-No.4.] LONDON, SATURDAY, JULY 30, 1825. LECTURES ON PHRENOLOGY, BY DR. SPURZHEIM. LECTURE 13. LADIES AND GENTLESfEN, I have finished the individual organs and the respective powers manifest- ed by them. You may ak whether we have not too many, or whether we have enough. Those who think that we have too many, must reflect that the same mode of reasoning which convinces us that there are two or three fundamental powers proves also that there are thirty-five, or probably more. We endeavour to explain the parts we observe, and if we could explain them by a single power, there would be no necessity for multiplying them. I say to those who hint that there are too many powers, " tell me any one that can be expelled, or any one power whose action yon can explain by referring it to another. I have not found that the parts could be explained by dimi- nishing the number ; nature is not so simple in her operations as some spe- culative philosophers suppose. Those who think that there are not enough powers confound the action with the power. This is a very im- portant point to distinguish, because a small number of powers may pro- duce an infinite number of actions, by their combination. It is really astonishing to find every individual SJ modified in this way, although pos- sessing the same powers, that among thousands and thousands of men, you will never meet with another exactly like yourself We shall nnd that thirty-five powers, if tried by nume- rical progression, would form au in- finite number of combinations ; just as a certain number of letters, possessing few primitive sounds, will allow of the formation of an immense number of words. There are but few primitive colours, but their combinations are immense. We never see two faces quite alike ; the parts composing the face are but few , but how innumer- able are the varieties of appearance produced! I see no reason for be- lieving, therefore, that there are too many, or. that there are not enough. The parts of nature must be ex- plained, and if it be necessary to adopt a power to explain them, we must not hesitate to do so. In look- ing at the individual organization, and the several organs of the powers we have spoken of; we shall find really a philosophical arrangement. The powers have not been discovered in the order I have spoken of them, but one has been discovered here, and another there, and in different parts successively, and if you just look at their situation, it is curious to find. that those powers common to man- and animals, are the powers neces- sary to animal existence, are all placed at the base of the brain, and you will find, that the more ral the powers in nature, the higher np are they placed, and vou find them largest in man, as he is at the top of the animal creation. We find also that all the simiiar powers have their organs near to each other; yon may see an instance of this in the arrangement of the propensities or feelings, the senti- ments proper to man, and so on. Then again yon see a difference in the size of the organs, some being small, others large, and if you reflect on the sphere of activity, you find that also differiug; the activity of all persons is not equal. All things are reason- ably to be understood, by taking them
LADIES AND GENTLESfEN,I have finished the individual organs
and the respective powers manifest-ed by them. You may ak whetherwe have not too many, or whetherwe have enough. Those who thinkthat we have too many, must reflectthat the same mode of reasoningwhich convinces us that there are
two or three fundamental powersproves also that there are thirty-five,or probably more. We endeavour toexplain the parts we observe, and ifwe could explain them by a singlepower, there would be no necessityfor multiplying them. I say to thosewho hint that there are too manypowers, " tell me any one that canbe expelled, or any one power whoseaction yon can explain by referring itto another. I have not found that theparts could be explained by dimi-nishing the number ; nature is not sosimple in her operations as some spe-culative philosophers suppose.Those who think that there are not
enough powers confound the actionwith the power. This is a very im-portant point to distinguish, becausea small number of powers may pro-duce an infinite number of actions,by their combination. It is reallyastonishing to find every individualSJ modified in this way, although pos-sessing the same powers, that amongthousands and thousands of men, youwill never meet with another exactlylike yourself We shall nnd that
thirty-five powers, if tried by nume-rical progression, would form au in-finite number of combinations ; just asa certain number of letters, possessingfew primitive sounds, will allow of theformation of an immense number ofwords. There are but few primitivecolours, but their combinations are
immense. We never see two facesquite alike ; the parts composing theface are but few , but how innumer-able are the varieties of appearanceproduced! I see no reason for be-lieving, therefore, that there are toomany, or. that there are not enough.The parts of nature must be ex-
plained, and if it be necessary to
adopt a power to explain them, wemust not hesitate to do so. In look-ing at the individual organization,and the several organs of the powerswe have spoken of; we shall findreally a philosophical arrangement.The powers have not been discoveredin the order I have spoken of them,but one has been discovered here, andanother there, and in different partssuccessively, and if you just look attheir situation, it is curious to find.that those powers common to man-and animals, are the powers neces-sary to animal existence, are all placedat the base of the brain, and you willfind, that the more ral the powersin nature, the higher np are theyplaced, and vou find them largest inman, as he is at the top of the animalcreation. We find also that all thesimiiar powers have their organs nearto each other; yon may see an instanceof this in the arrangement of thepropensities or feelings, the senti-ments proper to man, and so on.
