Knowledge as Love How Metaphors Direct our Efforts to Manage Knowledge in Organisations Keynote address 8th European Conference on Knowledge Management.

  • Published on
    29-Mar-2015

  • View
    213

  • Download
    1

Embed Size (px)

Transcript

<ul><li>Slide 1</li></ul> <p>Knowledge as Love How Metaphors Direct our Efforts to Manage Knowledge in Organisations Keynote address 8th European Conference on Knowledge Management Consorci Escola Industrial de Barcelona (CEIB), Barcelona, Spain 6-7 September 2007 Dr. Daniel Andriessen INHOLLAND University of professional Education Amsterdam The Netherlands Slide 2 2/30 Simplified Chinese Slide 3 3/30 Lakoff and Johnson (1999) Slide 4 4/30 Create an inventory of knowledge Check where knowledge is located Store important knowledge Improve access to knowledge KNOWLEDGE AS A RESOURCE Slide 5 5/30 I got plenty of time That took three hours He wasted my time This will save time TIME AS A RESOURCE Slide 6 6/30 The TIME ORIENTATION metaphor PAST FUTURE Slide 7 7/30 Aymaras use the opposite Slide 8 8/30 MOVING OBSERVER metaphor EVENT 1 EVENT 2 EVENT 3 will you be staying a long time or a short time? "how long is your visit?" Slide 9 9/30 MOVING TIME metaphor TIME "the time for action has arrived" "time flies by" Slide 10 10/30 What happened before the Big Bang? EVENT 1 EVENT 2 EVENT 3 Slide 11 11/30 Time traveling Slide 12 12/30 Mapping from source to target Target Domain (time) Source Domain (space) Characteristics of target domain not covered by source domain Characteristics of source domain not used by metaphor metaphorical entailments Slide 13 13/30 Time as a moving object metaphor TimeMoving Object length amount scarcity direction origin destination arrives flies by speed Slide 14 14/30 Mapping from sources to target Target Domain (TIME) Source Domain RESOURCE SPACE Slide 15 15/30 Intermezzo 1: truth does not exist 1.as direct observation does not exist because people always use concepts to describe reality 2.as these concepts derive their meaning from metaphor 3.as half of these metaphors are embodied in our brain and cannot be shut off or altered 4.as the choice of the other half is too large extent arbitrary we will never be able to perfectly describe and understand reality and ego, truth (defined as correspondence with reality) does not exist. Slide 16 16/30 Conceptualisations of knowledge are metaphorical Knowledge as an object Locate knowledge Recognize knowledge Move knowledge Exchange knowledge Knowledge as an object Locate knowledge Recognize knowledge Move knowledge Exchange knowledge Knowledge as a resource Apply knowledge Use knowledge Store knowledge Accumulate knowledge Knowledge as a resource Apply knowledge Use knowledge Store knowledge Accumulate knowledge Knowledge as thoughts or feelings Articulate knowledge Verbalize knowledge Externalize knowledge Internalize knowledge Knowledge as thoughts or feelings Articulate knowledge Verbalize knowledge Externalize knowledge Internalize knowledge KNOWLEDGE AS STUFF Knowledge as organism Growing knowledge Nurturing knowledge Knowledge develops Knowledge as organism Growing knowledge Nurturing knowledge Knowledge develops Knowledge as capital Value knowledge Invest knowledge Knowledge as capital Value knowledge Invest knowledge Slide 17 17/30 Knowledge as Resource metaphor What the metaphor hidesWhat the metaphor highlights What is not used Non-rivalry of knowledge Non-additiveness of knowledge Tacitness of knowledge Use in production Adding to Storing Sharing knowledge Amount of knowledge Place in input/output (logistical) system Location Size Weight Other physical characteristics Target Domain Source Domain RESOURCE Knowledge becomes part of logistic discourse Slide 18 18/30 Knowledge as Assets metaphor What the metaphor hidesWhat the metaphor highlights What is not used Non-rivalry of knowledge Non-additiveness of knowledge Tacitness of knowledge Controlled by enterprise Generate future economic benefits that flow to enterprise Identifiable and cost can be measured Use in production Place in reporting system Location Size Weight Other physical characteristics Target Domain Source Domain ASSETS Knowledge becomes part of accounting discourse Slide 19 19/30 Knowledge as Property metaphor What the metaphor hidesWhat the metaphor highlights What is not used People can not be owned Tacitness of knowledge Purposeness of knowledge Ownership Value Exclusiveness Legal rights