Secure, Private, Next Generation Addressing Infrastructure Douglas J. RanalliFounder, Chief Strategy OfficerNetNumber, Inc.firstname.lastname@example.org
About NetNumberFounded 1999. Key investors SAIC and Verisign.
Developer and provider of next generation addressing solutions for carriers and operators.Operator-ENUM: Addressing for IP-services. MMS, SMS direct connect, Push-to-talk, VoIP, etc.Number-Portability: Highly-efficient portability query infrastructure.Legacy circuit switched services as well as IP-services.
NetNumber product line:ENUM Client SDKLicensed to equipment vendorsNetNumber ENUM Server (NES) Master & Edge softwareLicensed to service providers.Introduction
North American Deployment Examples
MMSPortability corrected MMS address resolution across GSM and CDMA networks in North America.ENUM Service = E2U + MMS Deployment status: Multiple NA operators in test or production today. Multiple vendors providing infrastructure-ENUM solutions in NA today.
SMS Portability corrected SPID discovery across GSM and CDMA networks in NA.Deployment status: Multiple NA operators and content providers in production today.
Circuit-Switched Voice Number portabilityLow cost, high performance infrastructure for accessing number portability data. Deployment status: Multiple NA mobile and fixed line carriers in test or production today.
IMS (SIP)End-user specific service discovery for next generation SIP services. (Push-to-talk, IM, Presence, etc.)Deployment status: Vendor integration activity only.Introduction
Operator-ENUM BackgroundMultiple years of market feedback.Fixed-line carriers, mobile operators and equipment vendors.Germany, UK, US, Italy, Spain, Finland, Japan.Discussions focused on portability corrected addressing for MMS, IMS (SIP) and VoIP services.
Multiple architectures evaluated.Global centralized Tier-1 registry model.Distributed country-level Tier-1 registries.No centralized Tier-1 registry.
Clear customer feedback provided as soon as underlying market requirement was identifiedFirst operator-ENUM use case: Portability corrected MMS addressing across GSM and CDMA networks in North America.
Operator-ENUMCustomer Driven Principles
Operator ControlPrivate DNS infrastructureOperator controls provisioning of Tier-2 service addresses.Operator controls access to Tier-2 data.
No Centralized Registry InfrastructureExisting regulatory structure defines who controls a given E.164.Operators already have access to block and ported number data in their own market and via interconnect partners in other markets.
No Third Party TLD.E.164 name is already globally unique. +1-212-555-1234No TLD required in the domain name: 126.96.36.199.188.8.131.52.1.2.1.
Single Operator DecisionArchitecture must allow a single operator to begin using ENUM without waiting for other operators to deploy an ENUM infrastructure.
Operator-ENUM ArchitectureNES ImplementationTier-1 ENUM: E164 SPIDPortability-corrected service provider ID (SPID).Locally provisioned number-block assignment data.Locally provisioned ported number data.Referral to another database for portability data outside the local market.ENUM server located in another portability regionHLR located on the SS7 network (via referral to DNS/MAP gateway)
Tier-2 ENUM: SPID service address MMS, Push-to-talk, SIP-based voice service, Presence, etc.Locally provisioned service address data for internal users.Locally provisioned service specific default for interconnect partner.Example: Default MMS address for an interconnect email@example.comReferral to an interconnect partners ENUM server.
MMS Address ResolutionSingle Portability Region (US Market)GSM to CDMA to Fixed-line Application
MMS Query FlowEnd-user dials phone number to send MMS message.
MMSC issues a standard ENUM query to a local ENUM server.
ENUM server checks Tier-1 data to get portability corrected service provider ID (SPID).Locally provisioned number-block and ported number data.
ENUM server checks Tier-2 data to determine how to resolve an MMS address for the interconnect partner discovered from Tier-1. The NetNumber ENUM Server (NES) supports two resolution options:Static MMS address: Operator manually provisions a single static MMS address for each interconnect partner.Cross-Operator ENUM Query: Operator provisions ENUM referral for interconnect partners ENUM server.
ENUM server returns standard ENUM response to the MMSC with portability-corrected MMS address.
Common solution across CDMA, GSM, Fixed-lineApplication
IMS (SIP) Address ResolutionMultiple Portability Regions (Germany to US)
Security ConsiderationsTwo interfaces to consider:Application ENUM queryMMSC to ENUM serverCross-operator queryTier-1 query for SPID or Tier-2 query for NAPTR record.
NES Supports Three Authentication OptionsNone: Source IP over trusted network TSIG: Transaction signature (RFC 2845) with shared secret key.Extended TSIG: Transaction signature using public/private keys.
ETSI Plugtest ConsiderationsInfrastructure ENUM solutions still in early stages of deployment.Single country deploymentsSingle operator decisionsNo cross-operator queriesSimple static/default service addressing at Tier-2.
Interoperability across infrastructure ENUM deployments wont be an issue until the market evolves further.Tier-1 referrals across multiple portability regions (i.e. US to Germany)Cross-operator Tier-2 queries for end-user specific data.
Interoperability issues for future considerationFormat of Tier-1 query for portability corrected SPID across multiple portability regions. Mandatory cross-operator authentication options.Source IPTSIG with digital signatureTSIG with public/private key
Set the stage. Make sure audience knows this is about Operator not End-user ENUM.Very quickly NetNumber in November 1999. Major investors are.Last point: NetNumber builds technology. Provisioning is simple.Query process from the MMSCs perspective is really simple.Solution includes end-to-end security model using DNSSEC TSIG.If you really care to look under the covers, ENUM is also a fantastic tool for handling internal scaling of applications. Take a look at the right hand side