IntroducingFloridas Plant Industry
IntroducingFloridas Plant IndustryPrepared by Rick Sapp, PhDFlorida Department of Agriculture and Consumer ServicesFlorida SART Technical Writer
AcknowledgementsUniversity of Florida, Institute of Food & Agricultural Sciences (IFAS)Florida Fruit & Vegetable Assn.Florida Fish & Wildlife Conservation CommissionUS Dept. of Interior, US Geological SurveyUS Dept. of AgricultureUniversity Credits: California, N.C. State, Washington
Learning ObjectivesAt the end of this training module, participants will be able to:Name the leading sectors of Floridas plant industryIdentify areas of the state in which each plant industry is concentratedDiscuss some of the characteristics of Floridas plant industryDescribe some of the threats to the plant sector of Floridas agricultural economyIdentify key resources available for more information
Florida SARTMulti-agency coordinationGovernmental and privateAll-hazard preparation, response and recoveryAnimal and agricultural
Introducing FloridaThe Sunshine StateFlorida settled for 12,000 years before ColumbusIn 1513, the Spanish began exploring the stateToday, Florida is known for its spaceport, for popular world-class attractions, for hundreds of miles of beaches, for fishing and the heart of Americas citrus industry but there is so much more!
Introducing FloridaFast FactsFlorida: Fast Facts53,000 square miles (2% of US total)17.8 million people (6% of US total)296 persons/square mile in Florida (versus 80 persons/square mile in US as a whole)43,000 farms (2% of US total 2.133 million farms)$6.45 billion agricultural products income (3% of US total of $192.8 billion) plus another $8.5 billion from the timber industry
Its About People1 million Floridians of many backgrounds and speaking several languages, with English as the base, make a living from the plant industry, but all draw sustenance from it!
The People of FloridaA crowd at Perdido Key Floridas is primarily white with 3 million blacks, 3 million Latinos, 300,000Asians and 60,000 Native Americans.
Florida EcoregionsZone 65: Southeastern PlainA mosaic of cropland, pasture, woodland and forest.Zone 75: Southeastern Coastal Plain Flat plains with numerous swamps and lakes. Warmer with longer growing season and coarser soils.Zone 76: Southern Florida Coastal Plain Sub-tropical flat plains with wet soils, swamps, everglades and palmetto prairie vegetation.
Florida Average Annual RainfallThere are two generalwet periods in Florida,late winter-early spring and summer. There is only one low point, the October/November period.
Florida Average TemperaturesA particular days weather cannot be predicted with certainty, but climate trends affect growing seasons, plant health and viability and practical agricultural decision-making.
Number of Farmsand Acreage43,000 commercial farms(10.1 million of Floridas35 million acres)
Farm Trends(Total Number of Farms)
Farm Trends(Total Acreage of Farms)
Total Agricultural ProductionTop 10 Counties
How Does Your CountyStack Up - $ million agricultural production? 1 Palm Beach $760 2 Dade $578 3 Hillsborough $392 4 Hendry $376 5 Polk $285 6 Collier $268 7 Manatee $268 8 Orange $243 9 Highlands $23610 DeSoto $18011 Lake $17812 Hardee $16613 Okechobee $14414 Suwannee $13615 Martin $12816 St. Lucie $12817 Indian River $11718 Lee $11319 Volusia $10620 Gadsden $9121 Marion $8822 Pasco $8423 Levy $8324 Glades $7225 Osceola $6926 St. Johns $6027 Alachua $5928 Broward $5029 Charlotte $4830 Lafayette $4831 Columbia $4732 Putnam $4733 Gilchrist $4534 Brevard $4235 Clay $3736 Jackson $3637 Sumter $3138 Holmes $3039 Nassau $2740 Baker $2541 Madison $2542 Flagler $2443 Duval $2244 Hernando $2245 Jefferson $2146 Santa Rosa $2147 Walton $2048 Seminole $1949 Bradford $1850 Sarasota $1851 Escambia $1652 Calhoun $1453 Taylor $1354 Hamilton $1255 Union $1156 Pinellas $857 Citrus $758 Dixie $759 Leon $760 Okaloosa $761 Washington $662 Monroe $363 Bay $264 Wakulla $265 Liberty $less than 166 Franklin $less than 1
International CustomersTop 10 Exports 2004 ($ million)Fruits $596.Other $368.7Vegetables $145.4Feeds/Fodders $47.6Seeds $35.1Cotton $28.8Poultry $28.2Live Animals/Meat $27.2Peanuts $18.7Tobacco $18Floridas busiest ports are Miami, Tampa Bay and Jacksonville.