Transferability Ability to commercialize Place in legal system Location Other physical characteristics of property Target Domain Source Domain PROPERTY Knowledge becomes part of legal discourse Slide 20 20/30 There are big differences between the authors Davenport &amp; Prusak (2000) Nonaka &amp; Takeuchi (1995) Slide 21 21/30 Transformation of entailments require argumentation Capital is valuable and important Capital is an asset for the future and not an expenditure Capital can be invested in Capital can be capitalized Capital itself can be invested Capital allows for a return Capital resonates with managers and CFOs Having more capital is better Capital can be owned Capital can be valued financially Capital often appears on the balance sheet Capital is additive (1+1=2) Capital is a stock Capital can and must be measured and managed X Slide 22 22/30 What is wrong with KNOWLEDGE AS STUFF Knowledge as an object Locate knowledge Recognize knowledge Move knowledge Exchange knowledge Knowledge as an object Locate knowledge Recognize knowledge Move knowledge Exchange knowledge Knowledge as a resource Gather knowledge Store knowledge Distribute knowledge Knowledge as a resource Gather knowledge Store knowledge Distribute knowledge KNOWLEDGE AS STUFF Knowledge as capital Value knowledge Invest knowledge Knowledge as capital Value knowledge Invest knowledge Slide 23 23/30 Western and Eastern views on knowledge Dominant view in the West Knowledge as a thing that can be controlled and manipulated Knowledge as information that can be codified, stored, accessed and used Knowledge as resource that can be created, stored, shared, located, or moved, and that is part of the input- throughput-output system of the organization Knowledge as capital that can be valued, capitalized and measured; that is part of the financial flow and requires an return on investment Dominant view in the East Knowledge as spirit and wisdom Knowledge as unfolding truth Unity of universe and human self Unity of knowledge and action Knowledge as illumination or enlightenment of an underlying, deeper reality Knowledge as essence-less and nothingness (Japan) Knowledge creation as a continuous, self-transcending process Slide 24 24/30 Employees Metaphor 1 Gathering results Diagnosis and development of solutions Working in teams of 4plenary session Metaphor 2 Gathering results Diagnosis and development of solutions Working in teams of 4plenary session Vote (2 votes per person) Questionnaire Personal reflection Managers Metaphor 1 Gathering results Diagnosis and development of solutions Working in teams of 4plenary session Metaphor 2 Gathering results Diagnosis and development of solutions Working in teams of 4plenary session Vote (2 votes per person) Questionnaire Personal reflection Design of the exercise Slide 25 25/30 KNOWLEDGE AS WATER DIAGNOSIS Knowledge does not flow Separate source of knowledge Knowledge is not channeled No dispersion of knowledge Hydrocephalus: people keeping knowledge to themselves SOLUTIONS Build canals Flush out and freshen knowledge Tap knowledge from people leaving Create knowledge map Managers as knowledge channels Knowledge management Slide 26 26/30 KNOWLEDGE AS LOVE DIAGNOSIS Knowledge is not cherished Lack of trust Unrequited love Rivalry and forced marriages Attractive but lonely singles In-breeding We only talk about our wedding certificate but not about our relationship SOLUTIONS Provide time and space for sharing knowledge Match peoples passions and tasks Go out and date more Hire marriage counselor Partner-swapping Dont manage and systemize knowledge Slide 27 27/30 Intermezzo 2: problems don't exist Problems are not phenomena waiting out there in reality to be observed. A problem is a gap between an existing and a preferred situation (Ist and Soll). Both the perception of the existing as the perception of the preferred situation depends on how you prefer to look at it Ergo, a problem is by definition subjective. "a problem is an interpretation of a feeling of discomfort (J. Kessels) Slide 28 28/30 KM Metaphor Analysis Scoring Form Slide 29 29/30 What would be the outcome of your research if we see knowledge not at stuff but as love? Slide 30 30/30 Thank You! Dr. Daniel Andriessen Professor of Intellectual Capital INHOLLAND University of Professional Education Amsterdam/ Diemen The Netherlands Daan.andriessen@inholland.nl www.weightlesswealth.com +31-204951719 </p>

Recommended

View more >