IF YOU LOVE YOUR LIFE, MOVE OUT! ? IF YOU LOVE YOUR LIFE, MOVE OUT! NIGERIA: foRcEd EvIctIoN IN bAdIA

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IF YOU LOVE YOUR LIFE, MOVE OUT! NIGERIA: foRcEd EvIctIoN IN bAdIA EAst,lAGos stAtEcOnTEnTs1/Map 11/InTRODUcTIOn 5mEthodoloGy 72/backgROUnD 10upGRAdING bAdIA: plANs ANd REAlIty 153/an EVIcTIOn wIThOUT saFEgUaRDs 18totAl AbsENcE of coNsultAtIoN 19dEmolIshING pEoplEs homEs wIthout NotIcE 24sEvERE fAIluREs IN thE EvIctIoN pRocEss 28pRovIsIoN of lEGAl REmEdIEs ANd lEGAl AId 32No AltERNAtIvE housING ANd compENsAtIoN 324/LIVEs DEsTROYED: ThE IMpacT OF FORcED EVIcTIOn 35NumbER of housEholds ANd pEoplE AffEctEd 35pEoplE lEft homElEss ANd dEstItutE 37foRcEd INto dEpENdENcy by loss of lIvElIhoods 39INtImIdAtIoN ANd hARAssmENt AftER thE EvIctIoN 41commuNIty EffoRts to chAllENGE thE foRcEd EvIctIoN 415/REsETTLEMEnT wIThIn ThE LMDgp REsETTLEMEnT pOLIcYFRaMEwORk 46coNsultAtIoN oN thE REsEttlEmENt ActIoN plAN 47IdENtIfyING All thosE AffEctEd 48optIoNs foR REsEttlEmENt 49AddREss ImmEdIAtE NEEds foR AssIstANcE 506/a TREnD OF DEMOLITIOns anD FORcED EVIcTIOns In LagOs sTaTE 51KIcK AGAINst INdIscIplINE bRIGAdE ANd thE lAGos stAtE ENvIRoNmENtAl ANd spEcIAl offENcEs ENfoRcEmENt uNIt 537/cOncLUsIOn 54REcommENdAtIoNs 558/EnDnOTEs 58amnesty International august 2013 Index: AfR 44/06/2013 IF YOU LOVE YOUR LIFE, MOVE OUT!NIGERIA: foRcEd EvIctIoN IN bAdIA EAst, lAGos stAtE1*Boundaries are approximate and do not constitute endorsement from Amnesty International Image: Lagos, Nigeria 12-31-2012 628'30.65"N 321'45.92"E DigitalGlobe 2013 Google EarthAbujaPort HarcourtLagosGULF OF GUINEA Oke Ilu-Eri & Ajeromi Communities Lagos, Nigeria1:10,000,000CHADNIGERBENINNIGERIACAMEROONCENTRAL AFRICAN REPUBLICTOGOBURKINAFASOMap shOwIng cOMMUnITIEs aFFEcTED bY DEMOLITIOn On 23 sEpTEMbER 2013. Amnesty InternationalIndex: AfR 44/06/2013 amnesty International august 2013amnesty International august 2013 Index: AfR 44/06/2013 IF YOU LOVE YOUR LIFE, MOVE OUT!NIGERIA: foRcEd EvIctIoN IN bAdIA EAst, lAGos stAtE2bImbo omowolE osobE bimbo omowole osobe (pictured right) is 55 years old and moved to badia East in 1973 when thecommunity was resettled there. her home and shops were demolished by the lagos state governmentand she was forcibly evicted on 23 february 2013. she has lost her home and means of livelihood andnow sleeps out in the open under a net. despite the difficult circumstances in which she is living, bimbo is a key part of the struggle of the community to get remedies for the violations they have suffered. what happened that day was a shock because there was no notice whatsoever; we were not notified atall. we only heard that there were caterpillars [bulldozers] around on that day thinking it was part of theenvironmental sanitation exercise. when I came out of my house I saw that they had started demolishing. they came withsledgehammers and all the enforcement agents were armed. we stayed by the rail lines. they did notgive us a chance to take any of our belongings; they did not allow us to go next to our homes afterdriving us out. homes that the bulldozers did not destroy, the task force men destroyed withsledgehammers. I owned a pepsi commercial fridge, it was destroyed, the only thing I was able torecover from the remains of my home was an empty bottle of miranda [a soft drink].I had a house with tenants and their children living in there; I had two shops too where I sold mineraldrink. you know when a woman loses her child, you know how she feels? that is how I can compare whathappened that day. the house was owned by my late uncle and I inherited it from him, I lived in thehouse with my family of four children. I had 10 tenants. my shops were demolished too; I sold mineraldrinks and water. I have been doing nothing since the demolition.during the day we are here in better life [an open-air community centre] sharing testimonies and atnight there is a place I sleep, I was given a net and I use that net. when it rains I stand up [because Isleep on the ground] and wait for the rain to stop and after the rain stops I look for where to find hotwater or tea.my children are no longer with me; I sent three of them to the North and one to Agbara1. bisi is 12 yearsold; titi is 10; opeyemi is 8 and the last one is just 3; two boys, two girls. they were all in school beforethe demolition. since the demolition they have not been going to school. before the demolition we were living in a block [concrete] house the first time I experienced [an]eviction was during the National theatre [1973] eviction; the second time was during the 2003 one; thisis the third time.they [lagos state government] should give us our land back or build houses for us but we cannot pay forit because there is no moneythese people [the lagos state government] should be our forefront, theyare the people you expect should fight for us but are now the people fighting against us. shelter comesfirst in everything in life, when there is shelter whatever you have you can live with; but when there is noshelter how do you survive?2 Index: AfR 44/06/2013 amnesty International august 2013IF YOU LOVE YOUR LIFE, MOVE OUT!NIGERIA: foRcEd EvIctIoN IN bAdIA EAst, lAGos stAtE3 Social and Economic Rights Action Centre (SERAC)amnesty International august 2013 Index: AfR 44/06/2013 IF YOU LOVE YOUR LIFE, MOVE OUT!NIGERIA: foRcEd EvIctIoN IN bAdIA EAst, lAGos stAtE4A bulldozer demolishing homes in Badia East. On 23 February 2013 at least 266 structures were demolished by the Lagos stategovernment. There was no genuine consultation and reasonable notice before the demolition. Social and Economic Rights Action Centre (SERAC)1/InTRODUcTIOnAt7.30amonSaturday,23February2013,residentsoftheBadiaEastcommunityinLagosstatesawabulldozerparkedattheedgeoftheircommunity.Soonafterwards,officialsoftheLagosstateTaskForceonEnvironmentalandSpecialOffences(TaskForce)3 