and railway construction to $revent frost heaves and $rovide

    a lightweight load-s$reading construction material1 +he remaining $art is used for flame retarding

    the $lastic H4PS and for te;tiles1

    H6",, is used in ,enmar' as a flame retardant for the manufacture of PS sheets for building

    a$$lications and $ac'aging for electronics1 +he total consum$tion for $roduction in ,enmar' was

    about tonne in 202 as com$ared to A-! tonnes in ...1 4n ...5 most of the $roduced flame-

    retarded PS was e;$orted1 4n ... the main consum$tion of H6",, in buildingconstruction

    materials was in im$orted flame retarded NPS5 accounting for -2. tonnes H6",,1 +he situation

    is li'ely similar at $resent1 "urrently5 NPS im$orted from origins other than the )ordic countriescontains H6",,1 (or a$$lications in buildings and construction in ,enmar'5 flame-retardant

    grades of PS and NPS are not re=uired5 as the materials are still combustible and in any case need

    to be covered by a non-combustible material to $revent ignition1 +he consum$tion of flame-

    retarded PS in ,enmar' a$$ears to be increasing for in FBero energyF houses of a new construc-

    tion5 wherein the walls are built of flame-retardant PS bloc's covered with a non-combustible

    material1 +he flame retarded PS for this $ur$ose is im$orted1

    0n1ironmental and health issues H6",, is a $ersistent organic $ollutant1 +he substance is

    classified as to;ic to re$roduction1

    Altenati1es Polymeric brominated flame retardants have recently been introduced as dro$-in

    alternatives to H6",, and the ma*or manufacturers of brominated flame retardants are currently

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    brominated flame retardants !

    increasing the $roduction ca$acity for the $olymeric brominated flame retardants to meet the e;-

    $ected demand1 )o inde$endent evaluation of the health and environmental $ro$erties of the $ol-

    ymeric alternatives are available1 #ccording to industry information5 the $olymeric brominated

    flame retardants are $otentially $ersistent 8not biodegradable9 but with low $otential for bioaccu-

    mulation and low $otential for to;icity1 )on-halogenated alternatives for PSNP# are not mar'et-

    edI but the flame-retardant PSNPS can be re$laced by other insulation materials1 +he alternatives

    have different advantages and disadvantages as com$ared with the flame-retarded PS5 but theyty$ically have better fire $erformance and contain chemical substances less $roblematic than

    H6",,1 #$art from this5 the flame retarded PS scores well in the com$arison with the other ma-

    terials 8$rovided that the fire $erformance is acce$table95 in $articular if the PS ultimately is dis-

    $osed of by incinerated with energy recovery1 +he $rice of the chea$est alternatives ranges from

    a$$ro;imately the same $rice as for flame retarded PS to a$$ro;imately !0M more1 PS with

    $olymeric brominated flame retardants have not yet been com$ared with material alternatives1

    "om$ared to other U &ember States5 the use of flame-retardant PSNPS is small in ,enmar'

    because non-flammable insulation materials have been the $referred o$tion and non- flame-

    retardant grades of PS are used1 # restriction of H6",, is not e;$ected to have a significant nega-

    tive im$act on manufacturers of PSNPS or users of the materials in ,enmar'1

    TBBPA

    'e#ulatory frame(or" # harmonised "LP classification has been agreed u$on for +66P# due

    to its to;icity to organisms in the a=uatic environments1 Otherwise5 the substance is not individually

    addressed by any U or ,anish legislation1

    9se - Klobally5 +66P# is still the main 6(75 accounting for about /0M of total global $roduction

    and mainly used as reactive flame retardants in $rinted circuit boards for electronic e=ui$ment1 4n

    the U5 the average consum$tion of +66P# for $roduction of articles in 200-20 was 5000-25?00

    tyI the substance thus accounts for a smaller $art of the consum$tion of brominated flame retard-

    ants for $roduction of articles in the U1 #bout .0M of the consum$tion in the U is as reactive

    flame retardants for $rinted circuit boards5 ?M was used as reactive flame retardant for other a$$li-cations while about ?M was used as additive 6(71 +he ma*ority of the amount of +66P# in end-

    $roducts sold in the U 8where the +66P# is mainly built into the $olymer structure9 is im$orted

    into the U in finished articles and com$onents5 $rimarily from #sia1

    0n1ironmental and health issues - Only additive use of +66P# is mentioned as an e;am$le of

    brominated flame retardants included in LOUS1 +he rationale is that in reactive use of +66P#5 the

    +66P# is not $resentper se in the final $roducts5 but has been built into the $olymer structure5

    which may be considered a brominated $lastic1 +he U 7is' #ssessment estimated that volatile loss

    during service life of articles from additive flame retardantsD use was a$$ro;imately ?M of the total

    emissions of +66P# to the air5 whereas losses from the service-life of articles where +66P# was

    used reactively was considered negligible1 However5 according to the U 7is' #ssessment5 directconsumer e;$osure to +66P# is li'ely to be insignificant and (S# concludes that the available

    data indicate that current dietary e;$osure to +66P# in the U does not raise a health concern1 +he

    substance is classified as to;ic in the a=uatic environment5 but does not meet the 7#"H P6+ crite-

    ria based on the currently available data and is not covered by any $i$eline activities under 7#"H1

    +66P# can undergo debromination under anaerobic conditions to form bis$henol-# and is thus

    lin'ed to the discussion about the $otential im$act of that substance1 +he main source of releases of

    +66P# to the environment was assessed to be manufacturing $rocesses in the U 7is' #ssessment1

    # voluntary $rogram by manufacturers and downstream users of the substance 8V"#P9 has signif-

    icantly reduced the total releases in recent years1

    Alternati1es- #lternatives to the additive use of +66P# are in general the same as alternatives to

    deca6,1 #lternatives to the reactive use of +66P# are usually non-halogenated flame retardants1

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    / brominated flame retardants

    +he current develo$ment of re$lacing +66P# in $rinted circuit boards mainly a$$ears to be $art of

    a $rocess whereby all halogen containing com$ounds and $lastics are re$laced in order to be able to

    mar'et the e=ui$ment as halogen-free1

    DBDP0 and 0BT0BPI

    'e#ulatory frame(or" - +he two substances are not s$ecifically addressed by current ,anish

    and U legislation5 but ,6,P is included in the "ommunity 7olling #ction Plan under 7#"H1

    9se- ,P,P a$$ears to be the main substitute for deca6, so farI the data indicate that ,6,P

    is among the main additive flame retardants in the U5 "hina and %a$an1 4n the U5 the registered

    $roduction and im$ort of ,6,P is indicated as 000Q without an u$$er limit1 6+6P4 is regis-

    tered in the U with a $roduction and im$ort in the 00-5000 ty tonnage band1

    +he two substances have a$$lication s$ectra in $olymers =uite similar to deca6, and can be used

    as dro$-in alternatives to deca6,1

    0n1ironmental and health issues ,,P is found in sewage sludge in the )ordic "ountries

    in concentrations of the same magnitude as deca6,1 +he studies indicate that contamination of

    the Swedish environment with ,6,P has already a$$roached that of deca6,5 and that this con-

    tamination is occurring $rimarily via the atmos$here1 (urther monitoring in the #rctic has been

    suggested for ,6,P by ,"5 the ,anish "entre for nvironment and nergy1 Very limited data on

    6+6P4 are available as the substance has not been included in screenings of brominated flame

    retardants in the )ordic and #rctic environments1

    ,6,P is $ersistent but does not meet the 7#"H P6+ criteria based on the available dataI how-

    ever5 there are currently insufficient reliable data1 # U nvironment 7is' #ssessment considered

    that there was a $otential for ,6,P to undergo reductive debromination by analogy with deca6-

