Learning to Work in a Cooperative GroupJan Summers
Why Do We Have Groups?Encourages social participation of the learner
Promotes teamwork and interpersonal skills
Increases retention of material
Groups Foster Social SkillsBecome active listeners
Learn to ask good questions
Give others a chance to share ideas
Passive students benefit
How Do Students Learn to Manage Conflict?Recognize conflictIdentify wantsIdentify feelingsIdentify others wantsOffer solutionsReach agreement
Teachers RoleContinually monitor groups
Guide students by asking quality questions
Insure that each student is accountable
AssessmentNeeds to be measured
Students require feedback
Achieved through observation
What Makes a Group Less Successful?Students work on their own
Interaction involves giving and checking answers
Teacher instructions are unclear
Absence of predefined student roles
What Makes a Group More Successful?Manipulatives are used
Groups have at least three members
Rewards are used, mostly for positive behavior
Teacher monitors group
Individual or group accountability
ReferencesChiu, M. (2004). Adapting teacher interventions to students needs during cooperative learning: How to improve student problem solving and time on-task. American Educational Research Journal, 41, 365-400.
Emmer, E. T. & Gerwels, M.C. (2002). Cooperative learning in elementary classrooms: Teaching practices and lesson characteristics. The Elementary School Journal, 103, 75-93.
Prinu, M. (2004). Does active learning work? A review of the research. Journal of Engineering Education, 93, 223-232.
Vermette, P., Harper, L., & Dimillo, S. (2004). Cooperative and collaborative learning with 4-8 year olds: How does research support teachers practice? Journal of Instructional Psychology, 31, 130.