Intern Ship Report by Yewlsew mekonen bahir dar university IOT
i Bihar Dar University Institute Of Technology School of Computing and Electrical Engineering Intern ship report By Yewlsew Mekonen R/1420/2001 Host company: Amhara mass media agency Duration of intern ship: 3 months(march--may) Monitor: Mr. Esubalew Submission date: June 12, 2012
Intern Ship Report by Yewlsew mekonen bahir dar university IOT
Bahir Dar FM is a government-run local radio station serving the city of Bahir Dar. It reaches a potential
audience of 180,000 people living within a 10 km radius of its transmitter mast. The station broadcasts in
Amharic for six hours per day from 10 to 16 .Its output includes phone-in programs. FM Bahir Dar is operated by the Amhara Mass Media Agency. This also runs the Medium Wave station, Amhara Radio,
which serves a wider region. My internship host company is a service provider in Mass media. The name
of the organization is called Amhara Mass Media Agency (AMMA).The organization was established by
the Amhara national regional state . The back ground of the Organization is as follows.
1.1 Brief history of the Organization
a) From 1993-1995 under
Following the regional bureau reform, the media was established in 1985
Information bureau in 3-division radio, television, and press public relation
And news service departments with limited equipments and professionals.
b) From 1996-2001
Due to the structural reform, of 1996Bureau of information united with
Cultural and tourism as cultural tourism and information Bureau on proclamation
number 4/1996. in 1997 it started (a one hour daily radio and 30 mints a week
Television via Ethiopian radio and Television and Agency.
Consequently, the Agency prepared a new structure that have three Departments (Radio, and audience
Research, news Agency. engineering, TV)
Immediately after the new structure the agency strove to fill 113 vacancies of the 127. Moreover, the
agency has provided a short and long term training to capacitate its workers.
1.2 Main products of the company
The main product of the company transmitting Information through radio, TV and improve
production and distribution of bikur magazine in the region .general speaking the media plays great role
to the realization of development and democratization process. Hence mass media agency launches the
first magazine in the region- Bekur magazine, Radio and Television Transmission. A study has been
undergone to improve production and distribution of bikur magazine In order to upgrade radio
transmission the agency fixed a medium wave transmitter at zeghe by the support of the regional
government and SIDA. Hence transmission period increased from one hour a day in to six hour by 801
KHz medium wave from 12:00-3:00 morning and 11:00 – 2:00 in the evening, since june 10 ,1997 and
also launches FM bahir dar from Monday up to Friday from 3:00 up to 5:00 and 8:30 – 10:30 Saturday
and Sunday from 3:00 – 7:00 Since august 9 2007 the agency increased television transmission in to 3
hours a week in agreement with Ethiopian radio and television agency.
1.3 Main customers
The mian customers of Amhara mass media agency is that the people those are living within
Amhara region as well as the people of Ethiopia i.e The customers of the Organization are mainly
the society of the Amhara region and the ANRS.
1.4 Over all organization structure of the company
Fig 1 Over all organizational structure
Press and news
News & Agency
1.6 Work flow in the section
The work flows are the process which frames works or flow of work within standards of work procedure.
The work is being processed first is put into in the higher level of hierarchy.
Fig 2 work flow in section
upport finance Admin&
News agency division
2. over all internship experience
2.1 How I get into the company
In TVET curriculum the students have an apparent ship program in 8th semester of their academic year.
According to this the university’s give me the choose to have practice in any company .Then I would like
to do practice in Amhara mass media agency and the company accent’s my request paper.
2.2The section I have been working on
Amhara mass media agency was assign in to practices in TV studio firstly, FM studio secondly, video
editing & AM studio and I was start my practice in this section. I have gained theoretically as well as
practically knowledge from this internship. I am worked together with the companies worker from
1/7/2004 – 30/9/2004 E.C. In this pared I am understand many experiences like.
i. How tv studio works
ii. FM studio works
iii. AM studio works
iv. Video editing
v. All about studio equipments
2.3 Getting to know the studio
The studio-suite, that is the studio and its associated control centre, is the workshop of broadcasting. A
thorough knowledge of its characteristics and facilities is essential for any radio producer.