    ,1 4t has recently been shown that ,6,P may have $otential to undergo $hotolytic debromina-

    tion reactionsI however5 the environmental significance of such reactions is currently un'nown1

    #ccording to an U e;$ert grou$ on identification of P6+ and vPv6 substances evaluation56+6P4 was not considered a P6+ substance1 #lternatives to ,6,P and 6+6P4 are either

    $olymeric brominated flame retardants or non-halogenated flame retardants5 some of which have

    better environmental and health $rofiles in screening assessments1

    Alternati1esR +he two substances are the main alternatives to deca6,1 Polymeric brominated

    flame retardants and non-halogenated flame retardants which may be used as alternatives to

    deca6, may be used as alternatives to the two substances1

    6ther B;'S

    'e#ulatory frame(or" ;ce$t for the re=uirements of the 3 ,irective and some eco-

    labels5 the brominated flame retardants are not addressed by any U or ,anish legislation1 Pen-tabromoethylbenBene 8P669 and P66-#cr are included in the OSP#7 list of "hemicals for Priority

    #ction1

    9se- (or the other brominated flame retardants5 information on global and U $roduc-

    tionconsum$tion is more limited1 +he global consum$tion seems to have increased from about

    05000 ty in 200 to about ?05000 ty in 201

    ,ata on the consum$tion of other brominated flame retardants in the U are scarce and uncertain1

    (or the non-$olymeric brominated flame retardants5 the registrations at "H#s website indicate

    total im$ort and $roduction 8of each substance9 in tonnage bands 8e1g1 00-5000 ty95 but for the

    $olymeric brominated flame retardants no data are available as the $olymers are not sub*ect to

    registration under 7#"H1 +he brominated flame retardants registered in the highest tonnage8a$art from the substances mentioned above9 are the reactive halogenated $olyether$olyol 65 25/5A-

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    brominated flame retardants ?

    tribromo$henol 8+6P9 and the additive 6(7 ++6P-+#5 which are all registered in the 5000-

    05000 ty tonnage band1 +ribromoneo$entyl alcohol 8+6)P#9 is registered with confidential ton-

    nage1 Other additive brominated flame retardants registered with an im$ort and $roduction in the

    00-5000 ty tonnage band are tris8tribromo-neo$entyl9$hos$hate 8++6)PP95 $oly $entabromo-

    benByl acrylate 8P66-#cr9 and tetrabromo$hthalate ester 86H-+6P91 +he main a$$lications of

    the different brominated flame retardants are 'nown and described in this survey5 but detailed

    brea'downs of the use of each substance by end-a$$lication areas are not available1

    0n1ironmental and health issues # screening of A FnewF brominated flame retardants in the

    )ordic environment indicated that the concentrations of the FnewF brominated flame retardants

    are5 with a few e;ce$tions5 in the same order of magnitude or lower com$ared to the sum of 6,

    congeners 6,[email protected] -/>5 -..5 -005 -?! and -?/ addressed as $riority substances under the 3ater

    (ramewor' ,irective1

    Of the additive brominated flame retardants with registered im$ort or $roduction in the U 8i1e1

    $roduction and im$ort is above 00 ty9 the following have not been included in the recent screen-

    ing of brominated flame retardants in the )ordic environment5 and no data on their occurrence in

    the )ordic or #rctic environments have been identifiedC 6+6P45 ++6P-+#5

    bis8$entabromo$heno;y9 benBene 8/T-Pe6PO6,[email protected] and ++6)PP1 +he screening of brominatedflame retardants in the )ordic environment also identified some reactive brominated flame retard-

    ants in significant concentrations 8,6P and +6P91 (our of the registered reactive brominated flame

    retardants have not been included in the screeningC ,6)PK5 HHP-+6P and +6P-#nh5 halo-

    genated $olyether$olyol 6 and tetrabromo$hthalic anhydride based diol1

    Some emerging brominated flame retardants have not been studied in much detail5 but the non-

    $olymeric brominated flame retardants are su$$osed to have somewhat similar effects as the more

    studied brominated flame retardants1 One of these is H66 which may be more $ersistent and to;ic5

    and therefore haBardous5 than the P6,s1

    Since the to;icological mechanisms of the different brominated flame retardants seem to be related5

    mi;tures of brominated flame retardants may have additive and synergistic effects1

    Alternati1esR +he alternatives to other brominated flame retardants are non-halogenated flame

    retardants and material alternatives without flame retardants1 +he available alternative assess-

    ments do not include an assessment of degradation $roducts and the $erformance of the flame-

    retardant materials during fire or uncontrolled combustion1 +he $resence of brominated flame

    retardants has been demonstrated to negatively affect e1g1 the formation of smo'e and5 during

    thermal stress5 they result in formation of haBardous substances1 &ost studies have however ad-

    dressed the P6,s and other brominated flame retardants with high ris' of formation of haBardous

    substances and not as yet the $olymeric brominated flame retardants5 for e;am$le1 +he significance

    of formation of haBardous substances and fumes in a lifecycle $ers$ective seems to be the main

    issue when com$aring the im$act of the non-regulated brominated flame retardants and non-halogenated flame retardants5 but detailed assessments are not available yet1 ,ata on the effect of

    non-halogenated flame retardants on the formation of fumes and haBardous substances are limited

    and com$arative assessments of different ty$es of brominated flame retardants and non-

    halogenated flame retardants on these $arameters are missing1

    +he authors of a recent review of $ersistence5 bioaccumulation and to;icity of non-halogenated

    flame retardants5 as one of the outcomes of the U funded )(47O $ro*ect5 conclude that large

    data ga$s were identied for the $hysicalRchemical $ro$erties and the P6+ $ro$erties of the re-

    viewed non-halogenated flame retardants1 +o assess whether the reviewed non-halogenated flame

    retardants are truly suitable alternatives5 each com$ound should be e;amined individually by com-

    $aring its P6+ values with those of the e=uivalent halogenated ame retardant1 Until more data are

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    brominated flame retardants >

    ..5...M1 (urthermore5 it is indicated that the incineration of brominated flame retardants may

    contribute a small fraction to the total generated dio;ins and furans and that the filters for control

    of emissions of dio;ins and furans are also efficient in ca$turing the brominated and mi;ed bro-

    minatedchlorinated dio;ins and furans1

    3hilst the emission from incinerators with modern flue gas controls may be of little concern5 much

    literature indicated that the emissions of dio;ins and furans from fires 8including incidental landfillfires9 and uncontrolled burning of 6(7-containing $lastics may be significant1

    A%%lication of slud#e on a#ricultural soils R+he ma*ority of the brominated flame retardants

    in sewage water ends u$ in the sludge fraction in the sewage treatment $lants1 ,eca6,5 H6",,

    and ,6,P are the dominant brominated flame retardants in munici$al sewage sludge1 +he availa-

    ble data indicate that the levels of deca6, and H"6,, levels in sewage sludge in the U and

