Text of JAN12Systematics & Phylogeny 19Protista 26Porifera/Cnidaria FEB 2 Platyhelminthes, Nematoda 9...
JAN12Systematics & Phylogeny 19Protista 26Porifera/Cnidaria FEB 2 Platyhelminthes, Nematoda 9 Annelida (Additonal Phyla) 16 Population Ecology 23Mollusca March 2 Lab Practical BREAK 16TBA 23Experimental Design for Field Biology: Hypotheses: Arthropoda 30 Data Collection for Arthropoda; Results and Discussion April 6Echinodermata 13Embryology 20 Chordata 27Chordate/Review May 3Lab Practical
LABORATORY DRAWING GUIDELINES Anyone can make good lab drawings. All it takes is training your eye to transfer what you see on to paper and to take your time to make a neat, clear drawing. With a good pencil, erasing when you need to, and drawing some detail, you can make a drawing that can be used effectively to study material you have seen in lab - even without artistic ability. Lab drawings are graded on neatness, how much detail you use, and how well you followed directions - not on the quality of art work. Remember that there are two important reasons you are asked to make lab drawings. By making lab drawings you must look closely at the item and then draw it and as a result you learn it better. Remember this is why you take notes during lecture. Also, just like taking notes, your lab drawings can then be used to study for the lab practical, a test over lab material at the end of the semester. So, the quality of your lab drawings is extremely important for preparing for your lab tests. *Drawings should be done on plain white paper. Expensive lab drawing paper is unnecessary. Typing or copy paper works fine. All drawings must be done in pencil. A standard #2 pencil works well. Make sure it has a good eraser - the reason for using a pencil is to be able to erase mistakes so you have a neat, clear drawing. *Your name should be written in the upper right hand corner of your paper along with the lab name and lab section. *No more than four drawings on each page. This rule is to force you to draw large enough to show detail and to label structures clearly. Space the drawings out so that the drawing and its labels take up about 1/4 of the page. If you only have one or two items to draw, draw them larger. *Labels for drawings should be written directly under drawings; using slightly larger sized print for this label. *Labels for structures should be slightly smaller print and should be kept straight (even with the tip & bottom of the paper). Draw a straight line from the label to the item you are labeling. Make sure this labeling line touches the item. This line should not have an arrow head or a dot at the end. Do not cross lines - this ends up being very confusing when you start studying. *Any drawing of microscopic specimens should include the magnification level you used to make the drawing. This is placed directly below the main label for the drawing. It is recorded by listing the number and adding an X for magnification. (100x) *Draw neatly. Make sure that you erase well to correct mistakes. Round cells should be closed circles with no tails sticking out. Dont push hard with your pencil and make a dark, smudged drawing. Write labels neatly and clearly. Most importantly draw some detail. Use your pencil to add shading and texture to your drawing. If something is very dark, draw it that way. If a structure is clear, it looks that way because the area around it is darker - shade it in. If something looks rough add small dots to give it that look of texture. You can use colored pencils, but a lot of detail can be added with just a pencil. A trick is to bring two pencils - keep one sharp for detail and one dull for drawing shading.
Prokaryotes Characteristics of Bacteria Most abundant,, extract nitrogen from atmosphere, major cause of disease, many phototrophic, Characteristic of Archaebacteria Live in extreme heat/sulfur environments, methane producers, anaerobic; distinct rna Characteristics of Eukaryotes Nucleus and organelles enclosed in membranes, contain either mitochondria, chloroplasts or both, developed into multicellular organisms
ENDOYSYMBIOSIS AND THE FORMATION OF THE EUKARYOTIC CELL The current theory of endosymbiosis proposes that these original eukaryotic cells formed when ancestral cells engulfed aerobic bacteria (which became mitochondria) and photosynthetic bacteria (which became chloroplasts).
For this to be correct. Protista needs to be monophyletic (meaning: derived from a single ancestor) Concept of 4 kingdoms within Eukarya
Other groups of protists belong here
Protista is paraphyletic because "it's ancestor is common to plants animals, fungi and protists,thus it is not a unique or discreet group with a common ancestor. A polyphyletic group contains more than one common ancestor
A phylogeny can help us do lots more than simply study evolutionary history. It also helps us know what traits are shared by different but related groups of organisms. 1: Multicellular 2: Land plants 3: Vascular plants 4: Seed plants 5: Symmetry and tissues 6: Bilateral symmetry, coelom, and nervous system 7: Deuterostome development 8: Molting of exoskeletons 9: Trochophore larva