2.3.1 Studio systems
The group of studios in a broadcasting centre is known as the studio complex. In a simple centre it may consist of only one studio and a control booth. In a large broadcasting centre it will have several studios
of different sizes, recording rooms, an echo chamber, a master control and switching room, and a quality
control room. The various units of the complex are interconnected and can be joined together in a variety of combinations-more than one studio may, for instance, be used in a single production where isolation of
the different sound elements is needed. There are two principal systems of operational control.
In the continuity system all program material, whether from another studio, or from tape, or from an outside broadcast point passes through a studio where an announcer and a technical operator are on
continuous duty. In this system the announcer’s continuity studio has final control of all program
material before it leaves the broadcasting centre for the transmitter.
2.4 Studio Equipment
Studio equipments can be classified as source equipments example computers, microphone,
and other let us see on by one as follow .
2.4.1 Source equipment
The source equipment in a studio may include CD players, turntables, and cassette Players or even reel-
to-reel tape players. Of course, none of this equipment is required for a radio station you only need as
much of it as you want to use.
There are a number of uses for computers in the studio, and the requirements for a computer will depend
on its intended use. If you only want a computer for internet access, you won't need a fast processor, a
giant hard drive, a fancy soundcard, or really anything beyond the bare minimum. If you want to stream
your programming over the internet, you won't need a fancy computer, but you'll need one computer
dedicated for encoding and streaming whenever you're on the air.
A studio should have one microphone for each DJ or host and a few for the guests. Try not to have more
than 4 microphones total in the any studio having lots of microphones active at once leads to a lot of
background noise. Guests can share microphones if need be! Microphones can be either directional or
Omni-directional. Directional microphones only pick up sound waves from one direction, and as a result
pick up less ambient noise (equipment hum, paper-shuffling, etc). Omni directional microphones pick up
sound from all directions, and are therefore useful for speakers who don't have experience using
microphones or will be moving a lot while talking.
2.4.2 Mixer or console
An audio mixer takes input from multiple audio sources and lets the user determine which channels to use
in the output, and at what levels. A console is generally the same thing as a mixer, but sometimes has
some additional fancy features used just for radio. A mixer or console is essential for any station that will
broadcast using multiple audio sources. A nice mixer should have ample channels to accommodate all
audio sources and easily visible level meters with sliding controls. Another useful feature is monitor
muting, which automatically mutes the studio monitor speakers whenever a microphone channel is on.
Without this, the sound from the speakers goes back into the microphone and creates feedback, if the
mixer does not include automatic monitor muting, you can make or buy a speaker muting device that does
this automatically, or the DJ can mute the speakers manually to avoid feedback.
2.4.3 FM tuner
It is important to have an FM tuner so the DJ can listen to the signal that is being sent over the airwaves.
The receiver should be tuned to the frequency at which the station is broadcasting. The DJ can switch
between the on-air signal and the console signal to make sure the station is broadcasting loud and clear.
2.4.4 Monitor speakers
Monitor speakers let the DJ listen to what they are playing. The monitor speakers might be internally
amplified, or might require an external amp for power. The best monitor speakers have a flat response so
that the sound coming out of the speakers sounds as much as possible like the audio going into them, but
any old speakers will work in a pinch.
There should be enough headphones for the DJs or Hosts, and as many guests as will be in the studio.
Headphones tend to wear out quickly, so durability is an important consideration if you want to avoid
replacing them frequently. It's also a good idea to keep a couple pairs in reserve. If there are lots of
headphones in the studio, you might want a Headphone amplifier to split up the signal and allow all of the
guests to set their listening level to whatever is comfortable for them.
2.4.6 Telephone system
Most studios will have at least one telephone. If you plan to put callers on the air, you will need a
Telephone Hybrid. The hybrid feeds the signal from the phone line into the console, and feeds another
signal back to the caller. More complex (and more expensive) caller management systems are also
available to handle multiple calls in cue, and sometimes do audio processing with the phone signal as
2.4.7 Audio cables and connectors
Audio cables transmit audio signals from one place to another, such as from an audio source to the
console. You will likely need an assortment of connectors to make custom cables, depending on what
equipment you use.