Then again yon see a difference in thesize of the organs, some being small,others large, and if you reflect on thesphere of activity, you find that alsodifferiug; the activity of all personsis not equal. All things are reason-ably to be understood, by taking them
into parts ; make a moral analysis efany subject, and yon will soon arriveat the elements ot’ which it is c’om-posed, but talk of it in the bulk, andyou wiU discover nothing. Supposewe say, first, that the individual fun-damental powers exist, aud that theyare attached to individual cerebralparts to be ascertained only by obser-vation ; reasoning is worth nothinghere; you may reason for ever on thesubject, but yon conld not ascertainthe situation pf the respective powersby reasoning. Supposing this to bethe case, we can then take a stepfarther, and endeavour to show theusefulness of phrenology.
In the first Lecture, I had the op-portnnity of saying, that it was impos-sible to speak ’of the usefulness of
phrenology before the thing itselfshould be thoroughly understood.
Suppose an organ exists, will it not benecessary to represent the configura-tion as nature presents it. An artist
may draw a portrait of a person, orhe may sketch out an historical pic-ture; he may draw up dramatic scenesof common lit’e, and produce goodeffect; but they say he ought to imi-tate nature. I have before shown,in drawing portraits, how necessaryit is to attend to the configuration ofthe head. I have shown you that thehead is as much modified in figure asthe face, and that therefore it is ne-cessary for an artist to attend to the
figure of the head as well as the face,if he would represent nature. (Thepainting of the head and face sepa-ralile from each other, by which ano-ther head might be appended to thesame face, was shown, to point out thegreat importance of an attention tothe shape of’ the head in portraitpainting.) Do yon suppose that if anartist were to represent a person heintended to be sent to heaven, andanother to be sent to heil, that hewould give them the same shapedheads? (A laugh.) The ancient artistswere very attentive to the various
shapes of the heads of persons of dif-ferent talents, and they were right indoing so ; why should we neglect it ?Hence, in study ing characters, it is
necessary thatariists should study theconfigurations of their characters, sothat where cunning prevails, or natu-ral affection, where firmness or humi-
lity prevails, we have seen that theyare connected with individual organs,and these organs must be studied, if
they wish to represent nature.I come now to another point, to
a new Mep in our investigations, togive a new application to the arts incommon life, and to consider how farthe powers of the mind are indicated
by certain appearances of the coun.tenance, by what is called physiognomy,a term derived from two Greek words&phgr;&ugr;&sgr;ls nature, and &ggr;&ngr;&ohgr;µo&ngr; , a sign or
indication, so that physiognomy meansthe indication of nature by certain
signs, although in its application theterm is restricted to the expressionsof the countenance. Is there anysuch thing as physiognomy ? I pro-pose this question, and 1 know somewill say there is, and others will con-tradict that assertion. We will assumethat there is such a thing, and I amsure that every one is a physiognomistto a certain extent; when personsare brought together, one judges ofanother at first sight, but whether
right or wrong I will not say. Ani-
mals, too, are physiognomists, and soare children. Animals can judge ofsome of the feelings of man; a dogwill know whether his master is angrywith him or pleased. His master maybe angry with him, and express him-self in an artificial language, but hemay do this with a smile upon hiscountenance ; the dog looks at him,but takes no notice of what is said,and, if he could speak ould say.No, no, my master is not angry ; butgive him only one look expressiveof anger, and the animal is afraid.Children always look at the faces oftheir parents, to see whether what
they say is true or not. This is phy-siognomy, but I prefer to call it natu-ral language. The last time, I spoketo you of artificial language, andpointed Oilt the differences betweenthem. Language is the expression bysigns of what is going on internally;these signs are natural of artificial; ifthe signs employed be natural, then Icall that natural language, aud if thesigns be artificial, then I call it arti.ficiallanguage. The natural languageis employrd by all animals endowedwith consciousness and other powers.As soon as there is a power active, itis indicated by external sign,., andthi?
