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  • Language Teaching Awareness

    Cambridge University Press www.cambridge.org

    Cambridge University Press978-0-521-63039-9 - Language Teaching Awareness: A Guide to Exploring Beliefs and PracticesJerry G. Gebhard and Robert OprandyFrontmatterMore information

    http://www.cambridge.org/0521630398http://www.cambridge.orghttp://www.cambridge.org

  • CAMBRIDGE LANGUAGE EDUCATIONSeries Editor: Jack C. Richards

    This series draws on the best available research, theory, and eduational practice tohelp clarify issues and resolve problems in language teaching, language teachereducation, and related areas. Books in the series focus on a wide range of issuesand are written in a style that is accessible to classroom teachers, teachers-in-training, and teacher educators.

    In this series:

    Agendas for Second Language Literarcy by Sandra Lee McKay

    Reflective Teaching in Second Language Classrooms by Jack C.Richards and Charles Lockhart

    Educating Second Language Children: The whole child, the wholecurriculum, the whole community edited by Fred Genesee

    Understanding Communication in Second Language Classroomsby Karen E. Johnson

    The Self-directed Teacher: Managing the learning process by DavidNunan and Clarice Lamb

    Functional English Grammar: An introduction for second languageteachers by Graham Lock

    Teachers as Course Developers edited by Kathleen Graves

    Classroom-based Evaluation in Second Language Education by FredGenesee and John A. Upshur

    From Reader to Reading Teacher: Issues and strategies for secondlanguage classrooms by Jo Ann Aebersold and Mary Lee Field

    Extensive Reading in the Second Langauge Classroom by Richard R.Day and Julian Bamford

    Language Teaching Awareness: A guide to exploring beliefs andpractices by Jerry G. Gebhard and Robert Oprandy

    Cambridge University Press www.cambridge.org

    Cambridge University Press978-0-521-63039-9 - Language Teaching Awareness: A Guide to Exploring Beliefs and PracticesJerry G. Gebhard and Robert OprandyFrontmatterMore information

    http://www.cambridge.org/0521630398http://www.cambridge.orghttp://www.cambridge.org

  • Language TeachingAwarenessA guide to exploring beliefsand practices

    Jerry G. GebhardIndiana University of Pennsylvania

    Robert OprandyMonterey Institute of International Studies

    Cambridge University Press www.cambridge.org

    Cambridge University Press978-0-521-63039-9 - Language Teaching Awareness: A Guide to Exploring Beliefs and PracticesJerry G. Gebhard and Robert OprandyFrontmatterMore information

    http://www.cambridge.org/0521630398http://www.cambridge.orghttp://www.cambridge.org

  • PUBLISHED BY THE PRESS SYNDICATE OF THE UNIVERSITY OF CAMBRIDGE

    The Pitt Building, Trumpington Street, Cambridge, United Kingdom

    CAMBRIDGE UNIVERSITY PRESS

    The Edinburgh Building, Cambridge CB2 2RU, UK www.cup.cam.ac.uk40 West 20th Street, New York, NY 10011-4211, USA www.cup.org10 Stamford Road, Oakleigh, Melbourne 3166, AustraliaRuiz de Alarcn 13, 28014 Madrid, Spain

    Cambridge University Press 1999

    This book is in copyright. Subject to statutory exception andto the provisions of relevant collective licensing agreements,no reproduction of any part may take place withoutthe written permission of Cambridge University Press.

    First published 1999

    Printed in the United States of America

    Typeset in Times Roman [AG]

    Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication DataGebhard, Jerry Greer.Language teaching awareness : a guide to exploring beliefs andpractices / by Jerry G. Gebhard and Robert Oprandy.p. cmISBN 0 521 63039 8 hardbackISBN 0 521 63954 9 paperback1. Language and languages Study and teaching.I. Oprandy, Robert. II. Title.P51.G4 1999418.007dc21 98-48366

    CIP

    A catalogue record for this book is available fromthe British Library

    ISBN 0 521 63039 8 hardbackISBN 0 521 63954 9 paperback

    Cambridge University Press www.cambridge.org

    Cambridge University Press978-0-521-63039-9 - Language Teaching Awareness: A Guide to Exploring Beliefs and PracticesJerry G. Gebhard and Robert OprandyFrontmatterMore information

    http://www.cambridge.org/0521630398http://www.cambridge.orghttp://www.cambridge.org

  • To John Fanselow, our mentor and friend,who has liberated so many of us from theusual ways of looking.