Fig. 3 Transmitter Room Setup
Fig. 4 Discussion Room
a) Floor: the studio floor must be even and level so that cameras can travel smoothly and freely. It should also be hard enough to withstand the moving about of heavy equipment, scenery, and set
properties. Most studios have concrete floors that are polished or covered with linoleum, tile, or
b) Air-conditioning : Because television studios typically have no windows (to keep out noise and light), air-conditioning is essential. Incandescent studio lights generate a great amount of heat,
which has an adverse effect on performers and delicate electronic equipment. Unfortunately,
many air-conditioning systems are too noisy for studio productions and must be turned off during the recording of a show—just when cool air is needed the most.
c) Doors: Studios need heavy, soundproof doors that are large enough to accommodate scenery,
furniture, and even vehicles. Few things are more frustrating than trying to squeeze scenery and properties through undersized studio doors or to have the doors transmit outside sounds, such as
a fire truck screaming by, right in the middle of a show.
2.5.1 Major Installations
All studios need major installations that facilitate the production process.
Intercommunication system : the intercommunication system, or intercom, allows all production and
engineering personnel actively engaged in a production to be in constant voice contact with one another. For example, the director, who sits in the control room physically isolated from the studio, has to rely
totally on the intercom to communicate cues and instructions to the production team. In most small
stations, the P.L.(private line or phone line) system is used. Each member of the production team wears a telephone headset with an earphone and a small microphone for talkback.
2.5.2 Studio Monitors
Studio monitors are high-quality television sets that display the video feed from the program switcher.
Contrary to the television set in your home, a monitor cannot receive a broadcast signal. A studio monitor is an important production aid for both crew and talent. The production crew can see the shots the director
has selected and thus anticipate their future tasks. For example, if you see that the on-the-air camera is on
a close-up rather than a long shot, you can work closer to the set without getting into camera range. Also, after seeing that one camera is on a close-up, the other camera operators can go to different shots to give
the director a wider choice. The studio monitor is essential for the newscaster to see whether the various
tape or live inserts are actually appearing as per the script. Sometimes laptop computer screens serve as monitors for news anchors. In audience participation shows, several studio monitors are usually provided
so that the studio audience can see how the event looks on-screen.
2.5.3 Program Speakers
The program speakers (also called audio monitors) fulfill a function for audio similar to what the studio monitors do for video. Whenever necessary they Can feed into the studio the program sound or any other
sound—dance music, telephone rings, or other sound effects—to be synchronized with the studio action.
2.6 Studio Control Room
The control room, adjacent to the studio, is where all the production activities are coordinated. Here the
director, the associate director (AD), the technical director (TD), and a variety of producers and
production assistants make the decisions concerning maximally effective picture and sound sequences, which are to be videotaped or broadcast live.
2.7 Program Control
Program control does not mean the critical examination, or perhaps even censoring, of program content; it refers to the equipment the director needs to select and organize the various video and audio inputs so
that the end result makes sense to the viewing audience. The program control area of the control room is
equipped with (1) video monitors, (2) speakers for program sound, (3) intercom systems, and (4) clocks and stopwatches.
Switching refers to the selection and proper sequencing of video images as supplied by cameras or other video sources. It also includes the control of video special effects. The main piece of image control
equipment is the switcher, which is located next to the director’s position . Although the director and the
person doing the switching (usually the technical director) are connected
via the P.L., the director often resorts to pointing and finger snapping to speed up the cues to the TD. In
small stations the director sometimes does his or her own switching, but that arrangement has more disadvantages than advantages. The C.G. is also located in the control room so that the C.G.
operator can call up the various preprogrammed titles or create new ones even during the show.