    4reland is a$$ro;imately a factor of 0 higher than in other U &ember States5 indicating a lin' to

    the wides$read use of these substances in te;tiles and furniture in the two countries1 7ecent anal-

    yses of A FnewF brominated flame retardants in sewage sludge in the )ordic countries show that

    the concentration of ,6,P is on the same magnitude as found for deca6, and H6",, in other

    studies5 whereas the concentrations for the remaining ? brominated flame retardants are consider-

    ably lower1 +he results confirm that ,6,P to a large e;tent have substituted for deca6, in a$$li-

    cations that may lead to releases to wastewater1

    # ris' evaluation from 202 of the a$$lication of 6(7-containing sludge to agricultural land in

    ,enmar'5 which included a detailed assessment of deca6, and +66P#5 concluded that it was very

    unli'ely that the levels of brominated flame retardants found in ,anish sludge should $ose a signif-

    icant ris' to the soil dwelling organisms and the soil =uality in general5 if the current a$$lication

    guidelines of sewage sludge were followed1

    +ain data #a%s

    ,etailed data on the use of brominated flame retardants other than the P6,s5 H6",, and +66P#

    globally and in the U are not available in the $ublic literature1 +he $ublic $art of the 7#"H regis-trations $rovides as mentioned some indication on the $roduction and im$ort in the U tonnage

    bands5 but the $olymeric brominated flame retardants are not sub*ect to registration and no infor-

    mation on the mar'et volumes of these substances are available1 +he consum$tion of some the

    other brominated flame retardants is e;$ected to be increasing5 but the lac' of data constrain an

    assessment of the trends in the use of the brominated flame retardants and the monitoring of the

    effects of regulatory action1 +he lac' of detailed data on the consum$tion by a$$lication areas fur-

    thermore constrains an assessment of the $otential releases and e;$osure of humans and the envi-

    ronment1

    ,ata on the fate5 e;$osure and environmental and health haBards for most end$oints are missing

    for most brominated flame retardants1

    nowledge on the actual fate of 3 e;$orted for waste management outside ,enmar' is limited1

    )o data on the actual recycling of 6(7-containing waste in ,enmar' or the U have been identi-

    fied1

    +he significance of the different brominated flame retardants on the formation of brominated and

    mi;ed brominatedchlorinated dio;ins and furans by different ty$es of thermal $rocesses is not

    'nown for most brominated flame retardants1

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    @ brominated flame retardants

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    brominated flame retardants .

    !on"lusion o# sammenfatnin#

    4 $erioden 202-20? vil alle /0 stoffer og stofgru$$er $ &il*Gstyrelsens liste over uGns'ede stoffer

    8LOUS9 blive 'ortlagt5 og &il*Gstyrelsen vil $ grundlag af resultaterne vurdere behovet for yderli-

    gere regulering5 substitutionudfasning5 'lassificering og mWr'ning5 forbedret affaldshndtering

    eller Gget udbredelse af information1

    ,enne undersGgelse vedrGrer bromerede flammehWmmere1 ,e bromerede flammehWmmere o$-

    trdte $ den fGrste udgave af LOUS i [email protected] og er forblevet $ listen siden da1 Kru$$en er angivet i

    LOUS som Fvisse bromerede flammehWmmereF med tre e'sem$ler fra gru$$enC ,ecabromdi$henyl

    ether 8deca6,95 additiv brug af tetrabrombis$henol # 8+66P#9 og he;abromcyclododecan

    8H6",,91 ,et er i''e nWrmere s$ecificeret5 hvil'e andre bromerede flammehWmmere der ansesfor at vWre omfattet1 ,enne undersGgelse omhandler i et vist omfang alle bromerede flammehWm-

    mere5 men fo'userer i nogle 'a$itler $ de tre vigtigste af stofferneC deca6,5 +66P# og H6",,

    samt to af de vigtigste bromerede alternativer til deca6,5 nemlig decabromodi$henylethan 8,6,-

    P9 og ethylenbis8tetrabrom$hthalimid9 86+6P491 Som fGlge heraf indeholder denne sammen-

    fatning afsnit for hvert af fo'usstofferne samt afsnit5 der gr $ tvWrs af alle bromerede flamme-

    hWmmere1

    Stof#ru%%en

    (lammehWmmere tilsWttes $olymere materialer5 bde naturlige og syntetis'e5 for at Gge materia-

    lernes flammehWmmende egens'aber1 6rugen af flammehWmmere er i vid udstrW'ning en 'onse-

    'vens af regler om brandsi''erhed1 7eglerne for brandsi''erhed indeholder i''e s$ecifi''e 'rav

    om at anvende bromerede flammehWmmere eller bestemte andre ty$er af flammehWmmere1 7eg-

    lerne definerer ty$is' nogle flammetests som materialer5 arti'ler eller bygnings'om$onenter s'al

    'unne leve o$ til5 men det er o$ til $roducenten af arti'lerne eller bygherren at beslutte5 hvordan

    'ravene 'an o$fyldes1

    ,e bromerede flammehWmmere har til fWlles5 at de indeholder brom og bruges til at forhindre5 at

    $lastmaterialer og te'stiler antWndes1 ,e vir'er alle ved den samme grundlWggende me'anismeC

    (rigivelse af brombrinte nr materialet antWndes5 som blo'erer den videre forbrWndings$roces1

    ,erudover er de bromerede flammehWmmere en 'om$le's gru$$e af stofferC #romatis'e5 cycloali-

    fatis'e5 alifatis'e5 $olymere og uorganis'e stoffer5 der alle indeholder brom1 )ogle af stofferne an-

    vendes som additiver5 hvor stofferne i''e er 'emis' bundet i $olymermaterialet5 mens andre bruges

    som rea'tive stoffer5 som bygges ind $olymerstru'turen5 og derfor i''e er til stede som det o$rinde-lige stof i den fWrdige $olymer 8med undtagelse af s$ormWngder af ureageret stof91 4 denne under-

    sGgelse er der fundet A. bromerede flammehWmmere5 som er blevet $rWregistreret under 7#"H5

    ellerog er $roduceres og mar'edsfGres af store internationale $roducenter af bromerede flamme-

    hWmmere1 ,esuden er der fundet / stoffer bes'revet i litteraturen5 men som i''e er $rWregistrere-

    de eller mar'edsfGres af de store $roducenter1

    Produ"tion o# an1endelse af bromerede flammeh

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    20 brominated flame retardants

    ../1 Klobalt fremstilles hoved$arten af de bromerede flammehWmmere af fire store $roducenter5

    og stofferne fremstilles i U 'un af Xn vir'somhed1

    n detal*eret o$gGrelse af stoffer og anvendelsesomrder $ globalt $lan er i''e tilgWngelig1 ,et

    stGrste anvendelsesomrde er ele'tris' og ele'tronis' udstyr5 hvor bromerede flammehWmmere

    ogs er de dominerende flammehWmmere1 #ndre anvendelsesomrder omfatter elinstallationer og

    eldistributionI te'stiler5 tW$$er og mGblerI byggematerialerI trans$ortmidler 8'GretG*er5 tog5 fly5s'ibe5 osv19 samt maling og fugemasser1

    09 = ,er er detal*erede data til rdighed $ U-$lan for tre af de vigtigste bromerede flamme-

    hWmmereC ,eca6,5 H6",, og +66P#5 som tegner sig for om'ring /0M af det samlede forbrug1