arrivedandbegandemolishingpeopleshomes,businessesandcommunityfacilities.PeoplelivingnearthebridgereportedthattheyheardTaskForceandotherofficialsshoutingforthemtocomeoutoftheirhomes.Policeofficerssaidtothem,ifyouloveyourlife,moveout.Residentswhotriedtogetintotheirhousestosalvagetheirpossessionswerethreatenedandsomerecountedthattheywerebeatenbythepolicewhentheytriedtodoso.Thebulldozerstoreapartpeopleshomesandbusinesses,assistedbymeninoverallswhousedsledgehammerstodestroypartsofhomesthatthebulldozerscouldnoteasilyreach.Bytheendofthedemolition,theOkeIlu-Ericommunity,whichformspartofBadiaEast,wasrazedtothegroundandapartofthenearbyAjeromicommunitywasalsodestroyed.Atleast266structuresthatservedashomesandbusinesseswerecompletelywipedout,affectinganestimated2,237households.Ataminimum,closeto9,000peoplewereaffected.4 NoalternativehousingwasprovidedbytheLagosstategovernmentandpeoplewerelefthomelessafterthedemolitions.Manypeoplearestillsleepingoutintheopenorunderanearbybridge.OthershaveerectedmakeshiftshelterswithtarpaulinandsimilarmaterialswherevertheycouldfindspaceinBadiaEast.SeveralformerOkeIlu-Eriresidentshaveconstructednewstructuresmadeofwoodandmetalinaswampyarea(previouslydeemeduninhabitable)ontheothersideoftheWorldBank-fundedcanalthatbordersthecommunity.Someformerresidentsarelivingwithfriendsorfamiliesinhomesthatarealreadyovercrowded.Withoutanygovernmentsupportfollowingthelossoftheirhomesandlivelihoods,theoverwhelmingmajorityareunabletorentorobtainalternativehousing.Manypeoplesaidthattheyarelivinginanextremelyprecarioussituationafterlosingtheirsourcesofincome.Numerouswomenwhohadlosttheirsmallbusinesseswereworriedthattheyhavenowbecomedependentonfriendsandfamilyforfoodandclothing.Somesaidthattheyaresufferingfrommalariaortyphoidafterlivingintheopenbutcannolongeraffordtopayformedicinesandtreatment.Thestrainofbecominghomelessandofsleepingoutintheopenisalsobelievedbythecommunitytohavecontributedtosomedeathsofelderlypeople.Manychildrenarenowseparatedfromtheirfamiliesafterbeingsenttorelativesinvillagesbecausetheyhavenohome.Index: AfR 44/06/2013 amnesty International august 2013IF YOU LOVE YOUR LIFE, MOVE OUT!NIGERIA: foRcEd EvIctIoN IN bAdIA EAst, lAGos stAtE5TheLagosstategovernmenthasfailedtoputinplacelegalandproceduralsafeguardsthatarerequiredunderinternationallawpriortoanyeviction.Therewasnoconsultationwiththeaffectedpeopletoidentifyalternativestoeviction.Thegovernmentfailedtoprovideadequatenotice,legalremedies,alternativehousingtothoseunabletoprovideforthemselves,andcompensationfortheirloss.AmnestyInternationalandSERACthereforeconsiderthisevictiontoamounttoaforcedeviction5 whichviolatestheInternationalCovenantonEconomic,SocialandCulturalRights,theInternationalCovenantonCivilandPoliticalRightsandtheAfricanCharteronHumanandPeoplesRights,amongotherinternationalandregionaltreatiestowhichNigeriaisaparty.BadiaEastispartofthelargerBadiacommunity,whichisoneofninesettlements(slums)meanttobenefitfromtheWorldBankfundedLagosMetropolitanDevelopmentandGovernanceProject(LMDGP).TheobjectiveoftheUS$200millionprojectwastoincreasesustainableaccesstobasicurbanservicesthroughinvestmentsincriticalinfrastructure.6Theinfrastructurecomponentoftheproject(estimatedatUS$160.89million)7 includedurbanupgradingactivitiesinnineofthelargestslumsidentifiedin19958 inLagosState,alongwithdrainageandsolidwastemanagementprojects.Theareathatthatwasclearedon23FebruaryhasbeenearmarkedforahousingdevelopmentprojectbytheLagosstateMinistryofHousing.Thegovernmentisnotplanningtoresettlethepeoplewhowereforciblyevictedintheseunits9 andthevagueplansthatdoexistforallocationofthesehousingunitsindicatethatmostofthemwillbeunaffordablefortheresidentsofBadia.ThehousingprojectdoesnotformpartoftheactivitiesundertheMDGPbutthegovernmenthasindicatedthatthelocationwaschosenbecausetheareahadbeenearmarkedforregeneration/renewalundertheLMDGP.10ThepeoplewhowereforciblyevictedareamongtheLMDGPsintendedbeneficiariesinBadia.Insteadofimprovingthelivingconditionsofthesepeople,asthegovernmenthasamnesty International august 2013 Index: AfR 44/06/2013 IF YOU LOVE YOUR LIFE, MOVE OUT!NIGERIA: foRcEd EvIctIoN IN bAdIA EAst, lAGos stAtE6A Lagos state governmentbillboard standing on the sitewhere hundreds of homes weredemolished in Badia East. Thegovernment says it plans to build1,008 apartments on the landwhere the Badia East communityis situated. Amnesty InternationalcommittedtodoundertheLMDGP,ithasdestroyedpeopleshomesandbusinesses.Ithasdrivenpeopleintoworselivingconditionsanddeeperintopoverty.ThegovernmenthasstatedthatthisevictionwasthefirstphaseofitsplanstoclearoutthewholeofBadiaEastinordertoredeveloptheareaandtoevictmostoftheexistingresidents.11 Iftheseplansproceedasdescribed,tensofthousandswillbeatriskofforcedevictions.TheentireLMDGPinterventioninvestmentinBadiarisksbeingdivertedfromtheintendedbeneficiaries(Badiaresidents)tomoreaffluentresidentsofLagosstate,whocanaffordthenewhousingunits.TheforcedevictionoftheresidentsofBadiaEastispartofapatternofforcedevictionsofpeoplelivingininformalsettlementsandinothercommunitiesacrossLagosstate.ThetwoorganizationswhohaveauthoredthisreporthavethemselvesdocumentednumerousforcedevictionsinBadia,Makoko,IlajeOtumaraandelsewhereinLagosstatesincethe1990s.ManyofthepeoplewhowereforciblyevictedbythegovernmentfromBadiaEasthadexperiencedatleasttwotothreeforcedevictionsandbeenforcedtorebuildtheirlivesfromscratcheachtime.TheLagosstategovernmenthasstatedthatitincollaborationwiththeWorldBankGroup,hassetinmotionmodalitiestosupportpeoplewhowereaffectedduringtheFebruaryexerciseofitsurbanregenerationprogramme.12 TheWorldBankhasalsoconfirmedthatthesepeoplewillbecoveredundertheLMDGPResettlementPolicyFramework.13 