Floridas TopInternational CustomersCanada $388,232,000Japan $107,860,000Netherlands $28,927,000France $17,487,000Bahamas $15,263,000United Kingdom $14,969,000Haiti $12,193,000Dominican Republic $11,189,000Jamaica $9,425,000Taiwan $7,317,000
Floridas Troubling TrendsRapidly increasing and graying population plus assimilating people of many cultures and several languagesIncreasing urbanizationin areas that formerly supported agricultureFuture fresh waterrequirements for anexpanding populationand for industryDecreasing number offarms and farmers
Floridas Big 5Timber and ForestryNursery and GreenhouseCitrusSugarcaneTomatoes and Field Crops
Floridas #1 Timber/ForestryForestry: renewable resources valued at $8.5 billion12 million acres 1/3 of the state is commercial forest2.5 million acres classified as general woodlands
Timber/ForestryTimber is a renewable resource. In Florida, 82 million treesare planted each year, many of them loblolly pine.
Timber/ForestryNational Forests 1 Apalachicola 2 Osceola 3 Ocala 1 2 3 Wetland Restoration
Timber/Forestry ConcernsFlorida loses 1,200 acres of land per week to construction for urban and suburban sprawl.Pollution from pulp and paper millshighlights the strain between jobs an a clean, livable environment.
Floridas #2 Greenhouse/NurseryFlorida is second in the United States with greenhouse and nursery business estimated at $1.6 billion from 7,722 nurseries which employ 55,000 people.
Greenhouse/Nursery Florida is second in the United States in floriculture (sales of $826 million) and foliage plants (sales of $416 million)
Greenhouse/Nursery ConcernsSudden oak deathThe pathogen, Phytophthora ramorum, is a fungus-like organism that probably arrived in the US on rhododendron imported from Asia.Infection has 2 syndromes:Bark canker, established on US West Coast, is lethal to some trees. Not yet found in Florida.Leaf-and-twig blight, not always lethal, is detrimental to plant health and has been found in Florida. It is a huge potential problem in nurseries, infecting many species of flowering plants.Bark canker is lethal. Leaf-and-twig blight begins with spots, lesions and bark peeling.