    (or andre i''e-$olymere bromerede flammehWmmere5 er der o$lysninger om den samlede $rodu'-

    tion i og im$ort til U i mWngdeintervaller 8f1e's1 00-1000 tonsr95 fra registreringsdatabasen $

    det uro$Wis'e emi'alieagenturs 8"H#s9 h*emmeside1 ,isse data er 'un tilgWngelige for brome-

    rede flammehWmmere med en samlet im$ort og $rodu'tion i 20! $ over 00 tonsr5 og der er

    ingen data for $olymere bromerede flammehWmmere1 ,e mar'edsfGrte mWngder er yderligere

    bes'revet i de fGlgende afsnit1

    Danmar" n omfattende 'ortlWgning af brugen af bromerede flammehWmmere i ,anmar' blev

    udfGrt i ...1 6romerede flammehWmmere i im$orterede arti'ler og blandinger tegnede sig for

    om'ring .0M af mWngderne af de samlede mWngder af bromerede flammehWmmere i slut$rodu'-

    ter solgt i ,anmar' i ... 1 #f den samlede omsWtning $ !!0-AA0 tonsr bromerede flamme-

    hWmmere i slut$rodu'ter udg*orde ele'tris' og ele'tronis' udstyr mere end >0M1 ,et er sandsyn-

    ligvis stadig tilfWldet1 6romerede flammehWmmere i arti'ler $ det dans'e mar'ed er en afs$e*ling

    af det generelle brugsmGnster i U og globalt snarere end brugen af bromerede flammehWmmere i

    dans' industri1 n fuld o$datering af o$gGrelsen fra ... har vWret uden for rammerne af denne

    undersGgelse1

    4 dans' industri var den vigtigste anvendelse af bromerede flammehWmmere i ... og 202 rea'ti-

    ve bromerede $olyoler5 som anvendes til $rodu'tion af flammehWmmet $olyuretans'um til byg-ningsisolering1

    >o1#i1nin#sm

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    dire'tivet5 som er de vigtigste instrumenter til gennemfGrelse af 'onventionens bestemmelser i U1

    ,en dans'e nationale im$lementerings$lan for Stoc'holm-'onventionen omfatter desuden en

    handlings$lan for yderligere im$lementering af bestemmelserne i Stoc'holm-'onventionen i ,an-

    mar'1 +etra6, og $enta6, er de vigtigste bestanddele af den 'ommercielle flammehWmmer c-

    $enta6,5 mens he;a6, og he$ta6, er nogle af bestanddelene i den 'ommercielle flamme-

    hWmmer c-octa6, og begrWnsning af stofferne er en de factobegrWnsning af de 'ommercielle

    $rodu'ter1 Stofferne er desuden omfattet af "LP-forordningen om 'lassificering og mWr'ning5 afaffaldslovgivningen5 im$orte's$ort restri'tioner5 samt lovgivning om emissionsbegrWnsning og

    mil*Govervgning1

    An1endelse 6rug af deca6, er5 i lighed med de andre P6, og P665 begrWnset i ele'tris' og

    ele'tronis' udstyr ved 7oHS-dire'tivet med nogle undtagelser og nogle $rodu't'ategorier5 som

    uden for dire'tivets anvendelsesomrde1 Undtagelserne i 7oHS dire'tivet for P6, og P66 er i''e

    gWldende i den dans'e 7oHS be'endtgGrelse1 ,er er i''e etableret en harmoniseret 'lassificering

    for deca6, og stoffet er5 med undtagelse af ele'tris' og ele'tronis' udstyr og nogle mil*GmWr'e-

    'riterier5 i''e individuelt behandlet af U-lovgivningen1 ,et er dog o$fGrt $ 'andidatlisten under

    7#"H5 og er $ grundlag af et bilag NV-dossier blevet foreslet af "H# for o$tagelse $ listen

    over stoffer5 som 'rWver autorisation1 Stoffet er desuden blevet nomineret til o$tagelse $ listen

    over begrWnsede stoffer under Stoc'holm-'onventionen5 og er i G*ebli''et under evaluering af o-

    mitXen for Vurdering af Persistente Organis'e &il*Ggifte under 'onventionen1 4 US# og "anada er

    frivillige aftaler om udfasning af deca6, indget mellem flere af de store internationale $roducen-

    ter og de fGderale myndigheder1

    ,et globale forbrug af de P6, var i 200 ?A100 tonsr5 hvoraf deca6, tegnede sig for nWsten

    .0M1 4ngen o$daterede globale o$gGrelser af forbruget af deca6, har vWret til rdighed1 6rugen af

    $enta6, og octa6, er mere eller mindre o$hGrt global5 mens forbruget af deca6, i de seneste

    r formentlig har vWret faldende $ grund af lovgivningsmWssige tiltag 87oHS-dire'tivet95 og den

    nWvnte frivillige delvise udfasning af $rodu'tion og im$ort i )ordameri'a1 4 U var det gennem-

    snitlige forbrug af deca6, i $erioden 200-20 ?1000->1?00 tonsr1 "a1 ! blev anvendt til

    te'stiler5 mens den resterende del blev brugt til $lastdele til trans$ortmidler og ele'tris' og ele'tro-nis' udstyr undtaget eller uden for 7oHS-dire'tivets anvendelsesomrde1 ,eca6, blev i''e brugt

    i $rodu'tions$rocesser i ,anmar' i vWsentlige mWngder5 hver'en i ... eller 2025 men deca6,

    'an vWre til stede i fors'ellige im$orterede arti'ler f1e's1 biler og andre trans$ortmidler1 4 dans'

    $rodu'tion blev deca6, i ..0erne $rimWrt erstattet af +66P# og dets derivater1 Udfasningen i

    ,anmar' var $rimWrt en fGlge af en udfasning af deca6, hos tys'e $roducenter af $lastmateria-

    ler5 fordi P6, i''e 'unne o$fylde 'ravene i den tys'e dio;in be'endtgGrelse1 P U-$lan er de-

    ca6, i ele'tris' og ele'tronis' udstyr tilsyneladende $rimWrt blevet erstattet af ,6,P og i min-

    dre grad af 6+6P45 ++6P-+# 85!5?- triaBin5 25/5A- tris 825/5A- tribromfeno;y9-95 $olymere bro-

    merede flammehWmmere og af i''e-bromerede flammehWmmere 8i nogle tilfWlde ved en samtidig

    Wndring af basis$olymeren91

    4 202 blev om'ring A0 tons octa6, i $olycarbonat im$orteret til brug i ele'troni'industrien i

    ,anmar'1 6rugen af octa6, er overras'ende5 da $rodu'tionen af stoffet er udfaset i de fleste lan-

    de5 og stoffet er forbudt til alle anvendelser i ,anmar'1

    +il? o# sundhed 4 relation til P6+-egens'aber !er he;a66 og fire P6,er o$fGrt som $ersi-

    stente organis'e mil*Ggifte 8POP-stoffer9 i bilag # til Stoc'holm-'onventionen1 ,eca6, er foresl-

    et som et sWrligt $roblematis' stof 8Substance of Very High "oncern5 SVH"9 under 7#"H $ det

    grundlag5 at det 'an underg debromering i mil*Get og dermed danne lavere-bromerede P6,er

    med P6+- eller vPv6-egens'aber1

    !P6+ Persistente5 bioa''umulerbare and to'sis'e over for organismer i mil*Get1 vPv6 meget bioa''umulerbare og meget$ersistente

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    )ogle P6,er og P66er 'an $vir'e nervesystemets og er blevet 'nyttet til re$rodu'tive defe'ter5

    men e$idemiologis' evidens og to'si'o'inetis'e data er stadig s$arsomme1 ,er er undersGgelser

    der viser5 at i''e-nedfaldne testi'ler hos unge drenge er forbundet med udsWttelse for P6, og at

    P66 er 'nyttet til tidlig start $ menstruation og tidlig udvi'ling af 'Gnsbehring1

    Alternati1er- Uds'iftningen af deca6, i ele'tris' og ele'tronis' udstyr og den frivillige udfas-

    ning i US# viser 'lart5 at der findes brugbare alternativer1 (ordelen ved deca6, er hovedsageligtat stoffet er billigere end alternativerne1 F,ro$-inF alternativer som ,6,P og 6+6P4 synes $

    nogle $arametre at have en bedre mil*G- og sundhedsmWssig $rofil end deca6,5 men der er blevet

    re*st en vis be'ymring er om deres mil*Gegens'aber1 Polymere bromerede flammehWmmere og

    i''e-halogenerede alternativer mar'edsfGres ogs til de vWsentligste anvendelsesomrder5 men