Thereareconcerns,however,abouttheprocessthatwillbeusedtoidentifypeoplewhowereaffected,thattenantsmaynotbeincludedundertheresettlementactionplanthatthegovernmentisdevelopingandthatpeoplewillonlyreceivecompensationratherthancompensationandresettlement.Itisessentialthatallthosewhowereforciblyevictedon23February2013areproperlyidentifiedandofferedadequatealternativehousingandcompensationfortheirlosses.Theresettlementplanalsoshouldbedevelopedinconsultationwiththeaffectedpeople.PeopleinBadiaEasthavedisplayedextraordinarycourage,solidarityandresilienceduringandaftertheforcedeviction.Thecommunityhasorganizedtosupportitsmembersinnumerouswaysandtofightforeffectiveremediesandjusticeforallthoseaffected.Theyarecallingonthegovernmenttogivethemcompensationtoallowthemtorentorrebuildhomesandbusinesses,andtoallowthemtocontinuelivingintheareathattheyhavealreadyinvestedsomuch.InthewordsofAyinkeStephen,a39-year-oldHIV-positivewomanwhocarriesouthealthoutreachandcounsellingwithinthecommunity:Theyshouldconsiderus.TheyshouldseeusandtreatuslikeanynormalNigerians.METhODOLOgYThisreportistheoutcomeofresearchconductedbyAmnestyInternationalandtheSocialandEconomicRightsActionCentre(SERAC).ThereportdocumentstheeventsleadinguptoandaftertheevictionofresidentsofBadiaEastbytheLagosstategovernmenton23February2013.SERAC,whichhasworkedwiththeBadiaEastcommunitysince1996,monitoredtheeventsinthelead-uptotheevictionon23Februaryandsevenstaffmemberswerepresentduringtheeviction.SERACalsocollectedtestimoniesandinformationfrompeoplewhowereevictedinordertofileasuitchallengingtheevictionbeforetheLagosStateHighCourt.Index: AfR 44/06/2013 amnesty International august 2013IF YOU LOVE YOUR LIFE, MOVE OUT!NIGERIA: foRcEd EvIctIoN IN bAdIA EAst, lAGos stAtE7InMay2013ajointdelegationofAmnestyInternationalandSERAC(henceforthcalledthedelegation)conducteddetailedinterviewswith40structureownersandtenantsfromOkeIlu-EriandAjeromicommunitieswhosehomesandbusinesseshadbeendemolished.Theinterviewswereconductedinsmallgroupsandindividually.ThedelegationalsointerviewedotherresidentslivinginBadiaEastandmetwiththeBadiaEastTechnicalCommittee,formedaftertheevictiontoadvocateforaneffectiveremedyforthoseaffected.14AllthequotationsfromwitnessesincludedinthisreportarebasedoninterviewsconductedeitherbyAmnestyInternationalorSERAC.SERAChasalongstandingrelationshipwiththeBadiaEastcommunityandhasprovidedlegalrepresentationtoresidentsofBadiaEastincourtproceedingsandotheradvocacy,includingonpreviousevictions.AmnestyInternationalandSERACdelegatesalsoseparatelyandjointlymetwithvariousgovernmentagenciesandofficials,includingtheLagosstateAttorneyGeneralandCommissionerforJustice;theLagosstateCommissionerforHousing;theChairmanoftheLagosstateTaskforceonEnvironmentalandSpecialOffences(Enforcement)Unit;officialsoftheLagosMetropolitanDevelopmentandGovernanceProject(LMDGP);andtheDirectorandDeputyDirectoroftheDepartmentofUrbanandRegionalDevelopmentoftheFederalMinistryofLands,HousingandUrbanDevelopment.BothorganizationshavealsometandcorrespondedwiththeWorldBankNigeriaCountryOffice.TheLagosStateCommissionerforPhysicalPlanningandUrbanDevelopment,whoseministrywasinvolvedwiththedecisiontocarryoutthedemolition,amnesty International august 2013 Index: AfR 44/06/2013 IF YOU LOVE YOUR LIFE, MOVE OUT!NIGERIA: foRcEd EvIctIoN IN bAdIA EAst, lAGos stAtE8 Social and Economic Rights Action Centre (SERAC)declinedtomeetwithAmnestyInternationaldelegatesdespitealettersenttohimrequestingameetingandavisittohisoffice.AmnestyInternationalalsointerviewedtheBaale(traditionalhead)ofIganmuAlawo.Researchforthereportalsodrawsoncorrespondence;courtcases;videoandphotographicevidence;priorpublicationsbySERACandAmnestyInternational;andsatelliteimageanalysiscommissionedbyAmnestyInternationalfromDigitalGlobesAnalysisCentre.Index: AfR 44/06/2013 amnesty International august 2013IF YOU LOVE YOUR LIFE, MOVE OUT!NIGERIA: foRcEd EvIctIoN IN bAdIA EAst, lAGos stAtE9Bulldozers demolish homes inBadia East. On 23 February 2013at least 266 structures weredemolished by the Lagos stategovernment. There was no genuineconsultation and reasonable noticebefore the demolition. Social and Economic Rights Action Centre (SERAC) Social and Economic Rights Action Centre (SERAC)2/backgROUnDMy father had made several applications for a C of O [certificate of occupancy] but he has never been granted by the Lagos stategovernment. The government has never helpedus, the community raised money, we reclaimedthe land here [by filling the swampy area],constructed the road ourselves and providedelectricity ourselves.OlatundeAworetan,aged4716Lagosisoneoftwomegacities17 inAfrica,withanestimatedpopulationof11.2million.18 In1990,thestatehadapopulationof4.76million.19 ItisexpectedthatLagoswillhaveoneofthehighestratesofgrowthofanyurbanareaintheworldbetween2011and2025,projectedat3.71percent.20 SERAChashighlightedthattheriseinthepopulationofthestatehasnotbeenaccompaniedbytheprovisionofsocialandeconomicinfrastructuresuchashousing,healthcarefacilities,schools,roads,transportation,water,solidwastedisposalanddrainagefacilities.21TheLagosMasterPlan(19802000),developedin1979withthesupportoftheUnitedNationsDevelopmentProgramme(UNDP),laidoutaframeworkforaddressingvariousproblemsandchallenges,includingtheprovisionofhousing,creationandexpansionofeconomicactivitycentres(todispersepressureandpopulationconcentrationonexistingcitycentres),andtheidentificationandupgradingofmajorinformalsettlementsorslums.In2006,thePresidentialTaskForceonLagosMegaCityconcludedthattheLagosMasterPlanwasnotimplemented.Instead,theexperiencehadbeenofsignificantdistortionsinmanypartsoftheplanwithimpactthathasbeenfar-reachingresultinginlopsidedpopulationdistribution,highcostofinfrastructuredevelopment,drainageobstructions,environmentalandsanitationchallenges,trafficcongestionandnumerousotherproblems.23 CommentingonthefailuretoimplementtheLagosMasterPlan,thethenLagosStateCommissionerforamnesty