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2/3/2017 Prof. Dr Othman O. Khalifa 1 Literature Review for an undergraduate dissertation Prof. Dr Othman O. Khalifa Electrical and Computer Engineering Prof. Dr Othman O. Khalifa 1 Outlines Introduction Why do we write literature reviews? Steps to write the literature review. Strategies for writing literature review. Writing the literature review. Tips for successful writing. Common Errors in writing Literature Reviews. End Prof. Dr Othman O. Khalifa 2

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  • 2/3/2017

    Prof. Dr Othman O. Khalifa 1

    Literature Review for an

    undergraduate dissertation

    Prof. Dr Othman O. Khalifa

    Electrical and Computer Engineering

    Prof. Dr Othman O. Khalifa 1

    Outlines

    Introduction

    Why do we write literature reviews?

    Steps to write the literature review.

    Strategies for writing literature review.

    Writing the literature review.

    Tips for successful writing.

    Common Errors in writing Literature Reviews.

    End

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    Outline of your Dissertation

    Be aware that your particular research project will

    generally include these sections in this order :

    Introduction

    Literature Review

    Research Problems/Objectives

    Methodology/Proposed solution and Implementation

    Results analysis/Findings

    Discussion/Conclusion(s)

    Future work

    References Prof. Dr Othman O. Khalifa 3

    Literature Review

    What is a Literature Review?

    A literature review discusses published

    information in a particular subject area, and

    sometimes information in a particular subject

    area within a certain time period.

    The 'Literature Review' is the part of the

    dissertation where there is extensive reference to

    related research and theory in the field

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    Overall, the function of a literature review is to

    show how related work in the field has shaped

    and influenced your research.

    Then...

    A literature review summarises, critically

    analyses and evaluates previous research

    available on the subject, presenting this in an

    organised way. It should address a clearly

    articulated question or series of questionsProf. Dr Othman O. Khalifa 5

    Introduction

    It is NOT:

    A descriptive list or summaries of books/articles

    etc

    An exhaustive bibliography on everything ever

    written on the topic- you need to make a decision

    about what to include.

    A re-statement of the studies previously done

    Your arguments and ideas (like an essay)

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    Prof. Dr Othman O. Khalifa 7

    Questions you need to ask yourself when you are

    planning and drafting your Literature Review:

    What has been done in your field of research? What principles of

    selection are you going to use?

    How are you going to order your discussion? Chronological,

    thematic, conceptual, methodological, or a combination? What

    section headings will you use?

    How do the various studies relate to each other? What precise

    contribution do they make to the field? What are their limitations?

    How does your own research fit into what has already been

    done?

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    Why do we write literature reviews?

    Literature reviews provide you with a handy guide to a particular topic.

    If you have limited time to conduct research, literature reviews can give you an

    overview or act as a stepping stone.

    For scholars, the depth and breadth of the literature review emphasizes the

    credibility of the writer in his or her field.

    Literature reviews also provide a solid background for a research papers

    investigation.

    Comprehensive knowledge of the literature of the field is essential to most

    research papers.

    Prof. Dr Othman O. Khalifa

    9

    Why do we write literature reviews?

    To provide a historical context for your research .

    To give an overview of the current context in which your

    research is situated .

    To show relevant theories and concepts for your research.

    To provide definitions and relevant terminology for your

    research.

    To describe related research in the field and how your work

    extends this or addresses a gap in previous work in the field .

    To provide supporting evidence for a practical problem which

    your research is addressing.

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    To demonstrate an in-depth understanding of your topic area.

    including key concepts, terminology, theories and definitions.

    To identify what research has been done in that area.

    To find gaps in the research or current areas of interest to help

    you. formulate your own research question.

    To identify the main research methodologies in your subject

    area.

    To convince the reader that your research questions are

    significant, important and interesting.

    To convince the reader that your thesis will make an original

    contribution to the area being investigated. 11

    Steps to write the literature review

    1. Define your topic: you must define your topic and components of your topic.

    2. Find relevant literature on your topic and follow trails of references .

    - Search for materials: use search tools (such as the library catalogue, databases,

    bibliographies).