    Cambridge University Press www.cambridge.org

    Cambridge University Press978-0-521-63039-9 - Language Teaching Awareness: A Guide to Exploring Beliefs and PracticesJerry G. Gebhard and Robert OprandyFrontmatterMore information

    http://www.cambridge.org/0521630398http://www.cambridge.orghttp://www.cambridge.org

  • Contents

    List of contributors ixSeries editors preface xiPreface xiii

    I INTRODUCTION TO AN EXPLORATORY APPROACH TO TEACHING 1

    Chapter 1 Exploring our teaching 3Jerry G. Gebhard and Robert Oprandy

    Chapter 2 The process of exploration 20Jerry G. Gebhard and Robert Oprandy

    II PROCESSES FOR EXPLORING TEACHING 33

    Chapter 3 Seeing teaching differently through observation 35Jerry G. Gebhard

    Chapter 4 Problem posing and solving with action research 59Jerry G. Gebhard

    Chapter 5 Reflecting through a teaching journal 78Jerry G. Gebhard

    Chapter 6 Exploring with a supervisor 99Robert Oprandy

    Chapter 7 Making personal connections to teaching 122Robert Oprandy

    III EXAMPLES OF TEACHERS EXPLORATIONS 147

    Chapter 8 Teachers talking about teaching: Collaborativeconversations about an elementary ESL class 149Robert Oprandy with Laura Golden and Kayoko Shiomi

    vii

    Cambridge University Press www.cambridge.org

    Cambridge University Press978-0-521-63039-9 - Language Teaching Awareness: A Guide to Exploring Beliefs and PracticesJerry G. Gebhard and Robert OprandyFrontmatterMore information

    http://www.cambridge.org/0521630398http://www.cambridge.orghttp://www.cambridge.org

  • Chapter 9 Microteaching and self-observation: Experiencein a preservice teacher education program 172Jerry G. Gebhard, Mio Hashimoto, Jae-Oke Joe, and Hyunhee Lee

    Chapter 10 Two action research projects 195Helen Collins Sitler and Zubeyde Tezel

    Chapter 11 How yoga was taught: Connecting my studentand teacher selves 211Jerry G. Gebhard

    Bibliography 221Author index 233Subject index 236

    viii Contents

    Cambridge University Press www.cambridge.org

    Cambridge University Press978-0-521-63039-9 - Language Teaching Awareness: A Guide to Exploring Beliefs and PracticesJerry G. Gebhard and Robert OprandyFrontmatterMore information

    http://www.cambridge.org/0521630398http://www.cambridge.orghttp://www.cambridge.org

  • Contributors

    Jerry G. Gebhard, Indiana University of PennsylvaniaLaura Golden, Teachers College, Columbia UniversityMio Hashimoto, Indiana University of PennsylvaniaJae-Oke Joe, Indiana University of PennsylvaniaHyunhee Lee, Chungbuk National University, South KoreaRobert Oprandy, Monterey Institute of International StudiesKayoko Shiomi, Teachers College, Columbia UniversityHelen Collins Sitler, Indiana University of PennsylvaniaZubeyde Tezel, University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign

    ix

    Cambridge University Press www.cambridge.org

    Cambridge University Press978-0-521-63039-9 - Language Teaching Awareness: A Guide to Exploring Beliefs and PracticesJerry G. Gebhard and Robert OprandyFrontmatterMore information

    http://www.cambridge.org/0521630398http://www.cambridge.orghttp://www.cambridge.org

  • Series editors preface

    A current theme in teacher education is to view teacher development as aprocess that involves both the acquisition of practical knowledge and skillsand the examination of beliefs, principles, and theories and how they influ-ence the way teachers teach. Teaching involves both thought and action, andthe interaction between the two forms the focus of recent approaches toteacher development. Teacher education also has to face the issue of link-ing the content of teacher education to the contexts in which teachers work.Much of what occurs in campus programs is soon forgotten or discardedwhen teachers enter or return to schools; hence teacher educators are con-stantly exploring ways of making their curriculum and the activities theymake use of relevant to the immediate and long-term concerns of studentteachers.

    In Language Teaching Awareness two scholars at the forefront of secondlanguage teacher education and their collaborators describe the rationaleand practice underlying what they term an exploratory approach to teacherdevelopment. This refers to activities that seek to develop deeper under-standing of teachers beliefs, theories, principles, and attitudes in order tobetter understand the nature of classroom second language teaching andlearning. The authors agenda is not to present a body of information that isintended to help change or improve teachers practices. Rather, they makea strong and convincing case for exploring teachers beliefs and practicesand using the knowledge and awareness that result from this process tomake informed decisions about ones own teaching.