International august 2013 Index: AfR 44/06/2013 IF YOU LOVE YOUR LIFE, MOVE OUT!NIGERIA: foRcEd EvIctIoN IN bAdIA EAst, lAGos stAtE10PhysicalPlanningandUrbanDevelopmentstatedthattheplan:accuratelyanalysedthehousingneedsofLagosandrecommendedthatbetween1980and2000,1.4millionadditionalhousingunitsshouldbeconstructed,outofwhichonemillionshouldbedeliberatelyearmarkedforlowincomehouseholds.Bytheyear2000whentheplanexpired,nomorethan10percentofthehousingneedsweresatisfied.23TheWorldBankhashighlightedthat[D]istortionsinthehousingmarketinNigeriarenderaccesstoadequateandaffordablehousinglimited,evenforthemiddleclass.Housingpricesarehighduetothenon-availabilityoflong-termfinance,hightransactioncostsforobtaininglandtitlesandorcertificatesofoccupancy,regulatoryandplanningcontrolsforbuildingandconstructionthatconstraintheefficientutilizationofland,aswellashighinflationratesintheNigerianeconomy.TheimpactofthesedistortionsisexacerbatedinLagosbecauseofitssmalllandmassincomparisontothelandmassofotherstates.Slumsare,therefore,aconsequenceofbothmarketandgovernmentfailure.24Almost70percentofthepopulationofLagosliveinslumsinextremelypoorenvironmentalsurroundings.WhiletheaverageresidentialdensityforLagosasawholeisabout260peopleIndex: AfR 44/06/2013 amnesty International august 2013 Social and Economic Rights Action Centre (SERAC)An affected resident constructinga makeshift shelter. Close to9,000 people were affected by theforced eviction of the Lagos stategovernment in Badia East, Lagosstate, on 23 February 2013.perhectare,thepopulationdensityinslumsisbetween790and1,240peopleperhectare.25 TheLagosMasterPlanidentifiedandclassified42slumsorinformalsettlementsinthecity.Thegovernmenthasoftendescribedtheseasblightedareas.26Itisestimatedthattherearenowover100suchcommunitiesinLagos.27Badia(oftenalsoreferredtoasIjora-BadiaandsometimesasIganmuAlawo)isoneoftheseoriginal42informalsettlementsidentifiedbytheLagosstategovernment.BadiaEastisaninformalareaofover100,000people.28 Fornearlyfourdecades,theresidentsofBadiaEasthaveoccupiedthepreviouslyuninhabitedareaofIjoraBadia,fillingandimprovingthelandwiththeirownresources.29 Thesettlementissituatedonanarrowstripoflandrunningbetweenaraillineandswampland.ItslocationisstrategicallyclosetotheApapaportandsurroundingindustrialareas,bothofeconomicimportanceforthelivelihoodsoftheresidents.In1973,threeyearsaftertheendofNigeriascivilwar,theFederalMilitaryGovernmentacquiredalargetractoflandcomprisedofasprawlingoldsettlementknownasOluwoleVillageintheIganmu(centralLagos)forthepurposeofbuildingNigeriasNationalArtsTheatre.ThetheatrewastobeakeyfeatureoftheAfricanFestivalofArtsandCulturethatNigeriahosted.Withoutadequatenoticeorconsultation,theFederalMilitaryGovernmentforciblyevictedOluwoleandAnjolavillagersfromtheirancestralhomes.30 Followingprotestsbytheresidents,thefederalauthoritiesretrospectivelypaidpaltrysumsascompensationtosome.OtherevicteesthatinsistedonresettlementwereallocatedtinyvacantplotsoflandinIjora-Badia,lessthanonekilometreaway.Otherwise,theevicteeswereabandonedtotheirfate,tofindtheirownmeansandresourcestobuildnewhousesfortheirfamilies.Manybuiltshedsmademostlyofstiltsandcorrugatedironsheets.31 TheysettledintwonewvillagesknownasAjeromiandOke-Ilu-Eri,whichtogetherformedtheBadiaEastcommunity;andaCommunityDevelopmentAssociationwasformedtopromotethecommunityswelfare.TheFederalMilitaryGovernmentfailedtoaddressBadiaspre-existingseverelackofbasicsocialandeconomicinfrastructure,suchaswater,roads,drainage,healthcarefacilitiesandschools.33 Thisneglecthascontinuedovertheyearsandthenegativeconsequencesofthislackofinvestmentcontinuetobefelt.Overtheyears,thepopulationofBadiaEasthasgrownalongsidetherestofLagosstate.FromtheoriginalinhabitantswhoweremainlyIlaje,aYorubaethnicgroup,thepopulationhasdiversifiedtoincludeotherethnicgroupsinNigeria.MostresidentsareverypoorbyLagosamnesty International august 2013 Index: AfR 44/06/2013 IF YOU LOVE YOUR LIFE, MOVE OUT!NIGERIA: foRcEd EvIctIoN IN bAdIA EAst, lAGos stAtE12A makeshift shelter in Badia East,Lagos State, made from materialssalvaged from the ruins ofhundreds of homes demolished by the Lagos state government on23 February 2013. Social and Economic Rights Action Centre (SERAC)statestandards,livingonlessthanN15,000permonth(US$92).Manyoperatesmallshopsorbusinesseswithinthecommunityordoinformaltrading.ThefailureoftheFederalgovernmenttoprovidedocumentsguaranteeingsecurityoftenuretotheresidentsandrepeatedforcedevictionshavetragicallyshapedthedevelopmentofBadiaEast.Thefirstresidents,whoheldoccupationlicensesfromtheFederalgovernmentaftertheirrelocationfromIganmu,investedinfillingthelandtomakeithabitableandsuitableforbuildingpermanentconcretehouses.Intheearly1980s,manyhadtheirplotssurveyedandtriedwithoutsuccesstoformalizetheirtenure.34Theresidentseffortsandaspirationstowardsincreasingtheirsecurityoftenureweredashedin1986whentheLagosstategovernmentcarriedoutitsfirstmajorevictioninthearea,primarilyaffectingthevillageofOkeIlu-Eri.TheevictedpeopletookshelterwiththeirneighboursinAjeromi.WhenthelandwasleftemptybytheLagosstategovernment,thecommunityslowlyrebuiltOkeIlu-Eri,butaccordingtotheresidents,theoriginalinvestmentsinbuildingqualityandcommunityinfrastructurehaveneverbeenthesame.Insubsequentyears,forcedevictionselsewhereinLagosState,mostprominentlythemassive1990demolitionofMaroko35,sentawaveofevicteesseekingsheltertoplaceslikeIjoraBadia.Index: AfR 44/06/2013 amnesty International august 2013IF YOU LOVE YOUR LIFE, MOVE OUT!NIGERIA: foRcEd EvIctIoN IN bAdIA EAst, lAGosstAtE13coNtEstEd clAIms to lANddue to its location and its history of british colonial and federal acquisition, the land of badia Easthas in recent decades come under increasing pressure from competing ownership claims, fuellingthe cycle of demolition and forced evictions. In the 1990s, the Nigerian Railway