Fig. 5 switching
2.9 Audio Control
The audio control booth can be considered a small radio station adjacent to the studio control room. It
usually houses the audio console and a patch bay (or patch panel), as well as audiotape recorders, DAT
machines, CD and DVD players, or other read/write digital devices. The audio engineer can listen to a cue speaker when cueing an upcoming audio source and the program sound on
high-quality program speakers. The audio booth also contains a clock and a line monitor.
2.10 Lighting Control
The lighting control board can be located in the control room or in a corner of the studio. The advantage
of placing it in the control room is that the lighting director (LD) has close contact with other control
room personnel. The lighting control operator is, as are all other production team members, connected
with the director via the P.L. system.
2.11 Video Control
The video controls allow the video operator to achieve optimal pictures. Most often the cameras are set up
for the prevailing lighting before the show, and then adjusted as necessary during the show.
2.12 Basic Television System
A system is a collection of elements that work together to achieve a specific purpose. Each of the
elements is dependent on the proper workings of all the others, and none of the individual elements can do the job alone. The television system consists of equipment and people who operate that equipment for
the production of specific programs. Whether the productions are simple or elaborate, or originate in the
studio or in the field—that is, on location—the system works on the same basic principle: the television camera converts whatever it ―sees‖ (optical images) into electrical signals that can be temporarily stored
or directly reconverted by the television set into visible screen images. The microphone converts
whatever it ―hears‖ (actual sounds) into electrical signals that can be temporarily stored or directly
reconverted into sounds by the loudspeaker. In general, the basic television system transducers (converts)
one state of energy (optical image, actual sound) into another (electrical energy).
2.13 Expanded Studio and Electronic Field Production Systems
The basic television system is considerably expanded when doing a television production in the studio or
in the field, such as a telecast of a sporting event. The expanded system needs equipment and procedures
that allow for the selection of various pictures and sound sources; for the control and monitoring of picture and sound quality; for the recording, playback, and transmission of pictures and sound; and for the
integration of additional video and audio sources.
2.14 Production Elements
With the expanded television system in mind, we briefly explore eight basic production elements: (1) the
postproduction editing, and (8) special effects. When learning about television production, always try to
see each piece of equipment and its operation within the larger context of the television system, that is, in relation to all the other pieces of equipment that are used and the people who use them—the production
personnel. It is, after all, the skilled and prudent use of the television equipment by the production team,
and not simply the smooth interaction of the machines, that gives the system its value.
The most obvious production element—the camera—comes in all sizes and configurations. Some cameras are so small that they fi t easily into your coat pocket, whereas others are so heavy that you have
to strain yourself to lift them onto a camera mount. Portable cameras are often used for ENG and EFP. Many
ENG/EFP cameras are camcorders that combine the camera and the videotape recorder in one unit, much like popular consumer models. The ENG/EFP camcorders, however, are of higher quality and cost
considerably more. It is often the high-quality lens that distinguishes a professional ENG/EFP camera
from a high-end consumer model. Some ENG/EFP cameras are built so that they can ―dock‖ with a
videotape recorder, a digital disc, or hard drive recording unit; such units are simply plugged into the back of the camera to form a camcorder..
Fig. 6 Professional Camcorder
The studio television camera has three fundamental parts: the lens, the camera itself, and the view finder.
The lens: In all photography (meaning ―writing with light‖), the lens selects part of the visible
environment and produces a small optical image of it. In standard still and movie cameras, the image is then projected onto fi lm; in digital still cameras and television cameras, it is projected onto the imaging
device, which converts the light from the optical image into an electrical signal. All television cameras
have a zoom lens, which allows you to smoothly and continuously change from a long shot (showing a
wide vista) to a close-up view without moving either the camera or the object you are photographing.
The camera itself :The camera is principally designed to convert the optical image as projected by the
lens into an electrical signal—the video signal. As mentioned earlier, the major conversion element is the imaging device, a small electronic chip called the CCD (charge-coupled device). It responds to light in a
manner that resembles a light meter. When the CCD receives a large amount of light, it produces a strong
video signal (just as the needle of a light meter goes way up); when it receives faint light, it produces a
weak signal (just as the light meter needle barely moves from its original position). Other optical and electronic components enable the camera to reproduce the colors and the light-and-dark variations of the
actual scene as accurately as possible, as well as to amplify the
relatively weak video signal so that it can be sent to the camera control unit without getting lost along the way. For both analog and digital cameras, the basic imaging devices are the same.
