JEOL JSM 6060

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Technology & Capabilities

OverviewSpring 2006

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IntroductionINEX is a research & commercialisation centre for MEMS and nanotechnology and is a part of the University of NewcastleuponTyne. Operational since 2002 and in receipt of funding of 40million from the UK and European governments, INEX works with technology innovators and systems integrationfirmsworldwidetodevelopnewtechnologiesandproductsenabledthroughMNT. INEX is currently the largest publicsector MNT facility in the UK with a total of 1,250m2 facilities incorporating MEMS fabrication cleanrooms, packaging & test facilities, analytical and biohybrid integration laboratories. INEX employs 40 fulltime staff of whom >70% are directly from the semiconductor/optoelectronics/electronicssectorsandwithrelevantindustrialR&Dandmanufacturing expertise. INEX has recently put forward its management procedures and systems for certification to the ISO:9001/2000 standard and has commissioned Lloyds Register Quality Assurance to undertake the certificationprocess.

Our Technology and CompetenciesINEX has invested capital and resources into developing an industryclass 100mm/150mm MEMS fabricationcapability.UsingadvancedmicrosystemstechniquessuchasHighAspectRatioProcessing, dry metal etch, advanced oxide etching, and flipchip bonding of ASIC and functional materials (e.g. IIVI). INEX has sufficient breadth of capability to enable our partners to explore and exploit the full potential of microsystems technologies. Our growing portfolio and track record has grown around sensoranddetectiontechnologiesincluding3axisaccelerometersandgyroscopes,chemicaldetectors, biosensors,magneticsensors,andmore. Uniquely, INEX has a strong complementary bioscience capability with experienced and talented biologistsandbioMEMSstaffandfacilities.Examplesoftechnologybeingdevelopedare:biosensors, integratedmicrofluidicsystems,detectionsystems,andtissueengineering.

Our PeopleOn the technology side INEX employs 18 fulltime staff to perform technology development and applicationengineeringinMEMSandmicrofluidics.Themajorityoftechnicalstaffhavebeenrecruited directly from industry and represent a cumulative 150 years relevant experience in the commercialisationofminiaturisedcomponentsacrossawiderangeofindustrysectors. INEXalsoemployscommercialandmanagerialstaffwithexperienceandexpertiseinmanaginglarge contracts and projects within the defence contractor markets. Projects at INEX are run under the Prince2methodologywithinhousepractitioners.

The OpportunityWearelookingfornewindustrypartnerswithwhomwecandevelopnewtechnologiesandproducts based on microsystems. Furthermore, we are also interested in exploring R&D and manufacturing outsourcingopportunities. CompetenciesandcapabilitieshavebeendevelopedwithinINEXtoaddressindustryneedsinMEMS fabrication,integrationanddeviceproduction.Theprocessesoutlinedbelowareanintroductiontoour services, for more details on how we can facilitate your business please contact our business developmentteamdirectly.

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1: Design, modelling & simulationINEX designs various MEMS devices, from the initial concepts to 2D/3D drawings, performance modelling and simulation, design optimization, and mask layout for prototype development manufacture.

Design/ModellingDevicedesignusingCAD tools(AutoCAD, ProEngineer)

Specification2Dor3Ddesignforcomponentsandsystem,including: layoutformanufacture systemassemblydiagram geometry files for automanufacture tools, e.g. CNC, ebeam geometryfilesforsimulationandoptimization. Modellingcapabilityincludes: Structuralanalysis Nonstructural analysis, including thermal, electrostatics, magnetostatics, electromagnetics, ion optics, piezoelectric, piezoresistiveandacousticsanalysis Fluidics(CFD)analysis Coupled physics analysis e.g. thermalstructural; piezoelectric or piezoresistive structural; electrostatic or magneto structural; acousticsstructural; electromechanical circuit simulation; fluid thermal or structural; thermalelectric or electromagnetic; fluid/electromagnetic. Photomaskdesignderivedfrom: Outlineconceptsofdeviceorprocess Devicegeometrydrawings Directlayoutandconsultation

MEMSdeviceperformance modellingusingFEA (ANSYSMultiphysics, andCFX)

Photomaskdesign(LEdit, AutoCAD,CleWin)

Figure5.1Simulationoftemperatureresponseof microPCR(geneticanalysis)deviceduring thermalcycles

Figure5.2Modellingofheatfluxvectorofmicro PCRdeviceduringcoolingsequence

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2: High aspect ratio processing of MEMSHigh aspect ratio processing allows highly directional and selective etching of silicon (or ceramics, oxides,nitrides).Thisleadstothecreationofdeepstructures(seeFigure2.1)thatfindapplicationina rangeofsensorsandactuatorsfrommassdetection,inertialsensingtovalveactuation,andmicrofluidic pumps. There is also an emerging trend for the development of solidstate biosensors and chemical sensorsrequiringsuchhighlyverticalstructures.

Figure2.1Anexampleofa3axisgyroscope fabricatedusinghighaspectratioprocessing techniques.HARPcanbeusedacrossabroad rangeoffeaturesizesfromseveralcmsto10sof microns.Averageaspectratiosare1:15.

