L Physiological changes l Nutrient needs »Focus on calcium l Eating behaviors »Feeding responsibility »Vegetarian choices »Eating disorders l Lifestyle

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  • Physiological changesNutrient needsFocus on calciumEating behaviorsFeeding responsibilityVegetarian choicesEating disordersLifestyle behaviorsSubstance use/abuseFitness and nutritionTeen pregnancyNutrition during Adolescence

  • Physiological Changes during PubertyPuberty = period of ________ from childhood to adulthoodHormonal changes/body composition triggers?

    Physical:sexual maturationincreased height/weightbody composition nutritionmen: _____ protein, Fe, Zn, Cawomen: _______ menses Feacne

  • Psychological CharacteristicsEstablish


    Imaginary Audiencehigh self-consciousness

    belief in their special, unique existenceIt wont happen to me**Health implication =

  • Calcium45-50% of total bone growth occurs during adolescencecan absorb ____________ as adultsAdequate Intake (AI) is set at ______ mg calcium/day to take advantage of opportunity to build (9-18 years old)High ___________ intake is a concern

  • and Other NutrientsAdolescents are generally low in

    Protein: they get ~2 times more than neededZinc: needed forbioavailability increasesFiber: 0.5 g/kg body weight; keep < 35 g totalV.C:

  • Eating BehaviorsTeens will take increasing responsibility for their food choicesThey still probably need _______ (25-33% of intake)Skipping breakfast/meals is common but unhealthy

    Influences on eating behaviors:

  • Eating BehaviorsTeens will take increasing responsibility for their food choicesmay choose alternative eating patternsgreater risk for eating disordersVegetarians: start puberty shorter, leaner, and later but no differences eventuallyConcern for

    higher prevalence of (using vegetarianism as a cover, not as a result of vegetarianism)

  • Types of Vegetarian DietsMacrobiotic




    Only a few plant foodsDried fruit, nuts, honeyNo animal foodsPlants + milk, eggsditto + poultryPlants + fish(+ milk, eggs)TypeFoods eaten

  • Protein Complementationlegumesvegetablescorngrainsnuts and seedsmetmettrp, lyslys, thrlysFood sourceLimiting amino acidmet = methioninethr = threoninelys = lysinetrp = tryptophan

  • Nutritional Concerns of Vegetarian DietsMacrobiotic



    Others*vit. C, calcium, protein**energy, protein, minerals*

    vitamin B12!, calcium, zinc, iron, vit. D

    probably okayTypeNutrients at risk

  • Eating DisordersFood itself is not the primary problem; food is a symptom of serious distress.

    Early detection is crucial for recovery.

    Help is available. Multidisciplinary treatment works best.

  • PreventionDiscourage

    Downplay _________; promote healthful behaviorPromote eating when

    Do not use food as Teach proper nutrition and healthy weight approaches

  • Adolescents and Athletics________is the nutrient of primary concern for athletes in general________ is a performance and a health riskreplace for every pound lost in sweat

    Protein: +6-7 g/day (____% of kcal)More = high fat intake; delayed digestion, absorption; greater dehydration risk

  • Adolescents and AthleticsEnergy is primary for still-growing adolescent athletesBoys: maintainGirls: maintainConcern = athletes who manipulate weight

    Anabolic steroids increase bulk, but also stunt growth and pose health riskLong-term effects of ___________ are unknown

  • Female Athlete Triad

  • PreventionSupport adolescents through puberty: recognize

    Teach that ______ = better athletic performance

    Encourage healthy attitudes from

  • Adolescent PregnancyHigh risk pregnancies due to immaturity:

    Gynecological age = time from onset of __________< ______ indicates greater riskless time from completion of puberty means less

    e.g. ________involve _______ if possible

  • Risks to the Mother bleeding (1st, 3rd trimesters)__difficultcephalopelvic __________pregnancy-induced hypertensioninfectionspsychological/social development

    mortality: 2.5x greater!

  • perinatal and neonatal

    *babies weigh less than those of adult mothers with same weight gainwill covering normal gain help?risk ofrisk oflife with parent(s) who have ____________ skillslife with one parent only; living below theRisks to the Baby