    $risen er tilsyneladende hG*ere end $risen $ deca6,1 )ogle af de vigtigste alternativer til brugen

    af deca6, i $lastty$erne H4PS og #6S har vWret co$olymere $lastty$er5 PPH4PS og P"#6S

    med i''e- halogenerede flammehWmmere1 ,er er i''e en en'elt flammehWmmer5 som 'an erstatte

    deca6, i alle anvendelser i te'stiler5 men der er mange muligheder $ mar'edet5 herunder alter-

    native flammehWmmere5 fibre som i sig selv er flammehWmmende5 fiberblandinger5 barrierelag5

    fiberdug og andre metoder5 som viser at brugbare alternativer e'sisterer1 ,et samme gWlder for

    anvendelsen af H6",, i te'stiler1

    n begrWnsning af deca6, forventes i''e at have nogen negativ indvir'ning $ $roducenter af

    $lastdele5 te'stiler eller mGbler i ,anmar'1

    4BCDD

    >o1#i1nin#- H6",, er for nylig blevet omfattet af 'ravene om autorisation under 7#"H 8bilag

    N4V til 7#"H9 med en solnedgangsdato 8Fsunset dateF9 den 21 august 20?1 H"6,, er desuden i

    ma* 20! blevet o$fGrt $ listen over stoffer5 som s'al begrWnses5 under Stoc'holm-'onventionen

    med en tidsbegrWnset undtagelse for byggematerialer af e's$anderet $olystyren 8PS95 eller e's-

    truderet $olystyren 8NPS91 6egrWnsningen vil trWde i 'raft i U i ma* 20/1 t forslag til harmoni-

    seret 'lassificering og mWr'ning er blevet indsendt og er under evaluering1

    An1endelse ,et globale forbrug af H6",, er steget fra A1>00 tonsr i 200 til !1000 tonsr i

    201 4 U var det gennemsnitlige forbrug af H6",, i $erioden 200-20 01000-21?00 tonsr

    og H6",, er for G*ebli''et den af de bromerede flammehWmmer5 der anvendes i de stGrste mWng-

    der i U1 Om'ring .0 M af forbruget af H6",, i U er som additiv flammehWmmer i $olystyren1

    Polystyren med H6",,5 i form af PS eller NPS5 anvendes hovedsageligt som isolerings$lader i

    bygninger og i ve*- og *ernbane'onstru'tioner for at undg frosts'ader og fungere som et let 'on-

    stru'tionsmateriale5 der 'an fordele try''et $ 'onstru'tionen1 ,en resterende del anvendes til at

    flammehWmme $lastty$en H4PS og i te'stiler1

    H6",, er i ,anmar' anvendt som flammehWmmer til fremstilling af PS-$lader til byggeforml

    og til PS-emballage til ele'troni'1 ,et samlede forbrug til $rodu'tion i ,anmar' var om'ring toni 2025 hvil'et er et mar'ant fald i forhold til de A-! tons anvendt i ...1 4 ... blev hoved$arten

    af den fremstillede flammehWmmet PS e's$orteret1 4 ... var det vWsentligste forbrug af H6",,

    'nyttet til im$orteret flammehWmmet NPS5 som tegnede sig for -2. tons H6",,5 og det er det

    sandsynligvis stadigt1 NPS im$orteret fra andre lande end de nordis'e lande indeholder i dag

    H6",,1 +il anvendelser i bygninger og anlWg i ,anmar' er flammehWmmede 'valiteter af PS og

    NPS i''e $'rWvet5 da materialerne stadig er brWndbare og under alle omstWndigheder s'al vWre

    dW''et af et i''e-brWndbart materiale5 som bes'ytter mod antWndelse1 (orbruget af flammehWm-

    met PS i ,anmar' synes at vWre stigende i visse ty$er Fnul-energi huseF af en ny 'onstru'tion5

    hvor vWggene er bygget af flammehWmmet PS-blo''e be'lWdt med et i''e-brWndbart materiale1

    ,et flammehWmmede PS til dette forml im$orteres1

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    +il? o# sundhed = H6",, er o$fGrt som $ersistente organis'e mil*Ggift 8POP-stof9 i bilag # til

    Stoc'holm-'onventionen1 Stoffet er 'lassificeret som re$rodu'tionsto'sis'1

    Alternati1er- Polymere bromerede flammehWmmere er for nylig blevet indfGrt som Fdro$-inF

    alternativer til H6",,5 og de stGrste $roducenter af bromerede flammehWmmere i verden er i

    G*ebli''et ved at Gge $rodu'tions'a$aciteten for de $olymere bromerede flammehWmmere for at

    'unne imGde'omme den forventede efters$Grgsel1 ,er er i''e fundet uafhWngige evalueringer af desundheds-og mil*GmWssige egens'aber af de $olymere alternativer1 4fGlge information fra industri-

    en5 er de $olymere bromerede flammehWmmere $otentielt $ersistente 8i''e bionedbrydelige95 men

    har et lavt $otentiale for bioa''umulation og et lavt $otentiale for to'sicitet1 ,er mar'edsfGres i''e

    i''e-halogenerede alternativer til brug i PSNPS5 men flammehWmmet PSNPS 'an erstattes af

    andre isoleringsmaterialer1 #lternativerne har fors'ellige fordele og ulem$er i forhold til flamme-

    hWmmet PS5 men de har ty$is' bedre brandegens'aber og indeholder mindre $roblematis'e 'e-

    mis'e stoffer1 Prisen for de billigste alternativer s$Wnder fra mere eller mindre den samme $ris som

    for flammehWmmet PS til om'ring !0M mere1 PS med $olymere bromerede flammehWmmere er

    endnu i''e blevet sammenlignet med de alternativer materialer1

    Sammenlignet med andre U-medlemsstater5 er forbruget af flammehWmmet PS NPS lille i

    ,anmar'5 dels fordi i''e-brandbare isoleringsmaterialer har vWret den foretru'ne lGsning og dels

    fordi der anvendes i''e- flammehWmmede 'valiteter af PSNPS1 n begrWnsning af H6",, for-

    ventes i''e at have vWsentlig negativ indvir'ning $ $roducenter af PSNPS eller brugere af mate-

    rialerne i ,anmar'1

    TBBPA

    'e#ulerin#-

    An1endelse +66P# er den vigtigste bromerede flammehWmmer globalt set og tegner sig for

    om'ring /0M af den samlede globale $rodu'tion1 +66P# bruges $rimWrt som rea'tiv flamme-

    hWmmer i $rint'ort til ele'tronis' udstyr1 4 U var det gennemsnitlige forbrug af +66P# til $ro-

    du'tion af arti'ler i 200-20 1000-21?00 tonsr og stoffet udgGr dermed en mindre del af for-

    bruget af bromerede flammehWmmere til $rodu'tion af arti'ler i U1 Om'ring .0 M af forbruget iU er som rea'tiv flammehWmmere til $rint'ort5 ?M som rea'tiv flammehWmmer til andre forml5

    mens om'ring ?M blev brugt som additiv flammehWmmer i $last1 Hoved$arten af +66P# i slut$ro-

    du'ter5 der sWlges i U5 8hvor +66P# hovedsageligt er bygget ind i $olymerstru'turen9 im$orteres

    til U med fWrdige arti'ler og 'om$onenter5 fGrst og fremmest fra #sien1

    +66P# er tildelt en harmoniseret 'lassificering $ grund af stoffets giftighed overfor organismer i

    vandmil*Get1 Her ud over er stoffet i''e er individuelt omfattet af nogen dans' eller U-lovgivning1