Figure2.2Amagnifiedsectionofthegyroscope wheretheelectrodeinterfacesanddrivesthering intoresonance.Changesinrotationand movementchangethefrequencyatwhichthering vibratesthusallowingdetectionofmotion.

Figure2.3Anexampleofaverticaltrenchbeing etchedintoSilicon.Notethatnear90degree profileandsmoothsidewalls.Thequalityofthe etch,asillustratedhere,isanimportantfactorin therepeatabilityandreliabilityofdevice performanceandintheyieldofdevicesduring manufacturing.

Figure2.4Exampleofanadvancedoxideetchofa 10mlayerofsiliconoxide.Notethesmoothand controlledangularsidewall.Suchetchprocesses areidealforarangeofoptoelectronicandoptical applications,forexample,awaveguide(asshown here).

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3: Packaging and IntegrationINEXhasthecapabilitytobondawidevarietyofmaterialsandsubstratesusingarangeoftechniques, asshowninTable3.1below Materials SilicontoSilicon SilicontoGlass Metaltometal Multimaterialsatlow temperature Offchipinterconnection ICintegration MEMStoASICs/CMOS TypeofBond Fusionbonding Anodicbonding Eutecticbonding Adhesionbonding Wirebonding Diebonding Flipchipbonding

Table3.1TypesofbondingprocessavailableatINEX Figure3.1isanexampleofanepoxybondusedtoattachaporttoaglassmicrostructureforusewithin a microfluidic device. Figure3.2 illustrates the ball grid array of a chip prior to flipchip bonding. Figure3.3demonstratesafullypackagedmicrofluidicdevice(actually5parallelmicrofluidicports)of which all components from the microfluidic structures and microelectrodes through to the housing itselfweredesignedandmanufacturedbyINEX.

Figure3.1Anexampleofanadhesivebondusing aUVcurableepoxy.Capillaryflowenables uniformepoxydistribution.Theseflowforcesare nolongeractivewithinthemicrochanneland deviceocclusionisavoided.

Figure3.2AnexampleofaballgridarrayofSnPb solderbumps(assuppliedtoINEX)priortoflip chipbonding.Flipchipbondingisahybrid packagingtechniqueusedbyINEXforintegrating MEMSdeviceswithCMOS.

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Figure3.4Awaferof3axismicromachined Figure3.3Amagnifiedsectionofawirebondtoa FR4ceramicboardwithpreprintedcircuits.This gyroscopestriplestackbondedtoglassbyanodic imageshowsagoldwedgebondconnection. bonding.Notethescribelanesforthenextstep, waferdicing.

Figure3.5Abiosensorchip(centre)diebondedto aceramicICpackage.Theouterelectrodesare wirebondedtotheleadpinsonthepackage.

Figure3.6A5parallelflowcellcytometrydevice incorporatingmicroandmillifluidics.Housings suchasthisarefabricatedbyINEXusingits inhouseCNCmicromillingcapability.

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4: Microfluidic devices for biomolecular processingIn many biohybrid devices a critical step in the process flow is biological sample preparation. Microfluidicdevicesarebeinginvestigatedfortheirabilitytoseparatedifferentcomponentsofafluid system.IntheexamplebelowaDNAextractiondevicewasdesignedbyMolecularIDSystems(aspin outfromINEX)withtheaidofFluentCFDsoftware,seeFigure1.1,toenablehighflowrateactuation withalowpressuredrop.

Figure1.1Velocityflowsimulationusing FLUENTsoftware Figure1.2Prototypeofthedesignfabricatedin siliconusingAdvancedSiliconEtchprocess.

This device incorporates microstructures to provide a high surface area for the efficient capture and purification of DNA molecules during continuous flow operation, as shown in Figure1.2. The device wasfabricatedbyINEXusingtheASE(AdvancedSiliconEtch)deepreactiveionetchingprocess.A packageddeviceispicturedinFigure1.3withfluidicinterfacingtotherealworld. In addition to healthcare applications, there are nearer term prospects to apply the underlying technologytofurtherapplicationsinthedefence and homeland security sector, such as the detection and identification of biothreat agents inairandliquid.

Figure1.3Completedprototypedevicewith fluidicinterfacingtotherealworld

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5: Bio-hybrid integration and engineeringWith the increasing application of micro and nano technology solutions to biological problems INEX has developed an expertise in understanding and manipulating the relationship between implantable devicesandthecellularenvironment. Ensuring an appropriate interface between living cells and inorganic surfaces, such as implants or microelectrodesisanimportantfactorintheperformanceofmedicalimplantsanddevices.INEXhas the capability to modify biomaterial surfaces to introduce a desired functionality using topographic, chemicalandbiomolecularapproaches. TheEVG520HotEmbossercanbeusedtoproducetopographicfeaturesfromtensofmicronsinsizeto the50nmscaleinsubstratessuchaspolycarbonate. WhilephotolithographictechniquescanbeusedtoproducePDMSstampstoenabletheprintingof biomolecules.

Figure4.1Printingofbiomoleculessuchas collagen,herelabelledwithaflorescentmarker, canbeusedtoinfluencecelladhesion.