Floridas #3 CitrusCitrus is a $1 billion industry in Florida (oranges, grapefruit, tangerines and tangelos)About 80% of all US citrus production2nd only to Brazil, Floridas 100 million trees on 750,000 acres produce 14% of worlds orangesGrows about 30% of worlds grapefruit
Citrus95% of Florida oranges are processed to orange juice. In 2003-04, this amounted to 1.5 billion gallons
CitrusFlorida Commercial Citrus Production by Area Southern 28% Western 22% Central 24% Indian River 21% Northern 5% 5% 22% 28% 21% 24%
Citrus ConcernsCitrus greening (huanglongbing)Known in China for 100 yearsIn Brazil for 7-8 years; widespread possibly due to propagation sloppinessNow documented in FloridaBegins as leaf mottling and yellowing; progresses to misshapen, mis-colored and bitter fruitA very serious threat to Florida citrus industry
Floridas #4 SugarcaneSugarcane is a $850 million business in Florida420,000 acres are devoted to the growth of sugarcane and the acreage has grown steadily
Sugarcane406,000 acres of sugarcane yield 35.2 tons per acre or 14.3 million tons of cane6 sugar mills (5 corporate and 1 grower cooperative) process 20,750 tons of cane/24 hours2 in-state refineries and 4 co-owned out-of-state refineries yield 2 million tons raw sugar/yearFlorida produces half of all US cane sugar and is a net sugar exporter$800 million/year in sales of raw sugar and molasses ($433 million value of production in 2005, sugar and seed)
SugarcaneSugarcane has specific growth requirements and those are found in three South Florida counties:Palm Beach 310,000 acresGlades 40,000 acresHendry 35,000 acres
Sugarcane ConcernsPublic policy uncertainties at home (possibility of pollution in the Everglades) and abroad (Cubas political and economic future in international affairs)Changing public demand for sweeteners
Floridas #5 TomatoesFlorida is #1 in the US in acreage, production and value of fresh, market tomatoesGrowing tomatoes adds$525 million to FloridaseconomyTomatoes equal1.5 billion pounds43,000 acres1 2 3 4 Tomato production SE coast = 18% SW coast = 34% Tampa Bay = 29% North center = 19%
Other Field Cropsand Vegetables (in millions)
PRIMARY GROWING AREAS B = bell peppers S = snap beans P = potatoes C = sweet corn K = cucumbers P S S P C KB K K K KB KBSC KCSP P B
PRIMARY GROWING AREAS P = peanutsW = watermelonS = squashC = cabbageB = blueberriesP P PW P PW PWB PWB W WS W W W B W WC W WB W W B WS SB S C C B B B B B
Various Field Crop ConcernsThe typical diseases such as various rusts, spots, wilts and blightsIntroduced exotic diseases and insects for each species such as soybean rust2004s Hurricane Ivan is believed to have blownspores for soybean rust into the US. Today, rusthas spread throughout the southeast.
Various Field Crop ConcernsIntroduced, exotic diseases or insects such as the spoor that causes soybean blight may spread in unusual ways. It is believed that kudzu will be the active agent in the spread of this harmful new (to the US) plant disease, which means that in the south, it is already out of control!
A Few of FloridasSpecialty CropsFerns/OrnamentalsTobaccoAvocados
Specialty Crop: Fernsand Cut GreensMore than 200 commercial producers of ferns and cutgreens in Florida. Market value nearly $90 million.Florida is the largest producer in the U.S.
Specialty Crop: TobaccoTobacco $20 million from 6,881 Florida acres
Specialty Crop: TobaccoFloridas tobacco counties 2004 (acres poundage)Suwannee (1,000 2,510,000)Hamilton (630 1,556,000)Alachua (550 1,342,000)Madison (490 1,161,000)Columbia (380 927,000)Lafayette (330 835,000)Union (150 345,000)Jefferson ( 100 215)
Specialty Crop: AvocadosFloridas sales = $15 millionProducing more than 200,000 tons, Florida has about 6% of the world market behind Mexico (33%) and Indonesia (7%). Almost all of Floridas avocados are consumed domestically.
Specialty Crop: AvocadosAbout 6,600 acres in Florida are operated by 737 growers, 99% located in southwest Dade County.
