Introduction: What is Critical Thinking Skills? Critical thinking Skills is about changing the way you think about the way you think ( going beyond the.

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Introduction: What is Critical Thinking Skills? Critical thinking Skills is about changing the way you think about the way you think ( going beyond the information given). *You as a critical thinker have thoughts, beliefs, and viewpoints. Your mission is to direct these thoughts, beliefs and viewpoints to be more rational and accurate in order to be able to solve problems correctly. Slide 2 Purpose of Thinking The purpose of thinking is to collect information and to make the best possible use of it. Our mind works to create fixed concept patterns, we cannot make the best use of new information unless we have some means for restructuring the old patterns and bringing them up to date by creating new patterns and escape from the dominance of the old ones. 2 Slide 3 Thinking Skillful Thus, a critical thinker is willing to explore, question, and search out answers and resolutions. Thinking is a skill that can be taught and improved with practice and training. Skillful refers to the proficiency, competency and facility of performing a certain task in a short period of time. Studies support and affirm that good thinking is essential in meeting the challenge of living in a technologically oriented, multicultural world. Slide 4 -The brain is divided into three major parts: a. Forebrain b.Midbrain c.Hindbrain The forebrain consists of two cerebral hemispheres, one on the left side & one on the right. lateralization The two hemisphere differ anatomically and functionally, the division of labour between the two hemisphere is called lateralization. Slide 5 In most humans, the left hemisphere is associated with matters that deal with details or analysis, such as: language, mathematics, chemistry, critical thinking, problem solving, and decision making. Right hemisphere is more associated with matters such as: painting, imagination, perception, and creative thinking. Slide 6 In general, critical thinking involves both: A- Problem solving. B- Reasoning. Thinking skills is used by many schools and universities, especially by employers as a measure of how well an individual will perform on the job. An ideal critical thinker has to: 1- make observations. 2-be curious, ask relative questions. 3- examine beliefs, assumptions, and opinions against facts. 4- recognize and define problems. 5- assess the validity of statements and arguments. 6- make wise decisions and find valid solutions. 7- understand logic and logical argument. Slide 7 Recognizing a problem In recognizing any problem, we will focus on the two types: 1- Severe problem. 2- Important problem. We all face problems in our daily life, some of them are simple and some are complex. Thus, in order to be able to solve a problem. You have to determine that you have one. Once you did so, you need to do prioritizing for that particular problem then decide whether it needs an immediate solution or not. Slide 8 What is a problem? A problem is a question or situation that calls for a solution. -The hardest form of problem is the question, why? -Because we do not have one straightforward answer. Slide 9 1- Severe problems: Severe problems have the following criteria: 1- require immediate solutions (actions). 2- may need the involvement of others who have more experience. 3- the longer they remain, the complex they become (dramatically). Example: a break in your house plumbing, because water will continue to leak damaging everything it contacts with such as furniture, carpeting and walls. Slide 10 2- Important problems: Here, the problems seen as important and unimportant (less important) according to the persons priorities. What distinguishes this type of problems from the other type is that it does not require an immediate intervention. Example: education, pollution, healthcare, and environment. What we are going to do here is ranking the most &the least important problem to deal with. Slide 11 The cost of problem solving: When you are on budget, money is an issue when determining the importance of problems. If you face two or more problems that require a payment to solve, and you do not have the money enough to take care of everything at once, you need to determine what needs attention first and what can wait. Slide 12 Road block to recognizing a problem: Sometimes we cannot recognize a problem because our desire not to deal with it, or trying to avoid taking action or responsibility. (no recognition means no responsibility). What could result of avoiding dealing with the problem? Slide 13 Kinds of Thinking De Bono differentiated between vertical thinking and lateral thinking. Vertical thinking is related to moving forward by sequential steps each of which must be justified (more like critical thinking). Lateral thinking is closely related to insight, creativity and humour. Lateral and vertical thinking are complementary, skill in both is necessary. 13 Slide 14 Intelligence There have been many definitions for intelligence: the ability to remember information, the ability to process numbers quickly, the ability to adjust and so on.. Now it is defined as (a) that which a properly standardized intelligence test measures. (b) The ability to learn from experience, think in abstract terms, and deal effectively with ones environment. 14 Slide 15 Intelligence is hereditary, therefore it is an ability not a skill. We may improve it by learning and education, it is not a one-dimensional entity falling on a straight-line continuum. 