corporationclaimed ownership based on colonial acquisition of land from the traditional ojora chieftaincyfamily dating back to 1929 and demanded rent from badia East residents.36 more recently, theojora chieftaincy family, have also reasserted their claim to traditional ownership. As a result, theland in badia East is the subject of ongoing litigation37 in a lagos state high court. the litigationwas initiated by the ojora chieftaincy family against a few prominent residents of the community,one of whom is represented by sERAc.the federal government maintains that the badia East land is federally owned. It therefore conductedextensive planning in 2004-2005 for an urban regeneration project for the community. the lagosstate government does not recognize the area as federally owned land and has carried outevictions and land acquisition in badia East; something which it is not legally authorized to do ifthe land is federally owned. the land use Act 1978 confirms that land in a state can be vested inthe federal government. the Act vests all land in the territory of each state, except land vested inthe federal government or its agencies, solely in the state governors to hold in trust for the people.the dispute on federal and state ownership and authority over land in lagos state, such as that inbadia East, is largely due to lagos history as the british colonial capital of Nigeria until thecountrys independence in 1960; and then as the federal capital until 1991 when the capitalmoved to Abuja. until 1967 when lagos state was created, most land in what is now lagos statewas federal. After the creation of lagos state, some federal land was transferred to lagos state.however, because the federal capital was in lagos, the federal government continued to acquireand hold land for a variety of public purposes. amnesty International august 2013 Index: AfR 44/06/2013 IF YOU LOVE YOUR LIFE, MOVE OUT!NIGERIA: foRcEd EvIctIoN IN bAdIA EAst, lAGos stAtE14Armed police officers supervising the forced eviction in Badia East. Affected people said the police threatened to shoot them if they did notmove out of their homes. Social and Economic Rights Action Centre (SERAC)UpgRaDIng baDIa: pLans anD REaLITYSince1986,successiveadministrationshavepromisedtoupgradeBadiaEastbutthesepromiseshavenotbeenkeptandinsteadresidentshavesufferednumerousforcedevictions.Intheearly1990s,theLagosstategovernmentreceivedaUS$85milliongrantfacilityfromtheWorldBankfortheLagosDrainageandSanitationProject(LDSP),designedtobuilddrainagesystemstode-floodpartsofthestate.In1996,theLagosStateMinistryofEnvironmentandPhysicalPlanningearmarked15slumcommunities,includingBadia,fordemolitioninordertoaccommodatethedrainagesystemsandrenewtheblightedareas.38On15July1996thethenCommissionerforEnvironmentandPhysicalPlanningstatedthatthestategovernmenthadnointentionorplantocompensateorresettlepeoplewhosehomesmaybeaffectedbytheproject.39 Exceptformediareportsofthethreattodestroythecommunities,theaffectedpopulationswerenotinformed,notified,consultedorevencontactedbythegovernmentregardingtheprojectitselfortheplansforeviction.40In1997,thehomesandbusinessesofover2,000peopleweredemolishedinBadiaandIjoraOloye,residentsforciblyevictedbyofficialsoftheLagosStateMinistryofEnvironmentandPhysicalPlanning,theLagosUrbanRenewalBoard,andheavilyarmedpolice.41 Thosewhotriedtosalvagetheirpossessionsfacedharassmentandthreatsfromarmedsecurityguards.42InJuly2003,followinga48-hournotice,LagosStateEnvironmentalandSpecialOffencesEnforcementUnit(TaskForce)demolishedanarrowstripofhomesinOkeIlu-EriareaofBadiaEast,butstoppedmidwayduetoapeacefulresistancebythecommunity.Therewasnocompensationorresettlementforthoseaffected.InOctober2003,despitependinglitigationfiledbySERAConbehalfofBadiaEastresidentsfollowingtheJulydemolition,theTaskForcereturnedtoBadiaEastwithoutnoticetodemolishandforciblyevictatleast3,000residentsofOkeIlu-Eri.Therewasnocompensationorresettlementforthoseaffected.43AfterOkeIlu-EriwasdemolishedbytheLagosstategovernmentin2003,theBadiaEastcommunityworkedwithSERACtopetitionthefederalgovernmentforassistance.ThepetitiontracedthecommunityshistorybacktotheirforcedevictionfromtheNationalTheatresiteandclaimedthatthefederalgovernmentwasresponsibleforfailingtoguaranteetheirsecurityoftenure.44Inresponsetothepetition,theFederalMinisterofHousingandUrbanDevelopmentintervenedbyinformingtheLagosstategovernmentthattheBadiaEastlandwasstillsubjecttolongstandingfederalacquisition.TheFederalMinistryacceptedresponsibilitytoupgradeandredevelopBadiaEastforthebenefitofitsresidents.45 From2004-2005,theFederalMinistryhiredconsultantstodevelopaslumregenerationplaninclosecollaborationwithaninclusiveandparticipatorytechnicalcommittee.46 Thetechnicalcommitteewasmandatedtomonitorimplementationofthefinalregenerationplan,whichwasbasedonabaselinecommunityenumerationandprovidedforupgradingofinfrastructure,housingandcommunityfacilitiesandpromisedsecurityoftenureforresidents.Shortlyafterfinalizingtheregenerationplan,theMinisterwhohadinitiatedtheprojectleftoffice.Sincesheleft,theimplementationoftheplanhassuffereddelays.BadiaEastleadershavecontinuedtopetitionandpressurewhatisnowtheFederalMinistryofLands,HousingandUrbanDevelopmenttoguaranteetheirsecurityoftenureandimplementtheplan.47Index: AfR 44/06/2013 amnesty International august 2013IF YOU LOVE YOUR LIFE, MOVE OUT!NIGERIA: foRcEd EvIctIoN IN bAdIA EAst, lAGosstAtE15In2011,seniorofficialsoftheFederalMinistryofLands,HousingandUrbanDevelopmentvisitedBadiaEasttoseetheintendedprojectsiteandwrotelettersformallyrecognizingthelegitimacyofBadiaEastresidentsstayonthelandpendingimplementationoftheintendedregenerationplan.48 