    +il? o# sundhed un additiv brug af +66P# er nWvnt som e'sem$el $ bromerede flamme-

    hWmmere5 der er omfattet af LOUS1 7ationalet er5 at +66P# ved rea'tiv anvendelse i''e som sdan

    til stede i de endelige arti'ler5 men er blevet indbygget i den $olymere stru'tur5 og materialet 'anbetragtes som en bromeret $last1 U-risi'ovurderingen for +66P# anslr5 at afgivelse af +66P# til

    luft fra arti'ler5 hvor stoffet er anvendt som additiv flammehWmmer5 udg*orde ca1 ? M af de samle-

    de emissioner af +66P# til luft5 mens tab fra rea'tiv brug af +66P# i arti'ler blev anslet at vWre

    ubetydelige1 4 fGlge U-risi'ovurderingen er den dire'te forbrugere's$onering for +66P# sandsyn-

    ligvis ubetydelig5 og den uro$Wis'e (Gdevareautoritet5 (S#5 'on'luderer5 at de foreliggende data

    indi'erer5 at den nuvWrende e's$onering for +66P# via 'osten i U i''e giver anledning til

    sundhedsmWssig be'ymring1 Stoffet er 'lassificeret som giftigt i vandmil*Get5 men det o$fylder

    baseret $ de tilgWngelige data i''e 7#"H P6+-'riterierne1 ,er er ingen $lanlagte tiltag for

    +66P# under 7#"H1 Under anaerobe forhold 'an +66P# underg debromering5 hvorved der

    dannes bis$henol-# 86P#9 og +66P# er sledes 'nyttet til dis'ussionen om den $otentielle effe't af

    6P#1 ,en vigtigste 'ilde til udsli$ af +66P# til mil*Get blev i U-risi'ovurderingen vurderet at vWre

    fremstillings$rocesser1 Som resultatet af et frivilligt $rogram 8V"#P9 som omfatter $roducenter og

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    brugere af +66P# lWngere nede i $rodu't'Wden 8downstream-users95 er de samlede udsli$ blevet

    vWsentligt reduceret i de seneste r1

    Alternati1er- #lternativer til den additive brug af +66P# er i store trW' de samme stoffer5 som

    'an anvendes som alternativer til deca6,1 #lternativer til rea'tiv anvendelse af +66P# er $rimWrt

    i''e-halogenerede flammehWmmere1 ,en nuvWrende udvi'ling i retning af at erstatte +66P# i

    $rint'ort synes $rimWrt at vWre en del af en $roces5 hvor alle halogenholdige stoffer og $lastty$er

    erstattes for at 'unne mar'edsfGre udstyret som halogenfrit1

    DBDP0 o# 0BT0BPI

    'e#ulerin#-An1endelse ,P,P synes at vWre det vigtigste erstatningsstof for deca6,5 og de tilgngelige

    data indi'erer5 at ,6,P er blandt de vigtigste additive bromerede flammehWmmere i U5 ina og

    %a$an1 4 U er den registrerede $rodu'tion og im$ort af ,6,P angivet som 000Q5 uden en Gvre

    grWnse1 6+6P4 er i U registreret med en $rodu'tion og im$ort i 00-1000 tonsr intervallet1

    ,e to stoffer er i''e s$ecifi't omfattet af gWldende dans' og U-lovgivning5 men ,6,P indgr i

    den lGbende handlings$lan for (Wlless'abet 8"O7#P9 under 7#"H1

    ,e to stoffer har anvendelsess$e'tre in $olymerer5 som helt svarer til s$e'tret for deca6,5 og 'an

    anvendes som Fdro$-inF alternativer til deca6,1 ,,P er fundet i s$ildevandsslam i )orden i

    'oncentrationerne af samme stGrrelsesorden som deca6,1 UndersGgelser viser5 at forurening af

    det svens'e mil*G med ,6,P allerede har net et niveau svarende til niveauet af deca6,5 og at

    denne forurening $rimWrt er et resultat af atmosfWris' nedfald1 Yderligere overvgning af ,6,P i

    #r'tis er blevet foreslet af ," R )ationalt "enter for &il*G og nergi1 ,er er meget begrWnsede

    data vedrGrende fore'omsten af 6+6P4 i mil*Get5 da stoffet i''e har vWret omfattet af screeninger

    af bromerede flammehWmmere i de nordis'e og ar'tis'e mil*Ger1

    +il? o# sundhed ,6,P er $ersistent5 men o$fylder i''e 7#"H P6+-'riterierne5 baseret $

    de tilgWngelige data1 ,er er dog i G*ebli''et i''e tilstrW''eligt mange $lidelige data til at 'omme

    med en endelig vurdering1 n britis' mil*Grisi'oanalyse 'on'luderer5 at der er et $otentiale for5 at,6,P 'an gennemg redu'tiv debromering analog med debromeringen af deca6,5 og det er for

    nylig vist5 at ,6,P 'an have $otentiale for at gennemg fotolytis'e debromeringsrea'tioner1 ,en

    mil*GmWssige betydning af sdanne rea'tioner er dog i G*ebli''et u'endt1 4fGlge en U-

    e's$ertgru$$e om identifi'ation og evaluering af P6+ og vPv6-stoffer 8P6+-e's$ertgru$$en9 'an

    6+6P4 i''e betragtes som et P6+-stof1 #lternativer til ,6,P og 6+6P4 er enten $olymere

    bromerede flammehWmmere eller i''e-halogenerede flammehWmmere5 hvoraf nogle har bedre

    mil*G-og sundhedsmWssige $rofiler i screeningsvurderinger1

    Alternati1erR ,e to stoffer er de almindeligste alternativer til deca6,1 #lternativer er de samme

    $olymere bromerede flammehWmmere og i''e-halogenerede flammehWmmere5 som 'an anvendes

    som alternativer til deca6,1

    Andre bromerede flammeh

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    brominated flame retardants 2?

    25/5A- tribrom$henol 8+6P9 samt den additive bromerede flammehWmmer ++6P-+#5 som alle er

    registreret i 1000-01000 tonsr mWngdeintervallet1 +ribromneo$entylal'ohol 8+6)P#9 er regi-

    streret med fortrolig tonnage1 #ndre additive bromerede med en registreret samlet im$ort og $ro-

    du'tion i 00-1000 tonsr intervallet er tris8tribrom-neo$entyl9$hos$hat 8++6)PP95 $oly $enta-

    brombenBylacrylat 8P66-#"79 og tetrabrom$hthalatester 86H - +6P91 ,e vWsentligste anvendel-

    ser af de fors'ellige bromerede flammehWmmere er 'endt og bes'revet i denne 'ortlWgning5 men

    detal*erede o$delinger af forbruget af hvert stof $ de fors'ellige anvendelsesomrder er i''e til-gWngelige1

    6ortset fra 'ravene i 3-dire'tivet5 som vedrGrer alle bromerede flammehWmmere5 og nogle

    mil*GmWr'er er de Gvrige bromerede flammehWmmere i''e omfattet af nogen dans' eller U-

    lovgivning1 PentabromethylbenBen 8P669 og P66-#cr indgr i OSP#7-listen over 'emi'alier med

    $rioriteret indsats1+il? o# sundhed n screening af A FnyeF bromerede flammehWmmere i det

    nordis'e mil*G viste5 at 'oncentrationerne af de FnyeF bromerede flammehWmmere med f undta-

    gelser var i samme stGrrelsesorden eller lavere end summen af 6, congenere 6, [email protected] -/>5 -..5 -