    3. Identify ideas/theories/approaches/methods/systems to the topic that have emerged from reading.

    4. Evaluate what you have found: - Read and evaluate what you have found in order to determine which material makes a significant contribution to the understanding of the topic

    5. Introduce and explain each (idea/method/theory/approach), present evidence from readings (agreements/ disagreements), critically commentate and relate to your own research.

    6. Analysis and interpretation: provide a discussion of the findings and conclusions of the pertinent literature.

    12

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    Steps to write the literature review...

    Always begin with

    an introduction to

    the review & end

    with a summary

    Make the connection

    for the reader between

    the subtopics & the

    topic

    Always cite

    your sources

    Present your

    knowledge on the

    topics & subtopics

    Summarize each

    subtopic

    Include a transition

    paragraph from one

    subtopic to the next

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    Strategies for writing literature review

    1. Define a Topic

    - How to choose which topic to review?-The topic must be interesting to you

    - important keywords

    - A well-defined issue (otherwise you could potentially include thousands of publications)

    2. Search and Re-search the Literature- keep track of the search items, papers that easy to access.

    - define early in the process some criteria for exclusion of irrelevant papers (criteria )

    - do not just look for research papers in the area you wish to review, but also seek

    previous reviews.

    3. Take Notes While Reading- (-so that you will not forget)

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    Strategies for writing literature review

    Keep the Review Focused and Relevant

    - The topic should be narrow. You should only present ideas and only report on studies that are closely related to topic).

    Be Critical and Consistent

    -After having read a review of the literature, a reader should have a rough idea of:

    - the major achievements in the reviewed field,

    - the main areas of debate, and

    - the outstanding research questions.

    Be Up-to-Date, but Do Not Forget Older Studies- Today's reviews of the literature need awareness not just of the overall

    direction and achievements of a field of inquiry, but also of the latest studies, so

    as not to become out-of-date before they have been published. 15

    Writing the literature review

    Introduction

    Could include:

    Why the topic is important- is it an area of current interest?

    The scope of the review- the aspects of the topic that will be

    covered.

    How the review is organised

    Has the topic been widely researched? Or not?

    Significant gaps in the research into your topic

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    Writing the literature review .....

    Main body: General writing advice

    Provide the reader with strong "umbrella" sentences at

    beginnings of paragraphs, "signposts" throughout, and brief

    "so what" summary sentences at intermediate points in the

    review to aid in understanding comparisons and analyses.

    Use language to show confidence/caution:

    e.g. There is clearly a link.../This suggests a possible link...

    Use you own voice to comment on the literature

    (advantages/disadvantages) or limitations/strengths

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    Writing the literature review .....

    Critical writing in a literature review can include Comparing and contrasting different theories, concepts etc and

    indicating the position you are taking for your own work

    Showing how limitations in others work creates a research gap for you.

    Strategic and selective referencing to support the underpinning

    arguments which form the basis of your research

    Synthesising and reformulating arguments from various sources to

    create new/more developed point of view

    Agreeing with/defending a point of view or finding

    Accepting current viewpoints have some strengths but qualifying your

    position by highlighting weaknesses

    Rejecting a point of view with reasons (e.g. Lack of evidence)

    Making connections between sources. 18

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    Writing the literature review .....

    Conclude your literature review with a statement which

    summarises your review and links this to your own

    research/current issues:

    In conclusion, extensive research has shown that ......

    ...........

    This research therefore fills an evident gap in ......research, bringing

    these two concepts together in an important investigation of ....

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    Research Technique Features

    Used

    Domain Disadvantage /

    Advantage

    Future Direction

    Lin et al. 2007

    A priori algorithm

    Association rule

    mining

    Pre-filtering

    architecture

    Audiovisual Weather

    Sports

    Commercial

    Reduce the amount of misclassification errors.

    Able to identify a high

    percentage of positive

    instances in each concept

    Due to the different properties of the data

    sets representing the

    semantic concepts

    such as weather,

    commercial, and

    sports, they proposed

    to use different strategies to merge the

    rules.