The viewfinder :The viewfinder is a small television set mounted on the camera that shows what the camera is seeing. Most viewfinders of professional cameras are monochrome, which means that the
display is in black-andwhite. Many consumer camcorders and some high-quality
studio cameras, on the other hand, have color viewfinders, so you can see the color pictures that the
camera delivers. Generally, black-and-white viewfinders show more picture detail than color displays do, which makes it easier to achieve sharp focus.
Mounting equipment :Portable cameras and camcorders are designed to rest more or less comfortably on
your shoulder. But even a small, handheld camcorder can get quite heavy when you operate it for prolonged periods of time. In such cases a tripod not only relieves you of having
to carry the camera but also ensures steady pictures. The heavy studio cameras also need mounts; these
range from tripods, similar to those used for ENG/EFP cameras, to large cranes.
Like the human eye, the camera cannot see well without a certain amount of light. Because it is not
objects we actually see but the light reflected off of them, manipulating the light falling on objects influences the way we perceive them on-screen. Such manipulation is called lighting.
Lighting has four broad purposes:
1. to provide the television camera with adequate illumination for technically acceptable pictures 2. to tell us what the objects shown on-screen actually look like
3. to show us where the objects are in relation to one another and to their immediate environment,
and when the event is taking place in terms of time of day or season
4. to establish the general mood of the event.
Types of illumination :All television lighting basically involves two types of illumination: directional
and diffused. Directional light has a sharp beam and produces harsh shadows. You can aim the light beam to illuminate a precise area. A flashlight and car headlights produce directional light. Diffused light has a
wide, indistinct beam that illuminates a relatively large area and produces soft, translucent shadows. The
fluorescent lamps in a department store produce diffused lighting. Studio lighting consists of carefully controlling light and shadow areas. The lighting requirements for
electronic field production are usually quite different from those for studio work. In electronic news
gathering, you work mostly with available light or occasionally with a single lighting instrument that
gives just enough illumination for the camera to record an event relatively close to the camera.
Although the term television does not include audio, the sound portion of a television show is nevertheless one of its most important elements. Television audio not only communicates
precise information but also contributes greatly to the mood and the atmosphere of a scene. If you were to
turn off the audio during a newscast, even the best news anchors would have difficulty communicating
their stories through facial expressions, graphics, and video images alone. The aesthetic function of sound (to make us perceive an event or feel in a particular way) becomes obvious when you listen to the
background sounds during a crime show, for example. The squealing tires during a high-speed chase are
real enough, but the rhythmically fast, exciting background music that accompanies the scene is definitely artificial. After all, the getaway car and the police car are not followed in real life by a third vehicle with
musicians playing the background music. But we have grown so accustomed to such devices that we
probably would perceive the scene as less exciting if the music were missing. The various audio production elements are microphones, ENG/EFP and studio sound control equipment, and sound
recording and playback devices.
Fig.7 Portable Lighting Instruments
2.15.1Sound recording and playback devices: Even when an event is recorded on videotape for postproduction, its sounds are usually recorded at the same time as the picture. In ENG the pictures, the
reporter’s voice, and the ambient sounds are picked up and recorded simultaneously. In EFP
most speech sounds, such as an interviewer’s questions and the interviewee’s answers, are recorded on
location with the picture.
2.15.2Videotape recorders: Because videotape will be in use for some time to come, you must
acquaint yourself with the basics of videotape recording. All videotape recorders, analog and digital, work
on the same principle: they record video and audio signals on a single strip of plastic videotape and later reconvert them into signals that can be seen as pictures and heard as sound on a television receiver.
Most VTRs use videotape cassettes, similar to the ones you use in your camcorder or home VCR
(videocassette recorder). Professional videotape recorders are similar to a home machine, except that they
have more operational controls, more-rugged tape drives, and more-sophisticated electronics that ensure higher-quality pictures and sound.