Inasadirony,shortlyafterthe23February2013demolition,aseniorFederalMinistryofficialinformedBadiaEastcommunityleadersthattherewasfundingfortheregenerationprojectinits2013budget,buthaveasyettakennoactiontoprogresstheseplans.49Inparallel,theLagosstategovernmentalsoreceivedaUS$200milliongrantfacilityfromtheWorldBankfortheLMDGPin2006,aprojectthatagainincludedadrainagecomponentalongwithurbanupgradingfornineslumcommunities,includingBadia.Theupgradingactivitiesenvisionedunderthisprojectarelimitedtoconstructionandinfrastructuredeliverables.Since2006,theprojectsexecutedundertheLMDGPincludearoadandadrainagecanal.However,theexecutionoftheseprojectshasbeenrifewithproblems,includingdelaysandaforcedeviction.amnesty International august 2013 Index: AfR 44/06/2013 IF YOU LOVE YOUR LIFE, MOVE OUT!NIGERIA: foRcEd EvIctIoN IN bAdIA EAst, lAGos stAtE16A canal in Badia East constructedunder the World Bank fundedLagos Metropolitan Developmentand Governance Project. Hundredsof homes were demolished inMarch 2012, without notice, bythe "Kick Against Indiscipline"Brigade to make way for theconstruction of the canal. Social and Economic Rights Action Centre (SERAC)On6March2012,withoutnotice,theLagosStateKickAgainstIndiscipline(KAI)50 brigadedemolishedover300structurestomakewayfortheconstructionofacanalrunningthelengthofBadiaEast,builtundertheLMDGP.KAIBrigadedestroyedsomehomesbysettingfiretothem;bulldozersdemolishedtheremainderthefollowingmorning.51 Followingninemonthsofpressureandnegotiations,inDecember2012,theLMDGPpaid124affectedpeoplepursuanttoaDecember2012ResettlementActionPlan(RAP).52Index: AfR 44/06/2013 amnesty International august 2013IF YOU LOVE YOUR LIFE, MOVE OUT!NIGERIA: foRcEd EvIctIoN IN bAdIA EAst, lAGos stAtE17NIGERIAs oblIGAtIoNs uNdER NAtIoNAl ANd INtERNAtIoNAl lAwNigeria is obligated under a range of national and international human rights laws to respect,protect and fulfil the right to adequate housing.53 this requires the government to respect the right to adequate housing by refraining from forced evictions, protecting people from interferenceswith their rights by third parties such as landlords, and to adopt appropriate legislative,administrative, budgetary, judicial, promotional and other measures to fully realize the right toadequate housing. It must prioritize the realisation of minimum essential levels of housing foreveryone, and must prioritize the most disadvantaged groups in all programmes and whileallocating resources. It also requires the government to guarantee the right of people to participatein and be consulted over decisions that will affect their lives, and to provide an effective remedy if any of these rights are violated.A state party to a treaty may not invoke the provisions of its internal law as justification for itsfailure to perform a treaty (perform its obligations under the treaty).54 therefore, regardless of thelegal system or the different tiers of government that exist in Nigeria; if any public official or agentof the state fails to comply with international human rights laws on the right to adequate housing,the Nigerian government is responsible and can be held to account for breach of international law.the African charter on human and peoples Rights (AchpR), which was ratified by Nigeria on 22June 1983, has been directly incorporated into Nigerian law.55 the African commission on humanand peoples Rights has affirmed in the case of SERAC and the Centre for Economic and SocialRights v. Nigeria that forced evictions contravene the African charter, in particular Articles 14 and16 on the right to property and the right to health, and Article 18 (1) on the states duty to protectthe family. In that case, the African commission stressed that although the right to housing orshelter is not explicitly provided for under the African charter, the corollary of the combination ofthe provisions protecting the right to enjoy the best attainable state of mental and physical health,cited under Article 16, the right to property, and the protection accorded to the family forbids thewanton destruction of shelter because when housing is destroyed, property, health, and family lifeare adversely affected. It is thus noted that the combined effect of Articles 14, 16 and 18(1) readsinto the [African] charter a right to shelter or housing.56section 16 (2) (d) of the Nigerian constitution also provides that the state shall direct its policytowards ensuring that suitable and adequate shelter is provided for all citizens.573/EVIcTIOn wIThOUT saFEgUaRDsNigeriaisapartytotheInternationalCovenantonEconomic,SocialandCulturalRights,theInternationalCovenantonCivilandPoliticalRights,andtheAfricanCharteronHumanandPeoplesRights,alongwithotherhumanrightstreatiesthatrequireittorefrainfromandpreventforcedevictions.58 TheUNCommitteeonEconomic,SocialandCulturalRightsdefinesaforcedevictionasthepermanentortemporaryremovalagainsttheirwillofindividuals,familiesand/orcommunitiesfromthehomesand/orlandwhichtheyoccupy,withouttheprovisionof,andaccessto,appropriateformsoflegalorotherprotection.59TheCommitteehasemphasizedthatevictionsmayonlybecarriedoutasalastresortandonlyafterallfeasiblealternativestoevictionhavebeenexploredingenuineconsultationwiththeaffectedpeople.60 Ithasclarifiedthatevictionscanonlybecarriedoutwhenappropriateproceduralprotectionsareinplace.Theseinclude:n anopportunityforgenuineconsultationwiththoseaffected;n adequateandreasonablenoticeforaffectedpeoplepriortotheeviction;n informationontheproposedevictionsand,whereapplicable,onthealternativepurposeforwhichthelandorhousingistobeused,tobemadeavailableinreasonabletimetoallthoseaffected;n governmentofficialsortheirrepresentativestobepresentduringaneviction;n everyoneinvolvedincarryingouttheevictiontobeproperlyidentified;n evictionsnottotakeplaceinparticularlybadweatheroratnightunlesstheaffectedpeopleconsentotherwise;n provisionoflegalremedies;n provision,wherepossible,oflegalaidtopeoplewhoareinneedofittoseekredressfromthecourts;61n