    005 -?! og -?/5 som er $rioriterede stoffer under Us vandrammedire'tiv1

    #f de additive bromerede flammehWmmere med en registreret im$ort eller $rodu'tion i U 8dvs1

    $rodu'tion og im$ort er over 00 tonsr9 er fGlgende stoffer i''e medtaget i den seneste screening

    af bromerede flammehWmmere i de nordis'e mil*G og ingen data om deres fore'omst i de nordis'e

    eller ar'tis'e mil*Ger er blevet fundetC 6+6P45 ++6P-+#5 bis8$entabrom$heno;y9 benBen 8/-

    Pe6PO6,[email protected] og ++6)PP1 Screeningen af bromerede flammehWmmere i de nordis'e mil*G fandt

    ogs nogle rea'tive bromerede flammehWmmere i betydelige 'oncentrationerC ,6P og +6P1 (ire af

    de registrerede rea'tive bromerede flammehWmmere er i''e medtaget i screeningenC ,6)PK5

    HHP-+6P og +6P-#nh5 halogeneret $olyether$olyol 6 og tetrabrom$hthalsyreanhydrid-

    baseret diol1

    (lere af de FnyeF bromerede flammehWmmere er i''e blevet undersGgt i detal*er5 men de i''e-

    $olymere bromerede flammehWmmere formodes at have nogle af de samme vir'ninger som de

    mere velundersGgte bromerede flammehWmmere1 n af disse er H665 som formentlig er mere$ersistent og giftigt end P6,1

    ,a de to'si'ologis'e me'anismer af de fors'ellige bromerede flammehWmmere synes at vWre rela-

    terede5 'an blandinger af bromerede flammehWmmere have additive og synergistis'e vir'ninger1

    Alternati1er- #lternativerne til andre bromerede flammehWmmere er i''e-halogenerede flam-

    mehWmmere og alternative materialer uden flammehWmmere1 ,e tilgWngelige vurderinger af al-

    ternativer omfatter i''e en vurdering af nedbrydnings$rodu'ter eller en vurdering af5 hvorledes de

    flammehWmmede materialer o$fGrer sig i forbindelse med brand eller u'ontrolleret afbrWnding1

    +ilstedevWrelsen af bromerede flammehWmmere har vist sig at have en negativ indflydelse $ f1e's1

    dannelsen af rGg5 og under termis' stress 'an de resultere i dannelse af farlige stoffer1 ,e flesteundersGgelser har dog behandlet P6, og andre bromerede flammehWmmere med hG* risi'o for

    dannelse af farlige stoffer5 men i''e e'sem$elvis de $olymere bromerede flammehWmmere1 6etyd-

    ningen af dannelse af farlige stoffer og rGg i et livscy'lus-$ers$e'tiv synes at vWre det vigtigste

    s$Grgsml5 nr man sammenligner vir'ningen af i''e-regulerede bromerede flammehWmmere med

    i''e- halogenerede flammehWmmere5 men detal*erede vurderinger er endnu i''e tilgWngelige1 ,ata

    om vir'ningen af i''e-halogenerede flammehWmmere $ dannelsen af rGg og farlige stoffer er be-

    grWnset5 og sammenlignende vurderinger af fors'ellige ty$er af bromerede flammehWmmere og

    i''e-halogenerede flammehWmmere $ disse $arametre mangler1

    (orfatterne til en nylig sammenfatning om $ersistens5 bioa''umulation og giftighed af i''e-

    halogenerede flammehWmmere5 som er et af resultaterne af det U-finansierede )(47O $ro*e't5

    'on'luderer5 at der var store datamangler for fysis'-'emis'e egens'aber og P6+-egens'aber for de

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    2A brominated flame retardants

    i''e-halogenerede flammehWmmere1 (or at 'unne vurdere5 om de i''e-halogenerede flamme-

    hWmmere er egnede alternativer5 s'al hvert stof undersGges en'eltvis ved at sammenligne stoffets

    P6+-egens'aber med egens'aberne af de tilsvarende halogenerede flammehWmmere1 4ndtil flere

    data foreligger5 er det fortsat umuligt $rWcist at vurdere risi'oen af hver af disse forbindelser5 ogs

    de som allerede mar'edsfGres intensivt1

    +il?m

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    brominated flame retardants 2>

    ;orbr

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    [email protected] brominated flame retardants

    6etydningen af de fors'ellige bromerede flammehWmmere $ dannelsen af bromerede og blandede

    bromeredechlorerede dio;iner og furaner ved fors'ellige ty$er af termis'e $rocesser er i''e 'endt

    for de fleste bromerede flammehWmmere1

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    brominated flame retardants 2.

    $. Introduction to the substance #rou%

    $.$ Definition of the substance #rou%

    (lame retardants are added to $olymeric materials5 both natural and synthetic5 to enhance the

    flame-retardancy $ro$erties of the $olymers1

    +he flame retardants may be divided into several families1 +he grou$ing varies5 but often the flame

    retardants are divided into five main families of flame-retardant chemicalsC

    4norganic flame retardants including aluminium trio;ide5 magnesium hydro;ide5 ammonium

    $oly$hos$hate5 and red $hos$horus1 +his family re$resents about ?0M of the total mar'et vol-

    ume1

    6rominated flame retardants 86(7s91 +he grou$ is sometimes considered to include only the

    organic brominated flame retardants5 but the inorganic flame retardant ammonium bromide is

    included in this survey1

    "hlorinated flame retardants1

    Organo$hos$horous flame retardants1 +he most im$ortant organo$hos$horous flame retard-

    ants are $hos$hate esters1 Organo$hos$horous flame retardants with bromine content areconsidered to be included in the grou$ of brominated flame retardants in this survey1 +he non-

    halogenated $hos$horous-based organic and inorganic flame retardants are sometimes con-

    sidered together because they re$resent a s$ecific mar'et segment1

    )itrogen-based organic flame retardants1

    #ccording to the ma*or manufacturers of 6(7s5 more than !0 bromine com$ounds are in use today5

    although only a few are used in large amounts 86(74P5 2091 #$$endi; ! lists !0 "#S numbers of

    6(7s5 and @ 6(7s with $ro$rietary "#S numbers 8non-disclosed "#S numbers95 manufactured and

    mar'eted by the ma*or global manufacturers of flame retardants1

    Over time more than >0 different 6(7s have been mar'eted1 Several of the 6(7s are banned today5

    but may still be $resent in $roducts in use in society or in the environment1

    # gross list of 6(7s has been $o$ulated on the basis ofC

    # list of 6(7s mar'eted by ma*or manufacturers shown in #$$endi; !1

    6(7s evaluated by the uro$ean (ood Safety #uthority 8(S#91 (S# has in recent years $ub-

    lished a number of assessments re$orts addressing 6(7s1

    # review $a$er suggesting a novel abbreviation standard for organobromine 8and other9 ame

    retardants 86ergman et al.5 202a9I

    # substance flow analysis of 6(7s in ,enmar' from ... which identified / 6(7s used for

    $roduction $rocesses in ,enmar' 8Lassen et al.5 ...9I

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    !0 brominated flame retardants

    # survey of brominated flame retardants in the )ordic environment 8Schlabach et al.5 2091

    (or all substances in the gross list it has been chec'ed if they are $re-registered or registered under

    7#"H1 (or substances im$orted or manufactured in the 00-000 ty range the deadline for reg-

    istration was %une 20!1 +he registered volume is based on the u$date of the registration database

    of ! %une 20!1

    +he 6(7s from the gross list has been divided into two tables1

    +able includes a list of A. identified 6(7s5 which have been $re-registered under 7#"H andor

    are $roduced by the ma*or manufacturers of 6(7s1 Some of the $ro$rietary 6(7s 8with non-

    disclosed "#S )umber9 may in fact consist of the same substances 8the total number would conse-