    Crucial to the process of exploratory teaching proposed in this book arethe observation and description of teaching events and processes, investi-gation of teaching through action research, using journal writing to writeabout and explore teaching, and using conversation to examine teaching fromdifferent perspectives. These activities are intended to help teachers under-stand their own practices as well as those of other teachers, to explore al-ternative approaches to teaching, and to see teaching in different ways. Thebook presents accounts of how these and other activities can be used withinan exploratory approach to teacher development. Procedures for using each

    xi

    Cambridge University Press www.cambridge.org

    Cambridge University Press978-0-521-63039-9 - Language Teaching Awareness: A Guide to Exploring Beliefs and PracticesJerry G. Gebhard and Robert OprandyFrontmatterMore information

    http://www.cambridge.org/0521630398http://www.cambridge.orghttp://www.cambridge.org

  • activity are carefully illustrated, and ideas on how to use the information orinsights gained are given. At the same time, new and challenging insightsabout each of these processes are presented. The set of first-hand accountsand case studies in Part III describe how these processes have been suc-cessfully used and how they helped teachers achieve new insights aboutteaching and about themselves as teachers. Language Teaching Awarenessthus makes a valuable contribution to the field of second language teachereducation and will provide a valuable resource book for teachers andteacher educators who seek to better understand and manage their own pro-fessional development through the application of the principles of ex-ploratory teaching.

    Jack C. Richards

    xii Series editors preface

    Cambridge University Press www.cambridge.org

    Cambridge University Press978-0-521-63039-9 - Language Teaching Awareness: A Guide to Exploring Beliefs and PracticesJerry G. Gebhard and Robert OprandyFrontmatterMore information

    http://www.cambridge.org/0521630398http://www.cambridge.orghttp://www.cambridge.org

  • Preface

    This book is about how teachers can explore their teaching in order to gainawareness of their beliefs and practices. There are several ways in which weconsider our exploratory approach to be different from that in other languageteacher education books. Some books with a teacher training emphasis fo-cus on ways teachers can improve their teaching by mastering prescribedways to teach. That is not the purpose of this book. Other books do not pre-sent best ways to teach but concentrate on how teachers can develop knowl-edge and skills about second language teaching. For example, Richards inBeyond Training (1998) discusses six content domains of second languageeducation that teachers should develop. These include theories of teaching,teaching skills, communication skills and language proficiency, subjectmatter knowledge, pedagogical reasoning skills, and decision making andcontextual knowledge.

    Teacher educators who follow such a developmental approach providea variety of activities for teachers to construct a knowledge base in the sixdomains. These include, according to Richards (ibid., 17), experiencingteaching (e.g., practice teaching, microteaching, internships), observing(e.g., peer observation, use of video protocols), reflecting on teaching andlearning (e.g., journals and other written activities, language learning ex-perience), investigating teaching and learning (e.g., analyzing classroomprocesses, establishing databases), focusing on critical events in teaching(e.g., by analysis of case studies, doing role plays), doing project work(e.g., action research, curriculum and materials development), information-oriented approaches (e.g., lectures and large-group teaching, discussions),communication activities (e.g., student oral presentations, skills training),and proficiency-focused activities (e.g., analysis of classroom language anddiscourse, practice of classroom functional language).

    We see much value in this developmental approach to teaching and havemade great use of such activities in our own teacher-preparation programs.1

    xiii

    1 Although we see value in the developmental approach to teacher education, we alsorecognize that development is not always beneficial. Tanizaki (1967), for example,

    Cambridge University Press www.cambridge.org

    Cambridge University Press978-0-521-63039-9 - Language Teaching Awareness: A Guide to Exploring Beliefs and PracticesJerry G. Gebhard and Robert OprandyFrontmatterMore information

    http://www.cambridge.org/0521630398http://www.cambridge.orghttp://www.cambridge.org

  • We also recognize that there has been much progress made in secondlanguage teacher development (see, for example: Edge 1992; Freeman 1989;Freeman & Cornwell 1993; Freeman & Richards 1996; Johnson 1999; Li,Mahoney, & Richards 1994; Richards & Nunan 1990). Through our expe-rience, though, we feel compelled to forefront several ways to promote anexploratory approach to developing teacher awareness. Our emphasis onexploration overlaps with the developmental approach to (language) teachereducation. Similar to those touting that approach, we agree that teachers needto take responsibility for their own teaching and that they can benefit from thecooperation of colleagues, students, and others. However, we set ourselvesapart in certain ways from the usual approaches to teacher development.

    Unlike one of the goals of development, that of improving teaching, theaim of exploration is, in our view, simply gaining awareness of teachingbeliefs and practices. Improvement implies that some ways are better thanothers in teaching. Searching for such ways can limit teachers from look-ing beyond the concept of effective teaching, possibly blocking them frombecoming more aware of teaching possibilities outside of what is consid-ered improved teaching. In contrast, the goal of exploration is simply to gainawareness of teaching. As Fanselow points out, the aim of exploration isseeing . . . teaching differently (1988: 114). Being open and attemptingto see and understand what is going on between the teacher and studentsand among the students themselves liberates teachers from the pressure o...

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