is a language. In discussing abontphysiognomy, we have first to settlewhat we shall call physiognomy; ac-
cording to its etyntojogy, it means a
knowledge of nature, but this mean-ing is quite overlooked in the presenttimes, and it is commonly understoodas the knowledge of internal feelingsby external signs. However, the.e
signs most be distinguished into twoclasses; 1st, Such signs as indicatenatural dispositions, but not their ac-tivity ; and, 2dly, Such signs as indi-cate the activity of the natural powers.Physiognomists, front the ancient
times to the present day, have con-founded these two ideas; they haveattempted sometime} to distinguishthem, but in their application you willfind that no sufficient distinction hasbeen procured. In LAVATER’S work,entitled " Fragments of Physiogno-my," (and really they are but frag-ments,) two sorts of signs are spokenof, physiognomical and pathognomical;by the physiognomical signs are un-derstood such as are shown in thesolid parts, and the pathognomical arethe signs observed in the soft parts, inthe motions of the lyarts. This is anancient distinction, but it has not beensufficiently observed in the applica-tion. When you look iato the workof LAVATER, w-tiere he applies thesigns, yon will find that he confoundsthose which depend upon motion withthose which depend upon configura-tion, and you will find that there isno rule, no principle established toguide our observations. I am surethat LAVATER himself had a fine tactin discovering, even in an astonishingmanner, characters and talents ; buthe has given no principles by whichothers may do the same. However,this art of reading in the faces thecharacters and the talents is veryimportant to actors and to artists. Ifyou were to appeal, as I sometimesdo, to artists, and ask them how theyknow how to represent exactly suchand such characters; they say that thepower must b2 felt ; thilt there is apeculiar talent given to artists. Thisis true. There are artists who have awonderful talent of representing onPaper the internal feelings by certainexternal signs, and others Cannot suc-ceed in doing so. There is somethingof the same kind in practical lite;
there is the finest tact in some ef
judging of others by the external ex-pression of the face. Some cau do sowith a cert tin description of men, butnot with all characters. Among tireactors again, yon witt see that there aresome who w perform certain charac-ters very well, but not others. Nowis it possible to establish rules of na-tural language? I said before, that
evesy thing dane by Nature and dic-tated by the Creator. is submitted to
I ules, and that there are, therefore,principles in natural language. Hence,whoever has the talent I have jn,tdescribed is in possession of the prin-ciples of natural language.
Take any individual who hasthe power of colouring large; it nnot nece-sary to say to him, placesuch and such colours together; hewill know what to place together.
Take another who has the reasoning.powers strong, he will feel what i-, -
wrong and what is proper. The
I principles are necessary for the
guidance of moderate powers. Na-ture has furnished principles by in-tuition to men of talents ; but sincethe powers are not aU eqtially ae.tive, it is necessary that prineiplexshould be supplied to persons possess-ing weaker talents; bxt recollect that £the principles are discovered, notcreated. Natural language exists;the principles of it exist. The powerof imitation is great in some, but notin others, and those art,sts who havethe power stiong will give great ex-pression to what they represent. Butwhat shall we do for those who havenot the po:er very large ? We must
give prineiples to them ; but how shanwe find them out? It is really asto-
nishing to observe how ancient thisdoetr-ine is ; we find. if we read Sekt-mon, that " one teaches with his
fingers, and another makes signs withhis hands;" many ancient authors,as CICERO and other great men, hadwritten on physiognomy, and artists,who represent nature, ought to studyit. The fundamental powers were notundderstood, and that seems to ne the-great reason why the subject of natu-ral language has not advanced ; for,as soon as we- know them, our judg-ment of natural language begins,since everv power has its peculiarsign in animals alrd in man. Yau can-
never confound the signs of onepower with those of another; henceI repeat, that each is fundamental,and that it is necessary for those whostudy physiognomy, and the signs bywhich the activity of the powers isindicated to understand the funda-mental powers of phrenology, andmore especially is this necessary forthose who study expression in the,arts. Follies have crept in here inthe study of physiognomy, and, there-fore, let me repeat, that I do notspeak of the configiaration of the faceor other parts of the body as indica-tive of the powers, except the confi-guration of the brain. You would not,for example, judge by the shape of aman’s hands whether the person hada great power of comparison or cau-sality ; you would not say, by theshape of a man’s fingers, whether heis benevolent or otherwise, nor wouldyou say by the shape of the nose,whether a man were a musician ormathematician. If - you study theworks of physiognomists, you will:find that they admit certain signs toindicate the manifestations of themind. They imagine that the nose isin some relation to the mind ; theyexamine the nose of a witty person,and if they can find any thing pecu-liar in the nose of a witty person,then such a nose is regarded as de-monstrable of wit. (A laugh.) - Someimagine that there is something in thelip, or in the nose and lip, as indica-tive of wit, and so there are severalexternal signs for the same internalpwer; but nature does not employmany modes of indicating the sametalent. Nature is constant, and doesnot vaty her course to flatter onr con-ceptions ; she is infinite in her modifi-cations, but never varies in her prin-ciples. Hence we deny to physiog-nomy the power of indicating the ta-lents, excepting only the brain, wherethe talents reside. If there be a pro-portion between the manifestation ofany power and the appearance of thebrain, we can distinguish it, but nota’o in any other part of the body. Ifwe look for a talent, we must go tothe part where the power resides.
