Judicial Ethics: A Foundation of Justice & 2015/Judicial... · from the Ancient Greek word ethikos,…

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  • Judicial Ethics

    as a Foundation of

    Justice & Sovereignty

  • What well do today:

    Explore how the unique role of a tribal judge

    and tribal court can help you:

    Make ethical choices without a written code

    using existing values and principles,

    Decide whether to create a written code of

    ethics, and

    Consider the tribal principles that should be

    in a written code if you choose to create one

  • Starting at the beginning:

    What is the purpose of the tribal

    court?

  • Tribal courts are important to

    community and to nation building.

    Theyre mechanisms to promote

    peace.

    -Chief Judge Joseph Flies-Away, Hualapai

    Nation

  • Incorporating Tradition &

    Custom

    Tribal courts that reflect & incorporate

    tribal values and traditions support

    sovereignty and establish community.

  • What are

    those values? Relationship

    Reintegration

    Healing

    Respect

    Harmony & balance

    Patience

    Dignity

    Spirituality

    People do the

    worst things

    when they have

    no ties to

    people.

    Chief Judge

    Flies-Away

  • How do

    judges

    incorporate

    tribal

    values into

    their work?

    Values

    Ethics

    Justice

  • With those values in mind,

    lets first think about the

    role of the judge in a tribal

    justice system.

    What do all Judges do?

    What is unique to the role of a tribal

    judge?

  • How can tribal

    judicial/court ethics ensure

    that tribal values are the

    basis of tribal court

    practices and judicial

    conduct?

  • What is Ethics?

    The branch of philosophy that involves

    systematizing, defending, and

    recommending concepts of right and

    wrong conduct. The term ethics comes

    from the Ancient Greek word ethikos,

    which is derived from the word ethos

    (habit, custom). Wikipedia

  • Principles & Values

    Guiding Principles

    Fairness

    Impartiality

    Integrity

    Diligence

    Patience

    Competence

    Independence

    Traditional/Native Values

    Respect for each other

    Respect for tradition &

    culture

    Respect of land, animals

  • Why is a Code of Ethics

    important? Sets minimum standards for judges and

    court staff

    Defines acceptable behavior

    Promotes high standards

    Creates an increased level of public

    confidence and trust

    Reaffirms tribal values and ideas about

    justice

  • Why is a Code of Ethics

    important? (continued)

    Serves as a guide and reference for

    day-to-day decision-making

    Clarifies an organizations mission,

    values and principles, links them with

    standards of professional conduct

    Serves as an open disclosure of the way

    an organization (the Court) operates

  • Reasons tribes may not want

    a Written Code of Judicial

    Ethics:

  • Examples of Provisions from

    Tribal Codes of Ethics

  • A Navajo Nation Judge shall

    promote Navajo Justice.

    A Navajo judge should decide and rule

    between the Four Sacred Mountains. . .

    [J]udges, as Navajos, should apply Navajo

    concepts and procedures of justice,

    including the principles of maintaining

    harmony, establishing order, respecting

    freedom, and talking things out in free

    discussion.

  • Considerations for Navajo

    Judges in applying this Canon

    Harmony

    Order

    Judicial Attitudes

    Equality (not

    coercion)

    Humility

    Fair Play

    Leadership and

    Guidance

    Restitution

  • Guiding Principles of Mashpee-

    Wampanoag Peacemaker Court

    Harmony

    Non-Coercion

    Community Health

    Sacred Restorative Justice

  • Oneida Canon 2

    A Judge shall hear and decide all matters

    assigned to the Judge, except when

    disqualification is necessary or where a

    substitution is requested and granted.

    Ka>nikuhliythe openness of the good spirit and

    mind.

    -From the Philosophies of the Good Mind, as

    expressed by Onayoteak

  • One of the most fundamental values of the Oneida

    People is Ka>nikuhliy, which is also a critical

    quality for a decision maker. Judges must have an

    open mind and good spirit so that they can make

    the right decisions, based on the right information.

    This Canon establishes Rules to help ensure that a

    Judge makes decisions with an open mind and good

    spirit.

    Commentary to Canon 2:

    linking core value to current

    rule re disqualification

  • Although there are often situations where only the

    Judge would be able to know whether he or she

    could hear a matter with a good spirit and open

    mind, the following Rules also identify many

    situations where a Judge would be required to

    withdraw, in order to preserve the public

    perception of the Judiciary - to ensure the

    Community remains confident in the

    Ka>nikuhliy of the decision maker, and

    therefore, in the decision issued by that decision

    maker.

    Commentary to Canon 2

  • If ethics = core beliefs about

    right & wrong,

    How do judges and court staff get

    into ethical trouble?

