Integrated Collaborative Learning Environments with Dynamic Support

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Integrated Collaborative Learning Environments with Dynamic Support. Carolyn Penstein Ros Language Technologies Institute/ Human-Computer Interaction Institute. Design Principle Know what problem you are trying to solve!!. Passivity in Class Discussions. Accountable Talk. - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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  • Integrated Collaborative Learning Environments with Dynamic Support

    Carolyn Penstein RosLanguage Technologies Institute/ Human-Computer Interaction Institute

  • Design PrincipleKnow what problem you are trying to solve!!

  • Passivity in Class Discussions

  • Accountable TalkA codified set of moves that Ts and Ss can be taught that build effective language in the classroomPress individuals to explain and elaborateRequire individuals to listen and respond to each otherReveal misunderstandings, incomplete ideas..Let Ss know how others are hearing themSpread participation through the group

  • TransactivityStudents explicitly display their reasoningStudents orient their contributions towards previous contributionsMay be competitive or non-competitiveMay be representational operationalMay be oriented towards self or otherStudent 1: Alright, we put that the negative and positive whole numbers.

    Teacher: Alright, other ideas you want to add on, yes Mario.

    Student 2: I put a um numbers that doesn't include decimal points or fractions but they include, they can include negative signs or positive signs.

  • Accountable Talk elicits Transactivity in group discussion

    Accountable Talk Move Corresponding Transactivity Move RevoicingClarification, Competitive Clarification, Refinement Restate Request Paraphrase, Competitive Paraphrase Reasoning Application Request Extension, Competitive Extension, Contradiction, Reasoning CritiquePrompting for Further Participation. Extension, Completion, ClarificationRequest for Elaboration Extension, Completion Challenge orRequest for Counter-Example Competitive Paraphrase, Contradiction, Competitive Extension

  • Accountable Talk elicits Transactivity in group discussionEddie: Well, i don't think it matters what order the numbers are in. You still get the same answer. But three times four and four times three seem like they could be talking about different things.Teacher: Rebecca, do you agree or disagree with what Eddie is saying?Rebecca: Well, I agree that it doesn't matter which number is first, because they both give you twelve. But I don't get what Eddie means about them saying different things.Teacher: Eddie, would you explain what you mean?Eddie: Well, I just think that like three times four can mean three groups of four things, like three bags of four apples. And four times three means four bags of three apples, and those don't seem like the same thing.Tiffany: But you still have the same number of apples, so they are the same!Teacher: OK, so we have two different ideas here to talk about. Eddie says the order does matter, because the two orders can be used to describe different situations. So Tiffany, are you saying that three times four and four times three can't be used to describe two different situations?

  • Unequal Participation

  • Wizard-of-Oz SetupTutorStudentStudent

  • Problem Solving InterfaceInterface allowsstudents to submitIncorrect solutions

  • Reflection Interface

  • Scaffolding for CollaborationPrompts to encourage the instructionally beneficial behavior of studentsExplanationsEqual contributions

  • Explanation Prompt(Student 1 corrects the answer for the confederate learner without offering any explanation)

    Student1: c is 1Auto-Prompt (to student 1): Help the student understand your correction. Student2 : what does c mean? Student1 : constant Student2 : okStudent1 : the constant in front of the variable which in our case is variable t Student2 : okStudent1 : now for the second part we use the constant function

  • Equal Contribution Prompt(After the participant makes 5 correct problem actions without confederate students contribution)

    Auto-Prompt: It seems like the other student has not contributed lately. Why dont you see if they need help? Student1: you want to do the other half?Student2: ok

  • Learning effectSignificant benefit for prompting on student learning with pretest as a covariateF(1,39) = 4.47, p < .05, effect size .58

  • Process Losses

  • Another Domain: Earth SciencesCollaborative idea generation in the Earth Sciences domainChinese TagHelper learns hand-coded topic analysisHuman agreement .84 KappaTagHelper performance .7 KappaTrained models used in follow-up study to trigger interventions and facilitate data analysis

  • Example Dialogue* Feedback during idea generation increases learning and idea generation productivity (except during the first 5 minutes) (Wang et al., 2007)

    SpeakerTextStudent 1People stole sand and stones to use for construction.VIBRANTYes, steeling sand and stones may destroy the balance and thus make mountain areas unstable. Thinking about development of mountain areas, can you think of a kind of development that may cause a problem? Student 2Development of mountain areas often causes problems.Student 1It is okay to develop, but there must be some constraints.