provisionofadequatealternativehousingtothosewhocannotprovideforthemselves;andn compensationforalllosses.amnesty International august 2013 Index: AfR 44/06/2013 IF YOU LOVE YOUR LIFE, MOVE OUT!NIGERIA: foRcEd EvIctIoN IN bAdIA EAst, lAGos stAtE18Theserequirementsapplytoallevictions,irrespectiveofthetenurestatusofthepeoplebeingevicted.Evictionsmustnotrenderindividualshomelessorvulnerabletotheviolationofotherhumanrights.62TheCommitteehasalsostressedthatevenwhenanevictionisconsideredtobejustified,itshouldbecarriedoutinstrictcompliancewiththerelevantprovisionsofinternationalhumanrightslawandinaccordancewithgeneralprinciplesofreasonablenessandproportionality.63Theprohibitiononforcedevictionsdoesnotapplytoevictionscarriedoutinaccordancewiththelawandinconformitywiththeprovisionsofinternationalhumanrightsstandards.Therefore,ifagovernmenthasundertakengenuineconsultationtoexploreallfeasiblealternatives,providedadequatenotice,remedies,adequatealternativehousingandcompensationandputinplaceallotherproceduralrequirements,theevictionandifnecessary,theuseofforceinaproportionateandreasonablemannertocarryouttheeviction,wouldnotamounttoaforcedeviction.TOTaL absEncE OF cOnsULTaTIOnThey did not inform anybody. We were not aware that they were coming. They just came andstarted demolishing.Ndukwe Eze, tenant, aged 43Inameetingon15May2013,theLagosstateAttorney-GeneralandCommissionerforJustice(LagosstateAttorney-General)explainedthatthegovernmenthaddevelopedplanssince2003toupgradetheentireBadialocality.64 HestatedthatthegovernmenthadnotbeenabletoproceedwiththislargerplanbecauseofalackofresourcesbuthaddecidedtostartwiththeclearanceofaportionofBadia,whichhasbeenreservedforhousingdevelopment.Healsoexplainedthatthegovernmenthaddecidedtostartwiththeleastintrusivepartoftheseplansbyclearingtheleastbuilt-uppartoftheentirecommunity.65InawrittenresponsetoAmnestyInternational,theLagosstategovernmentclaimedthattheparticulararearecentlyclearedandrepossessedisasmallpartofthe17hectareplanningareawithintheBadiasettlement,whichwasearlierclearedofallstructuresin2003.Itwasinfactaswampyportionnowfilledwithrefuseandtheleastbuiltupoftheentirecommunity.Sincetheareawaspreviouslysecuredfordevelopmentalprojects,itwasneverapprovedforanykindofoccupationorusebytherecentevictees.Thelandwasclearlyuninhabitable,consideringtherefuse-filledterrainandabsenceofbasicfacilities.66TheAttorney-GeneralsaidthatagovernmentdelegationhadvisitedBadiatwice,inApril2008andOctober2012,totellpeoplethattheyhadtomovefromthearea.67 TheGovernorhimselfheadedthedelegationin2008.TheAttorney-Generalclaimedthatthegovernmentdelegationspoketoleaderswhorepresentedthecommunityratherthanthewholecommunity.AmnestyInternationalaskedtoseeacopyoftheminutesofthemeetingsandalistofthosewhoattended,butwasinformedthatnosuchrecordwasavailable.TheLagosstateCommissionerforHousingalsoclaimedthattherehadbeenastakeholdersmeetingonthegovernmentsplansfortheredevelopmentofBadia.HesaidthatcommunityIndex: AfR 44/06/2013 amnesty International august 2013IF YOU LOVE YOUR LIFE, MOVE OUT!NIGERIA: foRcEd EvIctIoN IN bAdIA EAst, lAGos stAtE19representativesaswellasmembersoftheOjorafamily,whoassertalegalclaimtotheland,attendedthismeeting.68NoneofthecommunityresidentsormembersoftheBadiaEastTechnicalCommitteethatAmnestyInternationalandSERACinterviewedwereeverconsultedabouttheevictionorthegovernmentsplanstoconstructahousingdevelopment.Therewasnoopportunitytosuggestalternativestoeviction.Peoplewerealsounawareofthevisitsthatthegovernmentclaimeditorganizedin2008and2012tonotifypeoplethattheyneededtomovefromthearea.AformeryouthpresidentofthecommunitynotedthattheGovernorhadvisitedthecommunityin2008todiscusstheLMDGPproject,butstatedthatduringthisvisit,noannouncementsweremadeaskingpeopletomove.69 Onthecontrary,anotherresidentpointedoutthatwhentheGovernorandadelegationvisitedthecommunityin2012andinspectedthedrainage,hespecificallysaidthathehadnotcometodemolishanyhouses.Hewasnotherefordemolition,heonlycametotellusthatthisdrainagetheyaredoingwasforus.Healsosaidweshouldnotallowanyonetodumprefuseinthedrainage.70OlatundeAworetan,a47-year-oldresidentwhosefatherwastheformerBaale[traditionalchief]ofthearea,said:apartfromthemeetingwehadwiththeLagosstategovernmenton28February2013,afterthedemolition,inAlausa[locationoftheLagosstatesecretariat]therehasneverbeenanymeetingwiththeLagosstategovernment.Evenaccordingtothegovernmentsstatementofevents,itisclearthattherewasnoprocesssetuptoconsultresidentsontheplanstoclearthearea,letaloneofferingpeopletheopportunitytoengagewiththegovernmentandsuggestpossiblealternatives.ThisviolatesNigeriasobligationsunderinternationalhumanrightslaw.Thegovernmentdidnotrecordanydetailsabouttheevicteesortheirpropertiesbeforedemolishingtheirhomesandbusinesses,thusunderminingresettlementandcompensationefforts.amnesty International august 2013 Index: AfR 44/06/2013 20 Social and Economic Rights Action Centre (SERAC)Bimbo Omowole Osobe and otherBadia East residents who wereforcibly evicted from their homesspeak to the media during theprotest on 25 February 2013 atthe Lagos State Governor's office.Index: AfR 44/06/2013 amnesty International august 2013IF YOU LOVE YOUR LIFE, MOVE OUT!NIGERIA: foRcEd EvIctIoN IN bAdIA EAst, lAGos stAtE21wE clEAREd thE REfusE AREAcontradictions in the governments account of eventsthere are contradictions even among the different departments of the lagos state government intheir description of the demolitions and eviction of people on 23 february 2013. the lagos stateAttorney-General acknowledged that people had been evicted when the area had been cleared but claimed that it was the least built-up area of the community. photographs provided by thegovernment along with its written response also clearly reveal the existence of structures in thearea that was cleared.71the lagos state commissioner for housing maintained