LightWave 3D 8 Texturing

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Text of LightWave 3D 8 Texturing

LightWave 3D 8 TexturingLeigh van der Byl

Wordware Publishing, Inc.

Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data Van der Byl, Leigh, 1979LightWave 3D 8 texturing / by Leigh van der Byl. p. cm. Includes index. ISBN 1-55622-285-8 (pbk., companion CD-ROM) 1. Computer animation. 2. Computer graphics. 3. LightWave 3D. TR897.7.V36 2004 006.6'96dc22 2004004094 CIP

I. Title.

2004, Wordware Publishing, Inc. All Rights Reserved 2320 Los Rios Boulevard Plano, Texas 75074 No part of this book may be reproduced in any form or by any means without permission in writing from Wordware Publishing, Inc. Printed in the United States of America

ISBN 1-55622-285-810 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0403

LightWave, LightWave 3D, and the LightWave logo are registered trademarks of NewTek, Inc., registered in the United States and other countries. Deep Paint 3D is a registered trademark of Right Hemisphere. Adobe and Photoshop are registered trademarks of Adobe Systems Incorporated in the United States and/or other countries. All brand names and product names mentioned in this book are trademarks or service marks of their respective companies. Any omission or misuse (of any kind) of service marks or trademarks should not be regarded as intent to infringe on the property of others. The publisher recognizes and respects all marks used by companies, manufacturers, and developers as a means to distinguish their products.

All inquiries for volume purchases of this book should be addressed to Wordware Publishing, Inc., at the above address. Telephone inquiries may be made by calling: (972) 423-0090

This book is dedicated To William Vaughan Who remains enthusiastic in the face of adversity, a man who gives so much to the community for what seems like nothing in return; To Wes Beckwith Whose support is enough to get any author through the long and hard process involved in writing; And lastly, to all artists who like to engage their minds.

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ContentsAcknowledgments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xvPart 1

The Art and Science of TexturingChapter 1

Observing the World Around Us . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 Looking at the World a Little Differently . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 The Effects of Time and Weather . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 The Effects of Human Interaction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 Every Surface Tells a Story . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 Gathering References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 Lighting Basics . . . . . . . Observing Light and Its Effects. . Basic Light Options in LightWave Distant Lights. . . . . . . . . Spotlights . . . . . . . . . . Point Lights . . . . . . . . . . Area Lights . . . . . . . . . . Linear Lights . . . . . . . . . Creating Basic Lighting Setups. . The Key Light . . . . . . . . . The Fill Light . . . . . . . . . The Backlight. . . . . . . . .Part 2

Chapter 2

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The Surface EditorChapter 3

Introduction to the Surface Editor . . Opening the Surface Editor . . . . . . . Edit Modes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Filtering Options . . . . . . . . . . . . Loading, Saving, and Renaming Surfaces The Preview Window . . . . . . . . . . Smoothing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Double Sided Surfaces . . . . . . . . . The Comment Field. . . . . . . . . . . Surface Attributes . . . Color . . . . . . . . . . What Is Color? . . . . . Using Color . . . . . . Ensuring Color Accuracy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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Chapter 4

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Contents

Manipulating Color. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Hue. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Saturation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Brightness . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Contrast. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Diffuse . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . What Is Diffuse? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Using Diffuse. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Luminosity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . What Is Luminosity? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Using Luminosity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Using Glow with Luminous Surfaces . . . . . . . Specularity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . What Is Specularity? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Using Specularity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Tinting Specular Highlights . . . . . . . . . . . Anisotropic Specularity . . . . . . . . . . . . . Glossiness . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . What Is Glossiness? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Using Glossiness . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Reflection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . What Is Reflection? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Creating an Environment for Reflections . . . . . Using Image World . . . . . . . . . . . . . Using Textured Environment . . . . . . . . . Using Reflection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Diffuse Value and Reflection. . . . . . . . . . . Activating Reflections in Your Render Settings . . . Transparency and Refraction . . . . . . . . . . . What Is Transparency? . . . . . . . . . . . . . What Is Refraction? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Using Transparency and Refraction . . . . . . . Transparency, Reflection, and the Fresnel Effect Color Highlights and Color Filter . . . . . . . Ray Trace Transparency . . . . . . . . . . . Ray Trace Refraction . . . . . . . . . . . . . Translucency . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . What Is Translucency? . . . . . . . . . . . . . Using Translucency . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Subsurface Scattering in Translucent Surfaces . . Bump Mapping. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . What Is Bump Mapping? . . . . . . . . . . . . Using Bump Mapping . . . . . . . . . . . . . Bump Mapping vs. Displacement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33 34 35 35 36 37 37 38 40 40 40 42 44 44 45 47 48 49 49 50 50 50 51 51 52 53 54 55 56 56 56 57 58 59 60 60 60 60 61 62 63 63 65 67

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Chapter 5

Contents

Advanced Options in the Surface Editor . . . . . . . . . 69 The Advanced Tab . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 69 Alpha Channel Options for Surfaces. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 69 Unaffected by Surface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 70 Constant Value . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 70 Surface Opacity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71 Shadow Density . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71 Special Buffers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 72 Corona . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 74 Full Precision Blur . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 75 Render Buffer Export . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 76 Soften Reflections . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 77 Glow . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 78 Render Outlines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 78 Applying Vertex Color Maps. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 79 Color Highlights . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 79 Color Filter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 79 Additive Transparency. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 79 Diffuse Sharpness . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 80 The Environment Tab . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 80 Setting Up Environments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 80 Reflection and Refraction Options . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 81 Choosing Reflection Settings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 81 Choosing Refraction Settings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 82 Reflection and Refraction Blurring . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 84 Shaders . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 84 Built-in LightWave Shaders . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 85 BRDF (Bidirectional Reflectance Distribution Function) . . . . 86 Edge Transparency . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 89 Surface Baker . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 90 Fast Fresnel and Real Fresnel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 94 Halftone . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 96 Interference . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 97 Super Cel Shader . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 99 Thin Film. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 103 Z Shader. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 104 Surface Mixer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 104 gMIL Occlusion