  • Process AnalysisProcess loss Pairs vs Individuals:F(1,24)=12.22, p
  • Deficient Help Exchange

  • Why study help?Offering of deep help and elaborated explanations predicts post test performance (e.g., Webb et al., 2002)Help behavior mediates learning (e.g., Gweon et al., 2006; Gweon et al., 2007)Exchanging help in the context of collaborative learning increases identification with a learning community and motivation, and improves race relations (Sharan, 1980)Providing help leads to feelings empowerment for low status students (Elbers & Hann, 2004)

  • How can we prompt helping behavior?DIRECT: Explicit prompts (Gweon et al., 2006)LESS DIRECT: Manipulating availability of help from problem solving environment (Gweon et al., 2007)Girls offered more help with delayed feedback from environmentBoys offered more help with immediate help from the environmentSUBTLE: Conversation agents inject humor (Kumar et al., 2007)Positive effects on perceived help exchange (p
  • Collaborative Problem Solving Environment

  • Extraneous Entertainment?

  • Coding Scheme (Gweon et al., 2007)Help provision mediates learning (Gweon et al., 2006; Gweon et al., 2007)

    (R) Help Requests: Help me, Im stuck, I dont get it.(P) Help Provisions: Find the common denominator, Try the flip and multiply strategy(C) Cant help: I dont know, Im stuck too(D) Deny help: ask the teacher, youre an idiot, press the help button(N) Nothing

  • Examples[R] Student 1: What do we put on top of the fraction?[P] Student 2: Did you find a common denominator?

    [R] Student 1: I dont get it[D] Student 2: hold on

    [R] Student 1: Why 16?[C] Student 2: I dont know.

    [R] Student 1: I dont get it

  • Big findings:

    More help related episodes in experimental condition

    More episodes where people got help, and then managed to solve the problem themselves in the experimental condition

  • Vision

  • VisionSupport for collaborative learning is like training wheelsEffective support allows learners to achieve better collaborationUnnecessary support can be demotivatingFading support is idealBut too little support can be detrimental as wellTrained human facilitators are able to achieve the right balance

  • VisionSupport for collaborative learning is like training wheelsEffective support allows learners to achieve better collaborationUnnecessary support can be demotivatingFading support is idealBut too little support can be detrimental as wellTrained human facilitators are able to achieve the right balance

  • VisionSupport for collaborative learning is like training wheelsEffective support allows learners to achieve better collaborationUnnecessary support can be demotivatingFading support is idealBut too little support can be detrimental as wellTrained human facilitators are able to achieve the right balance

  • VisionSupport for collaborative learning is like training wheelsEffective support allows learners to achieve better collaborationUnnecessary support can be demotivatingFading support is idealBut too little support can be detrimental as wellTrained human facilitators are able to achieve the right balance

  • VisionSupport for collaborative learning is like training wheelsEffective support allows learners to achieve better collaborationUnnecessary support can be demotivatingFading support is idealBut too little support can be detrimental as wellTrained human facilitators are able to achieve the right balance

  • Support for collaborative learning is like training wheelsEffective support allows learners to achieve better collaborationUnnecessary support can be demotivatingFading support is idealBut too little support can be detrimental as wellTrained human facilitators are able to achieve the right balanceVision

  • Architecture for Dynamic Collaboration Support

  • VMT-Basilica** Students learn up to 1.25 standard deviations more when interactive support is provided in the environment.

  • Basilica ArchitectureA channel filter collects all of the events that occur at the interface from all students involved in the conversation

  • Basilica ArchitectureEvents are then channeled to special purpose filters such as a text processing filter

    Other filters may keep track of time or other factors not related to student behavior

  • Basilica ArchitectureFilters that are related to decision making for specific types of interventions receive notifications from the analysis filters and pass notifications on to the Actors, which are responsible to launching interventions

  • Basilica ArchitectureActors of different types produce events that are sent to the Outgoing Message Spooling Filter

    From there, events are sent