  • Common Complaints about

    Tribal Courts that raise

    ethical dilemmas

    (valid or not. . . )

  • Scenario 1

  • Scenario 2

  • Scenario 3

  • Scenario 4

  • Scenario 5

  • For Examples of Tribal Judicial

    Codes of Ethics

    http://www.judges.org/wp-

    content/uploads/ntjc_samplecode.pdf

    http://www.navajocourts.org/Policies/Co

    deJudicialConduct.htm

    http://www.whiteearth.com/data/upfiles

    /files/JudicialCode.pdf

    http://kawnation.com/?page_id=2839

    http://www.mwtribejudicial.com/content

    /pages/45/Code-of-Judicial-Conduct.pdf

    http://www.navajocourts.org/Policies/CodeJudicialConduct.htmhttp://www.navajocourts.org/Policies/CodeJudicialConduct.htmhttp://www.navajocourts.org/Policies/CodeJudicialConduct.htmhttp://www.navajocourts.org/Policies/CodeJudicialConduct.htmhttp://www.navajocourts.org/Policies/CodeJudicialConduct.htmhttp://www.navajocourts.org/Policies/CodeJudicialConduct.htmhttp://www.navajocourts.org/Policies/CodeJudicialConduct.htmhttp://www.navajocourts.org/Policies/CodeJudicialConduct.htmhttp://www.navajocourts.org/Policies/CodeJudicialConduct.htmhttp://www.whiteearth.com/data/upfiles/files/JudicialCode.pdfhttp://www.whiteearth.com/data/upfiles/files/JudicialCode.pdfhttp://www.whiteearth.com/data/upfiles/files/JudicialCode.pdfhttp://www.whiteearth.com/data/upfiles/files/JudicialCode.pdfhttp://kawnation.com/?page_id=2839http://kawnation.com/?page_id=2839

  • More Examples

    http://www.mwtribejudicial.com/peace-

    makers

    https://oneida-

    nsn.gov/uploadedFiles/wwwroot/Governm

    ent/Laws,_Policies,_Resolutions/Oneida_R

    egister/Code_of_Laws/Canons.pdf

    http://www.oneidanation.org/uploadedFil

    es/Judical%20Code%20Chpt%20Five%20-

    %20updated%2006-07-04.pdf

    https://oneida-nsn.gov/uploadedFiles/wwwroot/Government/Laws,_Policies,_Resolutions/Oneida_Register/Code_of_Laws/Canons.pdfhttps://oneida-nsn.gov/uploadedFiles/wwwroot/Government/Laws,_Policies,_Resolutions/Oneida_Register/Code_of_Laws/Canons.pdfhttps://oneida-nsn.gov/uploadedFiles/wwwroot/Government/Laws,_Policies,_Resolutions/Oneida_Register/Code_of_Laws/Canons.pdfhttps://oneida-nsn.gov/uploadedFiles/wwwroot/Government/Laws,_Policies,_Resolutions/Oneida_Register/Code_of_Laws/Canons.pdfhttps://oneida-nsn.gov/uploadedFiles/wwwroot/Government/Laws,_Policies,_Resolutions/Oneida_Register/Code_of_Laws/Canons.pdfhttps://oneida-nsn.gov/uploadedFiles/wwwroot/Government/Laws,_Policies,_Resolutions/Oneida_Register/Code_of_Laws/Canons.pdfhttps://oneida-nsn.gov/uploadedFiles/wwwroot/Government/Laws,_Policies,_Resolutions/Oneida_Register/Code_of_Laws/Canons.pdfhttps://oneida-nsn.gov/uploadedFiles/wwwroot/Government/Laws,_Policies,_Resolutions/Oneida_Register/Code_of_Laws/Canons.pdfhttps://oneida-nsn.gov/uploadedFiles/wwwroot/Government/Laws,_Policies,_Resolutions/Oneida_Register/Code_of_Laws/Canons.pdfhttps://oneida-nsn.gov/uploadedFiles/wwwroot/Government/Laws,_Policies,_Resolutions/Oneida_Register/Code_of_Laws/Canons.pdfhttps://oneida-nsn.gov/uploadedFiles/wwwroot/Government/Laws,_Policies,_Resolutions/Oneida_Register/Code_of_Laws/Canons.pdf

  • For More Information

    National Tribal Judicial Center at the

    National Judicial College,

    http://www.judges.org/ntjc/courses/

  • Our Contact Information

    Honorable Renee Torres

    Chief Judge

    Pueblo of Zia

    135 Capital Square Dr.,

    Zia Pueblo, NM 87053

    (505) 867-3304, Ext 232

    Beth A. Gillia

    Director, Corinne Wolfe

    Childrens Law Center

    UNM School of Law

    bgillia@unm.edu

    505-277-0710

    mailto:bgillia@unm.edu