15 Slide 16 Multiple Intelligences People are not more intelligent or less intelligent as much as they are intelligent in different ways. The type of intelligence displayed by Michael Jordan on a basketball court is different than that of Robin Williams creating comedy. Each domain utilizes a different type of intelligence to achieve mastery. 16 Slide 17 Howard Gardner defined intelligence as the ability to solve problems or create products which are valued within a culture setting. Instead of a single entity with many facets, Gardner has identified nine intelligences, all of which work together as a system: 1. Linguistic intelligence: is the ability to use words to describe or communicate ideas. Example.. poet, writer, storyteller, comedian, public speaker, public relations, politician, journalist, editor, or professor. 17 Slide 18 2. Logical-mathematical intelligence: is the ability to perceive patterns in numbers or reasoning, to use numbers effectively, or to reason well. Examples.. mathematician, scientist, computer programmer, statistician, logician, or detective 3. Spatial intelligence: is the ability to perceive the visual-spatial world accurately (not get lost) and to transform it. Examples.. hunter, scout, guide, interior decorator, architect, artist, or sculptor. 18 Slide 19 4. Bodily-kinesthetic intelligence: is expertise in using ones body. Examples.. actor, athlete, mime, or dancer. 5. Musical intelligence: is the ability to recognize and produce rhythm, keys and timber; to express musical forms; and to use music to express idea. Examples.. composer, director, performer, or musical technician. 19 Slide 20 6. Interpersonal intelligence: is the ability to perceive and appropriately respond to the moods, temperaments, motivations, and needs of other people. Examples.. counsellor, administrator, manager, coach, co-worker, or parent. 7. Intrapersonal intelligence: is the ability to access ones inner life, to discriminate ones emotions, intuitions, and perceptions, and to know ones strengths and limitations. Examples.. religious leader, counsellor, psychotherapist, or writer. 20 Slide 21 8. Naturalistic intelligence: is the ability to recognize and classify living things (plants, animals) as well as sensitivity to other features of the natural world (rocks, clouds). Examples.. naturalist, hunter, scout, farmer, or environmentalist. 9. Existential intelligence: is the ability to recognize issues about human existence. Example philosopher, or religious man. 21 Slide 22 Each one of these nine intelligences operates independently of the other: meaning that if one is strong in music it does not necessarily mean one will be strong in mathematics. Each intelligence is independent of the other, yet all of them, working together, are used to solve problems. 22 Slide 23 The importance of Thinking Skills Effective thinking strategies allow us to acquire the necessary knowledge and apply it appropriately. If we want students to be proficient thinkers, we must learn: Critical thinking Creative thinking Problem solving Decision making 23 Slide 24 Barriers of Successful Thinking 1. Cognitive Barriers: such as inflexibility, low self esteem, lack of information 2. Social Barriers: such as conservative or dictatorial societies 3. Psychological Barriers: such as extreme emotions, lack of motivation, fear of failure. 4. Biological Barriers: such as mental retardation 5. Environmental Barriers: such as isolated areas 24 Slide 25 2.2 Defining a Problem Here, you will learn how to differentiate between real problem and perceived problems. Before come up with an effective solution, we should identify the actual problem that needs to be solved before we do anything else. You may mistake the more obvious consequences of a problem for the actual problem because you could be busy, so whatever irritates you the most gets the greatest amount of attention. Slide 26 -There are two common results that occur when you solve something that is not your actual problem: 1- Your solution will be unsatisfactory. (it fails to deal with the real problem.) 2- Further decisions will have to be made to solve the real problem. Example: you heard a weird noise in your car, however, instead of taking it to your mechanic to be checked, you assumed a problem with your muffler, so you replaced it with a new one, but the noise became worse. What happened in this scenario? Slide 27 How can we define the real problem? 1- Get the information you need, even if you have to ask for it. 2- Do not be tricked into solving offshoots (perceived problems), or other consequences of your problem instead the problem itself. 3- Do not be overwhelmed when you are faced with what looks like a giant problem. Slide 28 How can you distinguish between real problems and their symptoms or consequences: 1- Avoid making assumptions: What is assumption? It is an idea based on too little or not very good information. Example: you work in a convenience store, you Started to arrive late at work after facing car problems, so you began to rely on the public transportations, however, you were shocked by your manager decision to fire you. What went wrong here? Slide 29 2- Think the situation through: Ask yourself, what is really happening? It means before dealing with the apparent problem, look underneath it if solving this problem may result in another problem or set of problems. So, think it through allows you to define the issues you face now and helps you anticipate the problems. Slide 30 Road block to defining a problem: Often the biggest impediment to defining a problem is speed, especially when you are busy, you are fooled to deal with the superficial evidences. Mostly, dealing with such problems result in bigger and more complicated problems. Slide 31 End of Chapter One

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