Intelligent Environments

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Intelligent Environments. Computer Science and Engineering University of Texas at Arlington. Networking for Intelligent Environments. Requirements Technologies Networking Service Discovery Network Architecture. Intelligent Environments. Network Requirements. Sensor 1. Sensor 5. - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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  • Intelligent Environments

    Computer Science and EngineeringUniversity of Texas at Arlington

    Intelligent Environments

  • Networking for Intelligent EnvironmentsRequirementsTechnologiesNetworkingService DiscoveryNetwork Architecture

    Intelligent Environments

  • Intelligent EnvironmentsNetwork Requirements

    Intelligent Environments

  • Sensor 1Sensor 2Sensor 3Sensor 4Sensor 5Sensor 6Sensor 7Sensor 8

    Intelligent Environments

  • Network Requirements: SensorsCamera (15) 320x240, 8-bit colorMotion (15) distance, direction, velocityTemperature (12)Humidity (12)Light (12) frequency, intensityMicrophone (12) 8000 HzGas (4)Pressure (100)

    Intelligent Environments

  • Network Requirements: Sensors

    Intelligent Environments

  • Other Network RequirementsAudioPhones (16 kHz, 8 bit)Radios (44 kHz, 16 bit)TVs (44 kHz, 16 bit)Media players (44 kHz, 16 bit)Monitoring (16 kHz, 8 bit)2.4 Mbits/sec (one each)

    Internet, control, VideoPhones (30fps, 320x240, 8-bit color)TVs (60 fps, 1024x768, 24-bit color)Video players (60 fps, 1024x768, 24-bit color)Monitoring (30 fps, 320x240, 8-bit color)~6.9 Gbits/sec (one each)

    Intelligent Environments

  • Other Network Requirements

    Intelligent Environments

  • Network RequirementsWorst-case throughput: 10 Gbits/secMaximum throughput: 5 Gbits/secQuality of Service (QoS)Audio, videoPlug and play (service discovery)

    Intelligent Environments

  • Intelligent EnvironmentsNetwork Technologies

    Intelligent Environments

  • Wired Network TechnologiesPhone lineHome Phoneline Networking Alliance (HomePNA)Power lineX10Consumer Electronics Bus (CEBus)HomePlugLonWorksNew wireEthernet (coax, twisted pair, optical fiber)Universal Serial Bus (USB)IEEE 1394 FirewireHome Audio Video Interoperability (HAVi)Specialty: audio, video

    Intelligent Environments

  • Wireless Network TechnologiesDigital Enhanced Cordless Telecommunications (DECT)HomeRFBluetoothIEEE 802.11HiperLAN2Infrared

    Intelligent Environments

  • Phoneline NetworkingHome Phoneline Networking Alliance (HomePNA)www.homepna.org IEEE 802.3 (Ethernet)Carrier Sense Multiple Access with Collision Detect (CSMA/CD)10 Mbps (HPNA 2.0)Length: 500 feet

    Intelligent Environments

  • HomePNA Packet

    Intelligent Environments

  • HomePNA FrequenciesStandard voice (POTS): 20Hz - 3.4kHzUADSL: 25kHz - 1.1MHzHome network: 5.5MHz - 9.5MHz

    Intelligent Environments

  • Phoneline Network IssuesRandom wiring topologies & signal attenuationHome phoneline wiring system is a random tree topologySimply plugging in the phone or disconnecting the fax changes the treeThis topology can cause signal attenuationSignal noiseAppliances, heaters, air conditioners, consumer appliances & telephones can introduce signal noise onto the phone wires

    Intelligent Environments

  • Powerline NetworkingUbiquity of power lines10+ MbpsTechnologiesX10Consumer Electronics Bus (CEBus)HomePlugLonWorks

    Intelligent Environments

  • X10X10 controllers send signals over existing AC wiring to receiver modulesX10 technology transmits binary data using the Amplitude Modulation (AM) techniquewww.x10.com

    Intelligent Environments

  • X10To differentiate the data symbols, the carrier uses the zero-voltage crossing point of the 60Hz AC sine wave on the cycles positive or negative transitionSynchronized receivers accept the carrier at each zero-crossing pointX10 uses two zero crossings to transmit a binary digit so as to reduce errors

    Intelligent Environments

  • X10Every bit requires a full 60 Hertz cycle and thus the X10 transmission rate is limited to only 60 bpsUsually a complete X10 command consists of two packets with a 3 cycle gap between each packetEach packet contains two identical messages of 11 bits (or 11 cycles) eachA complete X-10 command consumes 47 cycles that yields a transmission time of about 0.8s

    Intelligent Environments

  • Consumer Electronics Bus (CEBus)Open standard providing separate physical layer specification for communication on power lines and other mediaElectronic Industries Association (EIA-600)www.cebus.org Data packets are transmitted by the transceiver at about 10 KbpsCarrier Sense Multiple Access/Collision Detect (CSMA/CD)Employing spread spectrum technology (100Hz-400 Hz)

    Intelligent Environments

  • OSI and CEBus (EIA-600)

