Joshua Liggett Ronald E. McNair Scholar Project Advisor Charles Ettner, Ph.D

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Understanding the Tangled Web Interaction of Indigenous Peoples and Missionaries at Mission Nuestra Senora de la Soledad. Joshua Liggett Ronald E. McNair Scholar Project Advisor Charles Ettner, Ph.D. Department of Anthropology. The Project. Simply: An Analysis of Mission Records. - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

Text of Joshua Liggett Ronald E. McNair Scholar Project Advisor Charles Ettner, Ph.D

Understanding the Tangled Web Interaction of Indigenous Peoples and Missionaries at Mission Nuestra Senora Soledad

Joshua Liggett Ronald E. McNair ScholarProject AdvisorCharles Ettner, Ph.D.Department of Anthropology

Understanding the Tangled WebInteraction of Indigenous Peoples and Missionaries at Mission Nuestra Senora de la SoledadBackground Why? 2313 missing lives, not Agatha Christie, but salient mystery Mission Soledad1Simply:

An Analysis of Mission RecordsThe ProjectWhile not a simple process of examination, that is, in essence what this project entails. Through the examination of extant mission records, this research has allowed us to examine patterns of both the processing of neophytes and marriages both endogamous and exogamous2

The Project:This research is aimed at providing a more vivid understanding of the many peoples who lived and died at Mission Soledad. Particularly, understandings of interactions At Contact

The main goal of this line of research is to elucidate the various patterns found in the data of those persons of Esselen and Chalon ancestry, who were the primary groups housed at Mission Soledad.

Involves examination of various mission records of Mission Soledad, to include baptismal and marriage records

Note: there are no extant death records from Mission Soledad.

Comprised of the Catholic Missions of the South Coast region, extending as far north as Chowchilla, south as far as Visalia and east as far as Fresno and Clovis, even into the foot hills near modern-day Coarsegold.

179217971812?1840With this research, we have been able to determine (Approximately, but with some level of accuracy) where Mission Soledad was pulling converts, both casually and through punitive raids.3MissionNuestra Senora de la SoledadBackgroundNuestra Senora de la Soledad, or Mission Soledad, was founded in 1791 and one of twenty-one Franciscan missions established in what was formerly known as Alta California. Recent work has been done on the inclusive region north to San Francisco Bay area, and south to San Jose. The principle investigator, Dr. Randall Milliken, identified the impact of the California Mission system. Particularly, Milliken identified how the tribes were brought into the mission system. On another note, Milliken also analyzed the various effects on the tribes or tribelets in question.This particular line of research, similar in kind, to the work of Milliken, takes up the study where he left off.

Mission Soledad was founded in 1791, one of the 21 Franciscan missions founded in Alta California. With recent work done by Dr. Randall Milliken in the bay area, serving as the basis for this research. Similar to his work, we will be identifying how the tribes were brought into Mission Soledad and the effects of this conversion on the tribes or tribelets in question.5The Mission RecordsThe Mission Records

2313 baptismal records in total The Huntington Library is the home of the corpus of data, that has been supplemented by data supplied for our use, by Dr. Milliken The Records contain various data, such as: date of baptism, Egos age and origin, their parent or parents origin, Name of Ego, Names of the parent(s), Name of the Padre who wrote the record, and any other pertinent data that was written in the margins. These data allow for the tracking of particular groups, both spatially and temporally.7Tribes Tribelets Tribal AreasVarious OriginsIn the discussion of the various groups represented at Mission Soledad, references will be made to notions of Tribe, Tribelet and Tribal Areas (as defined by Milliken), which will be defined.8TribeletsTribe: Arroyo SecoTribelet: Rancheria de Arroyo SecoTribal Area/Region:As Shown to the RightAs put forth by Randal Milliken, Ph.D. in his article on Priest Valley (2006)In the loose regional community, clusters of family groups shared numerous short-term villages within extensive named territories. The territorial boundaries of such regions were vague, and the constituent villages lacked centralized leadership.Precise areas such as tribelet and village locationsVague, harder-to-define areas like communities, groups, and homelands

Pomo TribeletsTo explain the notion of three notions of Tribe, Tribelet and Tribal Areas (or Regions) I use the Pomo example put forth by Milliken and example from the data. The Difference is as follows: A Tribe is an identified group such as Pomo Indians (or the Arroyo Seco), a tribelet is usu. a village or rancheria (a more defined location), whereas a tribal area is the general area where a particular band or tribal group ranged within particular geographic confines (to include seasonal camps).9Esselen Territory