Key ResourcesFlorida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services, Division of Marketing and Development www.florida-agriculture.comUnited States Department of Agriculture (USDA) www.usda.govUSDA, Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, National Center for Import and Export www.aphis.usda.gov/vs/ncie/USDA, National Agricultural Statistics Service www.nass.usda.gov/Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services (FDACS) www.doacs.state.fl.us and www.florida-agriculture.comDivision of Plant Industry www.doacs.state.fl.us/pi/ and http://www.doacs.state.fl.us/pi/enpp/bur-enpp.html/Florida State Agricultural Response Team www.flsart.comSouthern Region Center for Integrated Pest Management www.srpmc.orgExtension Disaster Education Network www.eden.lsu.edu
Key ResourcesCenters for Disease Control and Prevention www.cdc.govNational Plant Diagnostic NetworkNational www.npdn.orgSouthern http://spdn.ifas.ufl.edu/Southern Regional Laboratory http://plantpath.ifas.ufl.edu/pdc/Florida http://fpdn.ifas.ufl.edu/University of FloridaIFAS Extension Service http://solutionsforyourlife.ufl.edu/Nematode Assay Laboratory http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/scripts/SR011Insect Identification Laboratory http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/SR010Integrated Pest Managementhttp://ipm.ifas.ufl.edu/applying/pest-id/weeds/index.htm
Key ResourcesFlorida Extension Plant Diagnostic Clinic, UFQuincy http://tmomol.ifas.ufl.edu/pdc.htmImmokalee http://www.imok.ufl.edu/plant/clinic/Homestead http://trecclinic.ifas.ufl.edu/submissions.htmFlorida Exotic Pest Plant Council www.fleppc.orgFlorida Fish & Wildlife Conservation Commission http://myfwc.comFlorida Agricultural Census Data www.hort.purdue.edu/newcrop/cropmap/florida/default.html
Learning ObjectiveIntroducing Floridas Plant IndustryBy this time, participants should be able to:Name the leading sectors of Floridas plant industryIdentify areas of the state in which each plant industry is concentratedDiscuss some of the characteristics of Floridas plant industryDescribe some of the threats to the plant sector of Floridas agricultural economyIdentify key resources available for more information
Working Together To Protect Floridas Agriculture & Way of LifeThank You!
Now, Test Your Knowledgeand Awareness (1 of 3)What sector of the agricultural plant industry, earns the most money for Florida?Can you name the top five plant industry sectors in Florida?(True/False) SART is a government response team of special agents prepared to counter any act of terrorism within the state.Floridas top two international customers are _____?Which of the following two statements is true?A. The number of farms in Florida is continually shrinking.B. The acreage in Florida farms has shrunk continually for years.6. The Florida county that produces the greatest bounty in plant agricultural products (as measured in dollars) is _____?
Pre/Post Test (2 of 3)(select the best answer) The greatest threat to Floridas agricultural sector may be: A. increasing urbanization which ceaselessly encroaches on land for farms, fields and pastures B. introduced exotic non-native diseases such as citrus greening or soybean rust C. either A or B (or both) would be excellent answers.Which is the closest approximation to the number of people who make a living from agriculture in Florida? A. less than 50,000B. about one million C. 7,155,248Approximately what fraction of Florida is currently covered by managed timber and forest?
Pre/Post Test (3 of 3)(True/False) Under global warming conditions for the foreseeable future, it is anticipated that citrus will once again be grown as far north as the Suwannee River. Agronomists and county extension offices are quietly purchasing land ahead of and preparing for this expansion.Bonus: Your instructor will now hand out the final question(s), an agricultural crossword, which you may attempt for bonus credit!
Test Answer Key (1 of 3)Timber and forestry bring more dollars into Florida than any other individual plant-ag sector.The top three plant agricultural sectors in Floridas economy are timber/forestry, nursery/greenhouse and citrus.(False) SART is a multi-agency coordination group consisting of governmental and private entities dedicated to all-hazard disaster preparedness, planning, response and recovery for the animal and agriculture sectors in Florida.Canada and Japan
Test Answer Key (2 of 3)The acreage in Florida farms has continued to shrink since the end of the Second World War while the number of farms has remained relatively constant.Palm Beach grows more agricultural products than any other Florida county.7.Both A (urbanization) and B (exotic diseases and pests) pose very real threats to Florida agriculture.8.It is estimated that as many as 1.25 of Floridas 17.8 million full and part time residents make a living in the plant agriculture sector.