Fig .8 Videotape Recorder
3. Over all Benefits I gained from the Internship
During my internship at Amhara mass media agency I had gain so many benefits from the internship.
During these three months of my internship program I was able to bridge the gap between student life and
professional life. This internship program provided me a platform to introduce myself in professional
field. I greatly benefited from working with the dedicated professionals in the company. The company has
provided a conductive working atmosphere among the staffs. This has opened doors for me to understand
what is waiting for me when I finish my graduate studies at this field. This internship experience has
made me respect the company advisor stream more and more throughout these three months. I am very
glad to get opportunity to be a part of this internship program.
Having a dedicated advisor and mentors made the outcome of this experience very fruitful. I had the
opportunity to ask question. In short this internship work more interesting rather than being tedious and
routines. In overall within these three months I had the opportunity to improve my theoretical knowledge,
my interpersonal communication skills, team playing skills, leadership skills and etc. In the next pages I
will try to describe what I have learnt in the different aspects that I have mentioned before.
3.1 Theoretical Knowledge I have been able to gain a great deal of knowledge in this internship. Among them I will try to mention
some of them. They are
a) Learning the different studio equipments and their application in the studio.
b) Learning and reading different manuals that were used as guidance.
c) Learning different kinds of electronics devise and their use in real life. example, mixer, mic , pc,
video switcher , monitor and soon.
3.2 Interpersonal Communication Skills During the internship I had been able to do different kinds of tasks. At that time I have gained confidence
on how: -
a) to ask different questions
b) to make discussions with workers example eritor, technicial.
c) to answer questions when my supervisor asked me.
I am improving interpersonal communication skills since the role of interpersonal skills are need to be
communicate, interact and gate along with other people. Those with this kind of skills can interpret other
people and are always aware how their behavior impacts them.
It upwards mobility, develop teamwork and for better success.
The development of interpersonal skills being early in life and is influenced by family, friends and our
observation. So communicating skills had to come handy at these times. In short, during these three
months I had been able to upgrade my speaking skills.
3.3 Leadership Skills At the company I have been able to see different workers in hierarchy work and lead the company in
straight way. During these times I have been able to observe that one should have great skills to be a
leader. Among them: -
a) Good speaking ability.
b) To have the ability to listen to others.
c) To be decisive.
d) Good management skills.
e) To know the subject one is working on thoroughly.
3.4 Work Ethics My supervisor was always advising me that I should be an ethical and responsible professional for the
future. He has been showing how to develop this good behavior during my stay on the company with him.
And also he told me lots of practical cases that related to work ethic that he could see when he was
working in different company.
On my stay in the company I was very punctual, daily attendant of the work & responsible to my
profession. During this program I had developed my work ethics.
As it is known, the main goal of internship program is to integrate the theoretically acquired
concepts with a tangible practical demonstration. As such, technology students are more effective in
achieving the intended learning competency as they have developed their practical knowledge in
addition to what they have known theoretically. Therefore, the internship program must be continuous since it has a pivoted role inculcating a full-fledged skill besides enabling students to be
self-confident. General speaking during the internship program a lots of knowledge and skills have
been gained. This program helps students to develop practical knowledge that can be applied in the real world, how to solve the problems related to any professional areas, how to meet challenges.
That probably encounters the intern in the future. Moreover, as it is explained above, the internship
program has its own advantage on work ethics and other crosscutting issues
Since the company has good outlooks, attitudes and respect for inters, the intern suggest that the
company must keep up as it deems necessary for the interns.
The company has enough equipment.
It plays a critical role to contribute community.
The company does not have enough class rooms. Therefore, it must construct other enough class
room for the feature.
The company does not allow me to use library at any time so the Company has to use different
methods to develop /expand library for the future.
Technician does not have manuals or modules. The company has to prepare enough manual/
handout and give it out to technician for the future and the company must put the copy of the
manual in the library, so that technician can use of them whenever necessary.