    Davis & Tyagi

    2006

    Probabilistic reliable-

    inference framework

    Hidden Markov Model (HMM) output

    likelihoods and action

    priors

    Maximum likelihood

    (ML) and maximum

    a posteriori (MAP)

    Motion Walking, running,

    standing, bending-

    forward, crouching-

    down, and sitting

    The system only makes

    classifications when it

    believes the input is

    good enough for discrimination between

    the possible actions

    Example

    Such a table provides a quick overview that allows the reviewer to make sense of a large

    mass of information.

    Table to summarize your Literature Review

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    Writing the literature review .....

    Dont forget about the referencing!

    Keep a record of all the sources that you use!

    Use the referencing style recommended by your

    institution e.g IEEE/APA

    Grammar, spelling and punctuation

    Plagiarism : Plagiarism is a serious offence.

    Copy and paste for the report content is

    prohibited.

    Prof. Dr Othman O. Khalifa 21

    Tips for Successful Report Writing

    Be realistic

    Plan to write regularly

    Make a time plan and stick to it

    Write up section as soon as its ready

    Keep track of tense. Most experiments and procedures will be

    described in the past tens.

    Keep track of singular and plural forms.

    Group sentences that express and develop one aspect of your topic.

    Use a new paragraph for another aspect or another topic..

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    Tips for Successful Report Writing

    Use sentences and paragraphs with appropriate use of commas.

    Incorrect use of punctuation can affect the meaning

    Use words that link paragraphs and which show contrast and

    development to your argument e.g. hence, therefore, but,

    thus, as a result, in contrast.

    Referencing is a standardized method of acknowledging sources

    of information and ideas used in the course of the study/project in

    a way to identify the source.

    Prof. Dr Othman O. Khalifa 23

    Tips for successful writing ..

    After reviewing the literature, summarize what has been done,

    what has not been done, and what needs to be done.

    All sources cited in the literature review should be listed in the

    references.

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    What are the examiners looking for?

    Show your reader that you...

    have a clear understanding of the key

    concepts/ideas/studies/ models related to your topic

    know about the history of your research area and

    any related controversies

    can discuss these ideas in a context appropriate for

    your own investigation

    can evaluate the work of others

    Prof. Dr Othman O. Khalifa 25

    What are the examiners looking for? ...

    Clarify important definitions/terminology

    Develop the research space you will also

    indicate in the Introduction and Abstract

    Narrow the problem; make the study feasible

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    Common Errors in writing Literature Reviews

    Insufficient information

    Irrelevant material (Review doesnt relate literature to the study)

    Omission of recent work (Not up to date)

    Review isnt logically organized or Bad organization and structure

    Review isnt focused on most important facets of the study

    Too few references or outdated references cited

    Prof. Dr Othman O. Khalifa 27

    Common Errors in writing Literature Reviews ..

    Review isnt written in authors own words

    Review reads like a series of disjointed summaries

    Review doesnt argue a point

    Unclear, wordy sentences.

    Inflated verbiage Whenever possible, avoid jargon, intensifiers (very, really, totally, completely, truly), and

    adverbs (-ly words)

    Lack of Critical Appraisal: Be sure to indicate how strong or how

    weak the overall evidence is for each main point of your literature

    review . Prof. Dr Othman O. Khalifa 28

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    Common Errors in writing Literature Reviews

    Repetition of Ideas, Sentences.

    Unjustified claims

    Poor flow of ideas in sentences

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    Oooops

    Plagiarism includes (Galvan, pg. 89):

    1. Using another writers words without proper citation

    2. Using another writers ideas without proper citation

    3. Citing a source but reproducing the exact word without quotation marks

    4. Borrowing the structure of another authors phrases/sentences without giving the source

    5. Borrowing all or part of another students paper

    6. Using paper-writing service or having a friend write the paper

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    Turnitin (www.turnitin.com)

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    Summary

    A literature review is not rewriting of the literature but critical

    review of content of the literature.

    It should summarizes and evaluates the literature that you

    have used in your study by considering:

    How that literature has contributed to your area of research

    The strength and weaknesses of previous studies

    How the review provides information for your own research

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    Thank you

    Wassalam

    Prof. Dr Othman O. Khalifa 33