Test Answer Key (3 of 3)Approximately 1/3 of the Sunshine State is covered by natural (although not first growth) forest or managed timber for a continuing renewable resource.Wow False! No one has been able to predict reliably any effects of global warming on the state of Florida except a slow rise in the ocean level which may inundate low-lying properties.Bonus: The answers to our Florida Ag Fun Bonus Crossword are:DOWNACROSS1 POTATO5 TOMATO2 MELONS6 AVOCADO3 TOBACCO7 CITRUS4 OLIVES
GlossaryHorticulture: The science and art of growing fruit, flowers, ornamental plants and vegetables. Often used to refer to small gardens.Nematode: Any of several worms of the phylum Nematoda, having un-segmented, cylindrical bodies, often narrowing at each end, and including parasitic forms such as the hookworm and pinworm. Also called roundworm.SART: The Florida State Agricultural Response Team. A multi-agency coordinating group consisting of governmental and private entities dedicated to all-hazard disaster preparedness, planning, response and recovery for the animal and agriculture sectors in Florida.Weed: Generic term for a plant that is growing where it is not wanted.
Reporting Plantand Insect Diseases CasesProtect Florida Agriculture.Report suspicious animal disease cases to the Office of the State Veterinarian.All calls are confidential and toll free.Daytime (8 am 5 pm) 1-877-815-0034(1-850-410-0900)Office of Bio & Food Security Preparedness 1-850-410-6757Agriculture Law Enforcement (24/7)1-800-342-5869SPDN Hub Laboratory (Gainesville)1-352-392-1795
IntroducingFloridas Plant IndustryThis concludes our presentationIntroducing Floridas Plant Industry.Thank you for attending and participating.
Tomato image: University of Maine Cooperative Extension Service www.umaine.edu/umcecumberland/par/images/tomatoes.jpgPine plantation image: Virginia Kline, Dept. of Botany, University of Wisconsin http://botit.botany.wisc.edu/images/veg/Prairie_II_PDry_PDMes_PM/Pine_plantation_VK.php?highres=trueOranges image: Ellen Levy Finch photo, Wikipedia http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Image:OrangeBloss_wb.jpgField image: US Bureau of Reclamation www.usbr.gov/lc/images/gallery/irrigate/crops.jpgMan with cabbage image: Florida Fruits & Vegetables Assn. www.ffva.com/Background image: Florida Dept. of Citrus ww.myflorida.com/myflorida/agencies/images/citrus_wash.jpgSmallpox image: Albert Einstein College of Medicine, http://gold.aecom.yu.edu/.Africanized bees image: Friends of Saguaro National Park, Friendsofsaguaro.com.Water hyacinth image: University of Florida, IFAS, Center for Aquatic Plants, http://aquat1.ifas.ufl.edu/Hurricane image: NOAA, www.ncdc.noaa.gov
Florida image from space: Earth Ethics Institute, Miami-Dade College http://www.earthethicsinstitute.org/florida%20space%20site.jpgFruit arrangement image: http://www.florida-citrus.com/g&sphotos/Key-West-Luau.jpgBeach/sunset image: Colleen Fitzgerald http://www.eflorida.net/beaches/beachpics/sun1.jpgShuttle image: http://rst.gsfc.nasa.gov/Intro/Part2_26g.htmlFacts in this section from many sources including www.stateofflorida.com
Tomato harvesting image: Ontario Ministry of Agriculture, Food and Rural Affairs http://www.archives.gov.on.ca/english/exhibits/agriculture/pics/3180_picking_tomotoes_1020.jpgFarmers market image: Wisconsin Farm Bureau Media Center www.wfbf.com/media_center/photo_gallery/Farmers%20market%20stand%202.jpg
Perdido Key image: Perdido-Key.net www.perdido-key.net/images/florabama/mullet-toss-crowds-beach-all.jpgFlorida map image: US Census BureauData from www.city-data.com/states/Florida-Ethnic-groups.html
Source Purdue University: www.hort.purdue.edu/