I corne now to a second point ofphysiognomy, which I shall examinea little more closely, namely, themotions of the soft parts, or the pa-
(thognomy of LAVATER. The inter-nal powers of the mind are manifestedexternally by the five senses aud vo-luntary motion ; hence we wish to
find the signs of the internal activityin the five senses and volnntarv mo.tion. All that takes place externallymust be considered in speaking of theinternal powers, and this I have be.lore spoken of nnder the name of na-tural language. Not the coufigilra.tion merely, but the actions and ex-pressions ; suppose I were to confinemyself to configuration, and take.that part which physiognomists havechosen-the face; 1 might look at abust, or at a man asleep, but there isno activity in them. I wish to arriveat the signs which indicate the acti-vity of the internal powers. Is therea sign for self esteem ? How can Iknow if self esteem be active? Or
any other powers, say cautiousness,or acquisitiveness, how can I knowwhether these powers are active? Bythe external signs; by the natural
language. Hence I say that a phre-nologist studies the expression of apower, and the signs by which the ac-tivity of that. power is indicated. Apower, being destined to act, will em-ploy the instruments necessary to actwith, and will employ them in a wayin which the function of that powermay be best exercised; and I canconceive of nothing more simple, asthe principle of natural language, orof the knowledge of the activity of theinternal powers, than this. A powerwill employ the instruments where-with to act, and the five senses in na-ture are familiar examples of what Imean. We find an apparatus, a me-chanism fitted to each ; every one willagree with me in that. Now certainother internal powers manifest them-selves as plainly, by certain externalactions, as the senses I have justmentioned. Permit me to go throughcertain powers, and to make certainapplications of the powers by phreno-logy to the arts and to practical life,in order to convince you of the accu-racy of this principle.There is a power called Combative-
ness. This power gives a dispositionto fight, according to its activity-todefend or to attack. A man attacks,I suppose, from the impulse given bythis _power, the power being very ac.
tive ; there are those who, like the
gladiator of ancient times, attackedothers in the amphitheatre to amusethe people, and those who read theRoman antiquities will find various
positions descriaed in which theyfought. The statne of a gladiator atParis, of which this is a small model,is said to be in a position admirablycalculated to fight; various opinionshave been given on this point, but inwhat po-ition is this man, I ask, to
fight? (The trunk and right arm arestretched forwards, and the weight ofthe body consequentty resting on theright leg, which is also advanced.)The description which is given of theposition of this statue at the Louvreis, that it is admirably calculated forfighting, but I do not believe this.Every one who fights must take a
position in which fighting is possible.Place yourself in the position whichthis statne is placed in, and you couldnot resist the blow of a boy in such aposition. The artist did not intend
to represent him fighting, it was some-thing ebe that he intended. Look atthis statue of Apollo ; artists enter-tain different opinions of it ; some sayhe is in the act of discharging an ar-row from his bow,’ others say he hasjust discharged it, and is watching itseffect. BI1t what would you say ofthis position, could he bend the bowand send off the arrow in this position ?(Apollo is represented stretching hisbody a little forwards and ’throwingthe whole weight of it upon the rightleg, which is advanced.) I have seenthe Royal Archers of Edinburgh, andI never saw any of them discharge anarrow in such a position ; the rightleg mnst go back to be capable of ap-ptying force with the right arm, orthe equilibrium would be lost by a
slight jerk. I cannot blame the ancientartist:, because I do not believe it wasintended by them to have representedApollo doing such things ; they haverepresented their characters correctly,and they have chosen even difficultpo,itions to represent, generally pre-ferring beings in motion to those atre.,t. I believe that it is intended torepresent a preparation for the dis-charge of the arrow, not the act of
discharging. Observe the produc-tions of the artists of this country,and you will find that they do not
study enough the laws of natural lan-guage—their positions are not natu--ral ; the first object should be to ask,how does the thing take place ? andthen put the statue in such a position’in which the power intended to be