Further examples of the three aforementioned notions, as exemplified by the Esselen territories.10Baptismal TotalsAbove: The Aspasniajan Village of PinoMiddle: Conversion of Paiiu VillageBelow: Village totals for Arroyo Seco Region, Graph of Village Totals# of ConvertsStandard OriginVillageTime PeriodFirst BapID66YmmunajanCuchnu, rch. De, Cuchunu4/30/1792 - 3/12/1806SO002614YmmunajanYmmuniajan, Ymmuiajan5/26/1792 - 9/6/1799SO00334YmmunajanJappaymusnu, Japaimusnu, rch., Japaymoxno, rch.6/17/1792 - 9/29/1794SO00402YmmunajanGuayaguayasno, rch., Guayauyayas6/17/1792 - 7/22/1797SO00421Ymmunajan-6/17/1792SO00431Ymmunajan-7/17/1792SO008427YmmunajanArroyo Seco * .. En, Arroyo Seco8/14/1793 - 8/6/1805SO03931YmmunajanAgualzo7/14/1798SO04231YmmunajanPlaya, natural de4/2/1802SO08311YmmunajanSierra4/25/1807SO1303# of ConvertsStandard OriginVillageTime PeriodFirst BapID95AspasniajanPino, Ranch. Del Pino11/23/1791 8/6/1805 13 years, 11 months, 22 daysSO0001# of ConvertsStandard OriginVillageTime PeriodFirst BapID32PiiauPiau, Piu rumbo Chalon, 7/15/1792SO00717921793The main ideas that should be garnered from this data is the following: in various places and amongst various groups there is great time-depth and varying with regard to conversion of native peoples, whereas in some places there is rather short time-depth and a high volume of conversion for a particular group or region (perhaps associated with punitive raids).11Mission Soledad Baptisms, 1770 - 17751770 - 17731774 4/17755/1775 12/1775In examining the corpus of mission baptismal data, we have identified various time-periods of intensive conversion, as well as low-points. Above covers a five-year period 1770-1775 .12Baptismal Totals

The above is a graph of baptismal totals for the life of the mission, after the period previously shown, on a yearly accounting. It should be noted that, as of yet, access to the journals and diaries of mission padres and soldiers has not been secured. And the current belief is that there may be events described there that may explain the high and low points in the data.13At a GlanceMarriage RecordsA Sample of Marriage RecordsMarriage #DateHusbands OriginWife's OriginHusband's BapIDWife's BapIDSO00025/3/1792ChatlonMacalachoposSO0140SO0392SO001412/1/1792ChatlonPinonaySO0140SO0363SO00818/6/1797Chalon, R.aJunutca, R.aSO0362SO0262SO00849/11/1797Chalon, R.Eslat, R.SO0029SO0039SO00978/24/1798Arroyo SecoChalonSO0019SO0020SO010412/16/1798Chalon, rumbo dePinoSO0653SO0662SO01475/17/1800Chalon, rumbo deChalon, rumbo deSO0678SO0681SO01506/21/1800Chalon, rumbo deChalon, rumbo deSO0677SO0680SO01516/21/1800Chalon, rumbo deChalon, rumbo deSO0174SO0153SO02056/13/1802PinoArroyo SecoSO1663SO1921SO05292/11/1821ChalonTularSO0170SO1604SO057810/24/1822PitcatsePitcatseSO0230SO0336742 Marriages occurred at Mission Soledad. While the vast majority were endogamous marriages, exogamous marriages were not uncommon, and among particular groups (such as the Esselen and Chalon, who are the principle groups to be studied in this project) such marriages between groups of native Americans was as much the norm as marriage within.15Cantua CreekListed in Mission Records as frente de San BenitoEsselen GroupsStrong documentation

A Look at NIn short, there are two main methods that we have employed in examining and verifying the relative locations of tribes, tribelets, and tribal areas. The first involves a deconstruction of the name given as the egos origin on their baptismal record, and subsequent comparison to geographic locations and features (Cantua Creek is a prime example). Whereas, the alternative method involves not reinventing the wheel, by using solid data put forth by other researchers and modern native groups themselves.16While the goal of this line of research is to elucidate the patterns by which Native Americans were sought out by the forces of conversion coming from the missions of California, it is important to note that beyond the data, the numbers and the records are the lives of real people who lived, loved, and died. While the missions brought certain boons to Alta California, disease and destruction of culture also entered the world of Native California due to the mission system

Here I will discuss notions of why, with regard to the reason for pursuing this study. The why for me is simply, to facilitate the painting of a more demonstrative picture of the natives that lived at Mission Soledad.17There are many more missions to beyondMission Nuestra Senora De La Soledad

the results of this study will lay the ground work for the various missions to follow

This presentation is the first report on a line of research that will extend throughout the remaining missions of CaliforniaThe End?This particular line of research has the potential to be extended to various other missions not previously studied in this manner. This is a particularly significant method to be applied to Mission San Juan Batista, among others.18Questions