Map image: http://www.luddist.com/average.GIFTemperature map image: Advanced Systems Consulting www.daytonacommerce.com/images/avtempfl.jpg Corn crop image: UF, IFAS (Kenneth Boote, PhD) http://plantscienceunit.ifas.ufl.edu/images/location/corn_spectrum.jpgElephant ear image: Central Florida Farms http://usera.imagecave.com/liveplants/elepear2.jpgPeople in field image: Penn State College of Agricultural Sciences http://paonfarminterns.cas.psu.edu/Photos/Field%20CropsResearch.jpgGraph by the author, information from FDACS www.florida-agriculture.com/Graph by the author, information from FDACS www.florida-agriculture.com/ Graph by the author, information from FDACS www.florida-agriculture.com/Graph by the author, information from FDACS www.florida-agriculture.com/Information from FDACS www.florida-agriculture.com/Data source www.florida-agriculture.com/agfacts.htmPort image: Environmental Health Perspectives (National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences)/www.ehponline.org/docs/2004/112-15/shipping.jpgTampa skyline image: AwesomeFlorida.com www.awesomeflorida.com/images/tampa3_big.jpg
Florida pine woods image: Maurice J. Kauffman, PhD, Bioimages, Vanderbilt University http://bioimages.vanderbilt.edu/ Close-up pine image: NC State University, College of Natural Resources http://natural-resources.ncsu.edu/graphics/level2/photos/100.jpgLoblolly pine background image: Tarleton State University www.tarleton.eduWetland image and Florida Forest Legacy Areas map: FDACS-Division of Forestry
Construction image by the authorMill image from firstname.lastname@example.org courtesy Edward Boner
Tomato greenhouse image: Leon County Extension Service, IFAS, UF http://leon.ifas.ufl.edu/Colombia/Colombia%20fotos%20page%208.htmNursery image: Collyer Nurseries www.collyersnurseries.com/climbing%20plant%20tunnel%202.jpg
Flower image: Agricupportonline.com www.agrisupportonline.com/israel_agri_tours/images/flowers_greenhouse_arava.jpgGreenhouse image: University of California-Davis http://greenhouse.ucdavis.edu/images/Tropic_rm2.jpgSudden oak death aerial image: Oregon Dept. of AgricultureClose-up image: UF/IFAS
Citrus image: Florida Dept. of Citrus, FDACS www.floridajuice.com/images/img_citrus_products.jpgPicking image: EPI, Environmental Protection, Inc. www.geomembrane.com/040205%20Picking%20Oranges%20061.jpgProcessing image: USDA, Agricultural Research Service www.ars.usda.gov/is/graphics/photos/apr06/d461-1i.jpgOrange juice image: Wikipedia.org (Scott Bauer, USDA Image Number K7237-8)
Data courtesy FDACSCitrus greening image: Susan Halbert FDACS-DPI http://spdn.ifas.ufl.edu/Halbert%20dis4%20watermark.jpg
The Florida Sugar Industry revised 2002, Jose Alvarez, Professor, Department of Food and Resource Economics, Everglades Research and Education Center, Belle Glade, FL; and Leo C. Polopolus, Professor Emeritus, Department of Food and Resource Economics, Florida Cooperative Extension Service, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL. This is EDIS document SC 042, a publication of the Department of Food and Resource Economics, Florida Cooperative Extension Service, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL. First published November 1992; revised June 2002.Graph: Sugarcane Variety Census: Florida 1993 B. Glaz, agronomist, USDA-ARS, Sugarcane Field Station, Canal Point and R. Lentini, coordinator computer applications (Retired), Everglades Research and Education Center, Belle Glade, FL; Florida Agricultural Research Stations, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611. This document is SS-AGR-241, one of a series of the Agronomy Department, Florida Cooperative Extension Service, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida. First printed February 1994. Revised May 2002. Reviewed March 2005. Sugarcane image: University of Delhi, Interdisciplinary Centre for Plant Genomics www.genomeindia.org/sugarcane/images/sugarcane_stalk.jpgHarvesting image: US Sugar /www.ussugar.com/downloads/gallery/harvesting.jpRefinery image: US Sugar www.ussugar.com/downloads/gallery/refinery.jpgSource: USDA, NASS www.nass.usda.gov:8080/QuickStats/PullData_US.jsp
Data from FDACS