displayed can act. Go through theother powers and examine them inthe - same way ; take secretiveness,cautiousness, and adhesiveness. Nowas to adhesiveness, that will verymuch influence the manner of salu-tation ; in this country you shakehands, but let me see a person shakehands with another, and I know by itif his attachment be nominal or sin-cere. If you give another merely aa finger or two, and just drop thehand down and remove it again inthe same way, oh! then I know the’power is not active. (A laugh.) Hutsee how good old friends shake hands;they do it with an earnestness, and’you may see that sincerity and attacii- -ment flow through their fingers, so to’say. (Another laugh.) B
I must be short, and therefore Iwill next say something of Secretive-’ness. How can I know when thispower is active ? By the natural lan-guage, by the appearance of the wholecountenance such a person looks
sideways, looks about the room, butnever looks you in the face ; if he
speaks it is in a whisper, and if hecomes in at a door, he corner in softly,scarcely allowing himself to be heard ;look at the sly animais, how they ap-proach each other. If he do not feelgreat confidence he will scarcely lookat the person lie is addressing, and Imake it a point always to study thenatural language of persons more thanthe artificial language. He will wishto conceal himself, wi!l avoid com-pany, and if brought into it will soontry to get away. Look at the organi- zation of secretiveness, and yon willfind the natural disposition and thedevelopment of the organ in correctproportion. Look at another who hasfirmness active ; you will find it preva-lent in all his actions. Having foundthe powers, the first thing in natu-ral language, (and every power speaksits own language,) you will not’con-’found self-esteem with the love ofapprobation, nor secretiveness withfirmness, nor acquisitiveness with be-’nevolence. We knew, however, that
these powers are not always disposedto act, but that at certain times theyare more active than otlters. -
You will find that even in the partsnot necessary to act the action goeson, and this is a second step in thestudy of nature) language. I will ex-
plain ; not only all the parts neces-sary to act are brought into action,but the similar parts of the body arebrought into action to contribute tothe expression of a certain power. It’I find a disposition to contract myarms forcibly, is it not necessary tocontract the muscles of my face at
the same time ? There are some per-sons whahave a language of the eves,and that language is understood bysome and not by others; is there noaccordance between tha expression ofoth ’r parts and that of the eyes ? Itis necessary to come to common lifeto observe the activity of the powers.A proposition very important in ca,i-nexion with natural language is this,that there is a harmony, and theremust be a harmony in all the naturalexpressions. The statue of Acliitles,at Paris, is certainly a beautiful pieceof seuthtttre, and it is represented ina sorrowfui mood; all the right sideis so, and all the left, except the arm,which has been restored, and it hasno accordance Yo ith the other parts ofthe statue, for it is firmly contracted,wltitst all the other mnscles are re-
presented relaxed ; I would certainlyknock it off, for it is only a disgraceto the other parts. The voice alsohears a relation to the prevailing pow-ers ; if a man be very secretive andsly, his voice will be soft and sweet,bnt if very combative, firm, or cou-rageous, his voice will beef a strongertone.Another point to be considered in
natitral language is this, all the mo-tions of the body are modified by thestate of activity of the powers. Allthe organs placed here about (the tapof the head) draw the head upwards,and there are others wich draw itdown. Examine nature, and you willsee bow the external conntenance
changes, and how the positions of thehead vary ; if you see a person whohas a good deal of self-esteem he willkeep up—up straight, and perhapsstand and talk with you thus, (quiteupright and the arms folded over the
chest).- (A laugh.) There are sonlechildren to whom you never rrquirrto say "keep up," and there are otleento whom the governesses, or parents,are cont.innally spying, " keep up, situp." In walking, riding, and speak-ing, if yon see a man keep himselfquite erect with the ‘ os sublime;"yon may be sure that the feeling ofself-esteem is very active. But howdo yon say to another,
" your humble