    Intelligent Environments

  • Spread Spectrum ModulationFrequency spectrum of a data-signal is spread using a code uncorrelated with that signalSacrifices bandwidth to gain signal-to-noise performance

    Intelligent Environments

  • HomePlugHomePlug Powerline Alliance www.homeplug.org Spread-spectrum technology

    Intelligent Environments

  • HomePlugSpeedSupport file transfers at 10BaseT-like ratesEither node-to-node file transfer or scenarios with multiple nodes performing simultaneous file transfersHomePlug 1.0 (14 Mbps)Voice over IP (VoIP)Maintain adequate QoS while supporting multiple, simultaneous VoIP calls while other nodes are transferring files and during multiple media streams

    Intelligent Environments

  • HomePlugInteroperabilityInteroperate with other networking technologiesCo-exist with existing powerline networking technologies such as X-10, CEBus and LonWorksSecurityContain strong privacy featuresSupport multiple logical networks on a single physical mediumBe applicable to markets in North America, Europe and Asia

    Intelligent Environments

  • LonWorksLocal Operation Networks (LonWorks)Developed by Echelon Corporationwww.echelon.com Provides a peer-to-peer communication protocol, implementing Carrier Sense Multiple Access (CSMA) techniques1.25 MbpsWorks for other wired and wireless media

    Intelligent Environments

  • LonWorksA common message-based communications protocolLonTalk protocol implements all seven layers of the OSI model using a mixture of hardware and firmware on a silicon chipProtocol can be run as fast as 20 MHz

    Intelligent Environments

  • Powerline Network IssuesNoiseSwitching power suppliesWound motorsVacuum cleaners, kitchen appliances, drillsDimmersSecuritySignal attenuation

    Intelligent Environments

  • New Wire NetworkingEthernet (coax, twisted pair, optical fiber)Universal Serial Bus (USB)IEEE 1394 FirewireHome Audio Video Interoperability (HAVi)Specialty: audio, video

    Intelligent Environments

  • EthernetIEEE 802.3CSMA/CDUp to 1 GbpsIEEE 802.3ae10GBase-X, 10 GpsLengths up to 40 kmwww.ethermanage.com/ethernet

    Intelligent Environments

  • IEEE 802.3

    Intelligent Environments

  • Universal Serial Bus (USB)www.usb.org480 MbpsPlug and PlayHot pluggableUp to 127 devices simultaneouslyPowered bus5m maximum cable length

    Intelligent Environments

  • IEEE 1394 Firewire (i.LINK)Digital interfaceNo need to convert digital data into analog and tolerate a loss of data integrityTransferring data @ 100, 200, 400 MbpsPhysically smallThe thin serial cable can replace larger and more expensive interfaces

    Intelligent Environments

  • IEEE 1394 FirewireNo need for terminators or device IDsHot pluggableUsers can add or remove 1394 devices with the bus activeScaleable architectureMay mix 100, 200, and 400 Mbps devices on a bus

    Intelligent Environments

  • IEEE 1394 FirewireIt can connect up to 63 devices @ transfer rate of 400MbpsUp to 16 nodes can be daisy- chained through the connectorsStandard cables up to 4.5 m in length for a total standard cable length of 72 m

    Intelligent Environments

  • IEEE 1394 FirewireFlexible topologySupport of daisy chaining and branching for true peer-to-peer communicationNon-proprietary

    Intelligent Environments

  • IEEE 1394b1394b is a significant enhancement to the basic 1394 specification that enables:Speed increases to 3.2 GbpsDistances of 100 meters on UTP-5, plastic optical fiber and glass optical fiberSignificantly reduces latency times by using arbitrationFully backwards compatible with the current 1394 and 1394a specifications

    Intelligent Environments

  • Home Audio Video Interoperability (HAVi)HAVi is a digital Audio Video networking initiative that provides a home networking software specificationSeamless interoperability among home entertainment productsDesigned to meet the particular demands of digital audio and videowww.havi.org

    Intelligent Environments

  • HAViDefines operating-system-neutral middleware that manages:Multi-directional AV streamsEvent scheduleRegistriesTakes advantage of chips built into modern audio and video appliancesProvides the management function of a dedicated audio-video networking systemIEEE 1394 (i. LINK or FireWire) has been chosen as the interconnection medium

    Intelligent Environments

  • Specialty WiringAudioCoaxRCASpeaker wireVideoCoaxRCAVGA~100m maximum cable lengths

    Intelligent Environments

  • Intelligent EnvironmentsWireless Networking Technologies

    Intelligent Environments

  • Wireless Network TechnologiesDigital Enhanced Cordless Telecommunications (DECT)HomeRFBluetoothIEEE 802.11HiperLAN2Infrared

    Intelligent Environments

  • General Wireless

    Narrow bandSpread spectrumDirect Sequence (DSSS)Frequency Hopping (FHSS)Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM)

    Intelligent Environments

  • DECTDigital Enhanced Cordless Telecommunications (DECT)www.dectweb.com Digital radio technologyDynamic channel selectionEncryption, authentication, identification500 Kbps 2 MbpsCordless phones

    Intelligent Environm