    =uently be less than A.9 and H6",, is re$resented by two "#S numbers5 so the total may actually

    be about A? 6(7s1

    +he manufacturing and use of the 6(7s are further described in cha$ter 05 but the registered ton-

    nages are indicated in +able with the aim of $rioritiBation of the substances for the survey1 +he

    substances are either registered by an individual or a *oint submission1 4n the case of a *oint submis-

    sion5 the indicated tonnage band is the total of all manufactured andor im$orted volumes1 +he

    registration of H6",, is5 for instance5 a *oint submission by > com$anies with a total registered

    tonnage of 05000-005000 ty1 4n some cases the substances are registered by more than one indi-

    vidual submissionI in these instances5 each of the individual tonnage bands are indicated5 i1e1 the

    total registered tonnage is the sum of the individual submissions1

    +he $resent study concerns all 6(7s5 but in some cha$ters more focus is $ut on the substances

    manufactured in larger volumes and5 therefore5 currently of greater concern1 (or some of the manu-

    factured 6(7s the "#S numbers are indicated as $ro$rietary 8not disclosed9 and it has not been

    $ossible to identify these substances in the 7#"H databases1 (urthermore5 some of the $olymeric

    flame retardants are $olymers and5 as such5 are not sub*ect to $re-registration and registration

    under 7#"H1 (or at least one "#S number5 the substance has been introduced after the $re-registration deadline and is conse=uently not included in the database of $re-registered substances

    8and still not registered91

    +he abbreviations used in this re$ort are in accordance with a novel abbreviation standard for or-

    ganobromine 8and other9 ame retardants suggested by 6ergman et al.8202a91 +he abbreviations

    used are the so-called $ractical abbreviations 8P7#691 +he 4nternational OrganiBing "ommittee for

    the bi-annual international sym$osia for 6(7s recommends that authors follow this abbreviation

    system in order to facilitate communication and minimiBe confusion1 4n all tables derived from the

    literature5 the abbreviations have been changed to be consistent throughout the re$ort1 Original

    abbreviations from the cited literature are listed together with the abbreviations used in this re$ort

    in #$$endi; 25 which includes chemical and $hysical $ro$erties of the substances1

    #$$endi; 2 also indicates the common names for the substances5 which are generally used in this

    re$ort1 +he substance names indicated in +able are the names as they a$$ear in $re-registrations

    and registrations1

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    brominated flame retardants !

    TAB>0 $

    4,)+4(4, 6(7S 3H4"H #7 4+H7 P7-7K4S+7, #),O7 P7O,U", 6Y %O7 )U(#"+U77S 34+H

    4),4"#+4O) O( 7K4S+7, +O))#K 8#S UP,#+, 6Y "H# 2A %ULY 20!9

    CAS No 0C No Substance name $ Abb. ) 'A / 'e#istered

    tonna#e band

    ty &

    Prere#istered

    Su%%lied

    by maor

    manu

    facturers

    *

    01alu

    ated by

    0;SA

    $$,*$/ 2/-A0/-. 6is8$entabromo$henyl9

    ether

    deca6, # 05000 -

    005000

    ; (S#5

    20b

    $$57, 20/-2>@-A 25/5A-+ribromo$henol +6P #7 5000 - 05000 ; (S#5

    202b

    $&,7&7 20/->..-. tris825!-dibromo$ro$yl9

    $hos$hate

    +,6PP # - (S#5

    202a

    $*/&&)5 ZA0!-.-> Pratherm " 20 8as indicat-

    ed in the $reregistration 9

    - # - ;

    $*,/), 2!>-!>-2 ,ecabromo-5-bi$henyl ,eca66 # - - (S#5

    200

    $)5*$ Polydibromo-styrene co$ol-

    ymer

    - # )ot $re-registered 8$ol-

    ymer9

    ;

    $//,$**7 [email protected]@ H-4ndene5 25!-dihydro-

    55!-trimethyl-!-$henyl-5

    octabromo deriv1

    O6+&P4 # - - (S#5

    202a

    $/57&/))$ ?00-!..-A 2525A5A-+etrabromo-/5/-

    iso$ro$ylidenedi$henol5oligomeric reaction $roducts

    with -chloro-25!-

    e$o;y$ro$ane and 25/5A-

    tribromo$henol

    - # - ; -

    $5*,/5&77 - 2-ethylhe;yl-25!5/5?-

    tetrabromobenBoate

    H-+66 # )ot $reregis-

    tered

    ;

    $$5,7$ A0A-2?/-/ +ri:!-bromo-252-

    bis8bromomethyl9$ro$yl-? 5-84so$ro$ylidene9 bis:!5?-

    dibromo-/-825!-

    dibromo$ro$o;y9benBene->@/-. 5!5?-+riaBine5 25/5A-

    tris825/5A-

    tribromo$heno;y9-

    ++6P-+# # 5000 - 05000 ; (S#5

    202a

    &,)/$7 2/>-/2A-? 6is82-ethylhe;yl9 tetrabro-

    mo$hthalate

    6H-+6P

    # 00 - 5000 ; (S#5

    202a

    *7&5)& 22-!/A-0 252-:8-&ethylethylidene9bis:825A-

    dibromo-/5-

    $henyle-

    le-

    ne9o;ymethylene

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    brominated flame retardants !!

    CAS No 0C No Substance name $ Abb. ) 'A / 'e#istered

    tonna#e band

    ty &

    Prere#istered

    Su%%lied

    by maor

    manu

    facturers

    *

    01alu

    ated by

    0;SA

    *)/7$$, 2?2-0.>-A 525!5/5>5>-He;achloro-?-8tetrabromo-

    $henyl9bicyclo:2121-.!-/ 5!5?-+ris825!-

    dibromo$ro$yl9-5!5?-

    triaBine-25/5A8H5!H5?H9-

    trione

    +,6P-+#+O

    # - - (S#5

    202a

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    !/ brominated flame retardants

    CAS No 0C No Substance name $ Abb. ) 'A / 'e#istered

    tonna#e band

    ty &

    Prere#istered

    Su%%lied

    by maor

    manu

    facturers

    *

    01alu

    ated by

    0;SA

    /5,/,,/ 2A-?2A-A 525/5?-tetrabromo-!5A-6is8$entabromo$heno;y9

    benBene

    /T-

    Pe6PO6-,[email protected]

    # -

    - (S#5202a

    /))7//$ 2A->A>-> 8Pentabromo$henyl9methyl

    acrylate

    P66-#cr 7 00 - 5000 ; (S#5

    202a

    /))7/7* - Poly 8$entabromobenByl

    9acrylate

    - 7 not $reregis-

    trered

    ;

    ,$//57 20-/!A-? 25/-dibromo$henol ,6P #7 - - (S#5

    202b

    ,57$ 20-A>-! Pentabromo$henol P6P #7 - - (S#5

    202b

    ,*&7$ [email protected]?-/ +etrabromo$hthalic anhy-

    dride

    +6P-#nh 7 00 - 5000 ; -

    ,,7$7& 2AA-/??-/ 2-Pro$enoic acid5 5T:8-

    methylethylidene9bis:825A-

    dibromo-/5$henylene9o;y-

    25-ethanediyl-0 Phenol5 /5/-8-

    methylethylidene9bis:25A-

    dibromo-5 $olymer with 252-

    :8-

    methylethylidene9bis:825A-

    dibromo-/5-

    $he-

    nylene9