servant, sir?" Do you throw yourhead back and place yonr arms " akimbo?" (A laugh.) If a man wereto say, " your humble servant," inthis way, oh ! you would tell him togo about his business, I am sure. Thedisposition is natural in all cotiiitri-s,and has been so at all times, to bendforwards whenever it is intended toshow respect to an equal, or to a su-perior being. RAPHAEL has beaati-fully shown, in one of his paintings,the attachment of children to theirparents by their suppliant forms asthey approach; they lean forwards.See a man who has acquisitiveness ac.tive, a cunning man, he looks one wayand then another way. Secretive-ness makes a man look down; cau-tiousness makes a man look all about.Look to the stern countenance andsturdy expression of a man who hasfirmness active ; nothing will move
him, he holds himself quite upright,and the organ is situated at the top ofthe head. Then if you come to indi-vidnals who -hope much, who praywith hope, they do not look fer theirHeavenly Father here about, (lookingon the floor,) but they look up. Godis every where, but whenever we wishto apply to a spiritual agent then upwe go, although reason does not indi-cate that it is always to be found inone direction, either upwards or down-wards. Whatever the situation of the
organ may be which is active, therethe head is carried in that direction,whether laterally, upward, or dowll-ward. If you try to recollect anything, you lean your head forwardupon yonr arm, and you put yourfinger almost upon the part ; and it i.a fact known, that after having re-flected loug upon any subject thefront part of the head becomes pain-ful. When the organ of harmony isactive, observe how a person performsupon an instrument; if a young lady
plays npon a piano who has no taste ,for music, she pats her fingers nponthe keys like sticks, but if she feelswhat she plays then observe her mo-tions. So of wit and the other powers.
Following up the subject of thenatural language, yon will find thatit will be more actively expressed insome countries than in others ; somewill speak with the whole body, otherswith particular parts ; do not, how-ever, confound what is essential withwhat is merely a modification. Theessential powers are always the same,bnt the slyness of an Italian will hedifferently indicated from the slynessof an Englishman ; the first win showit by his whele actions, and the secondonly in his eyes. In the expression ofcharacters yon may study gracefiil-ness, and this is commonly done, butthe artists have forgotten too much toimitate nature. Moreover, those whowish to make a study of the naturallanguage are invited to study first theprimitive powers, then the languageby which their activity is indicated ;next the modifications ; and lastly,the combinations of the powers as wellas the expression of the individualpowers.
Edemeyrts of Operative Midwifery,comprising a Description of certainnew and improved Powers for assist-in difficult and dangerous Labours ;illustrated by Plates, with Caution-
ary Strictures on tlee improper use ofInstruments. By DAVID D. DAYIS,M. D. Member of the RoyaL Col-leges of Physicians of London andEdinbnrgh, and Lectmer on Mid-wifery. 4to. pp. 345. London,1825. Hurst, Rohinson, and Co. andS. Highley.
THE ancient physicians, it would
appear from CELSUS,* knew bnt little
Lib. vii. Cap. xxix. Thia anthorspeaks ouly " of the method of ex.
of operative midwifery, and were
consulted for the most part, only,when the loss of the child was cer-
tain, and the recovery of the parentdoubtful ; and as such cases probablyoccurred but seldom, the imperfec-tion of their knowledge is not to bewondered at, since they necessarilywanted experience, and the tact ac-
quired by practice, by which alone
the art could have been well under-
stood, successfuity practised, or ma-
terially improved. During the dark
ages which succeeded to the down-
fall of the Romau empire but little
was done towards the improvement of
midwifery; and until the middle of
the seventeenth century, when male
practitioners of the obstetric art firstsame into vogue in ordinary cases, no
decided addition had probably beenmade to the knowledge of the an-cients.-« It is pretty generallyknown," says Dr. Davis, " that theDuchess de !a Viliere, a favourite
mistress of Louis the Fourteenth of
France, was the first female v,ho was
induced to place herself under theexclusive obstetric care of a professorof surgery, independent of any aiitici-pated necessity for a surgical opera-tion. That event took place in De-
cember 1663; and Julian Clement,the fortunate attendant upon the case,was soon after appointed to the newand lucrative office of Midwifer to thePrincesses of France." Ctement ad-
vanced the practice of midwifery,but introduced no improvements into
tracting a dead taetus," and apparent-ly knew no instrument but the crot-chet. HIPPOCRATRS and GALEN wefeequally uninformed.