that the government did not evict peoplefrom that location. he stated that the area had been cleared of garbage and that there were nostructures, only some stands where people stored things. the lagos state commissioner for physical planning and urban development has also stated in a televised panel discussion that the area they cleared was predominantly a rubbish dump. he stated, what we cleared was the shanty area, we cleared the refuse area. there might bepeople there [the area demolished]; they were not supposed to be living there.... As at the time the Governor visited in 2009 that place had no buildings there. what is important to me as acommissioner for physical planning and urban development, I like to see the building in mydatabase because as at 2005 there was no building there. so if any one was going to put up a building, there was supposed to have been a process of building permit... the things that were here [area demolished) were refuse; things that were stacked up.72 felix morka, Executivedirector of sERAc, and mrs bimbo omowole osobe, a resident of badia who was forcibly evicted on 23 february, were also part of this panel discussion and provided their own witness accountsrebutting the commissioners statement.staff members of sERAc visited the area that was cleared on numerous occasions prior to the 23 february demolition, and can confirm the existence of homes and businesses in that area. this is also corroborated through video footage and photographs taken by sERAc. digitalGlobes Analysis center was commissioned by Amnesty International to examine satelliteimages taken on 8 february and 8 April 2013 of oke Ilu-Eri and parts of Ajeromi. this analysiscorroborates the destruction of the oke Ilu-Eri community. It is confirmed by the intact presence of the oke Ilu-Eri community on 8 february, and the razed area as seen in the image from 8 April.Notably, there is also construction equipment in the southern portion of the community, apparently grading and levelling the ground; this is also visible in the 8 April image but not in that of 8 february.73the community of Ajeromi, directly south of oke Ilu-Eri and outlined in the 8 April image, appearsto also be at least partially razed on that date, while apparently fully intact on 8 february. basedon ground photographs and video footage, and the digitalGlobe satellite imagery, it is determinedthat approximately 36,000 square meters of high-density housing and community infrastructurewas demolished between 8 february and 8 April 2013.amnesty International august 2013 Index: AfR 44/06/2013 IF YOU LOVE YOUR LIFE, MOVE OUT!NIGERIA: foRcEd EvIctIoN IN bAdIA EAst, lAGos stAtE22Oke Ilu-Eri, Lagos, Nigeria. Image date: 8 February 2013. 628'30.65"N 321'45.92"E DigitalGlobe 2013 Index: AfR 44/06/2013 amnesty International august 2013IF YOU LOVE YOUR LIFE, MOVE OUT!NIGERIA: foRcEd EvIctIoN IN bAdIA EAst, lAGos stAtE23Oke Ilu-Eri, Lagos, Nigeria. Image date: 8 April 2013. 628'25.77"N 321'44.13"E DigitalGlobe 2013 DEMOLIshIng pEOpLEs hOMEs wIThOUT nOTIcE I wasnt here on 23 February - I was working - when the demolition happened but someonecalled me. Before we got here, they had broken our rooms. There was no notice, not even onthe day of the demolition. Jeanette James, aged 28, who rented space in a house that was demolished.EverysingleresidentofBadiaEastthatAmnestyInternationalandSERACspoketoconfirmedthattheydidnotreceivepriornoticeoftheevictionfromtheauthorities.TheLagosstateAttorney-GeneralsaidthatthegovernmenthadservedanoticeontheBaale74ofIganmuAlawoon20February2013,threedaysbeforetheeviction.ThegovernmentprovidedacopyofthenoticeandphotographsoftheBaalereceivingadocument.75 ThesecretarytotheBaaleofIganmuAlawo76 confirmedtheBaalereceivedanoticefromagovernmentdelegation,whichincludedtheLagosstateCommissionerforAgriculture.AccordingtotheBaalessecretary,theCommissionerforAgriculturewhoisrelatedtotheOjoraaskedtheBaaletoreceivethedocumentasarepresentativeoftheOjora.TheBaalestatedthathetookthedocumenttotheOjoraofIjoraland,thetraditionalruleroftheareathatincludesBadiaEast.77TheBaalesSecretary78 statedthatafterreceivingthenotice,theBaalehadorganizedforapersontogoaroundBadiaannouncingameetingthefollowingday.79 HealsoclaimedthattheBaalemetwithmanyresidentsofBadiaatthesmallcommunitycentreonthefollowingday(21February2013)andinformedthemaboutthenoticeandtheimminenteviction.HeassertedthattheOjoraalsometwithsomemembersofthecommunityathispalaceonFriday(22February)andinformedthemaboutthecontentsofthenoticeandtheimminenteviction.ThisversionofeventsiscontradictedbyallthecommunitymembersthatthetwoorganizationsspoketoandbySERACstaffthemselveswhowerepresentatmanykeymeetingson21and22February2013.SomemembersoftheBadiaEastcommunitysawadelegationofLagosstateofficials,includingtheLagosstateCommissionersforAgricultureandHousing,alongwithanarmedpoliceescort,visitBadiaEastandpresenttheBaalewithadocument.AcommunitymemberstatedthathecouldseethatthedocumentcontainedtheLagosstategovernmentcoatofarmsandsomedates(13and20February2013).Hewasnotabletogetmoreinformationbecauseheandothercommunitymemberswerechasedawaybypolice.80RumoursspreadthroughthecommunitythatademolitionmaybeimminentandcommunitymembersconvenedameetingattheBetterLifecommunityCentre.FourstaffmembersofSERACalsoattendedthemeeting.SomecommunitymemberstriedtocalltheBaaleandtheOjorasofficebyphonetogetmoreinformation.TheBaaleagreedtomeetsomecommunitymembersinOkeIlu-Eri.SERACstaffmembersandatleast20concernedresidentswenttomeetwiththeBaaleathismeetingspaceinOkeIlu-Eri.Duringthecourseofthemeeting,theBaaletoldSERACandtheresidentsthatheacceptedthedocumentinhiscapacityasarepresentativeoftheOjora,notastheBaale;assuch,hesaiditwouldhavebeenimpudentforhimtoreadthecontentsthatwerenotforhim.81amnesty International august 2013 Index: AfR 44/06/2013 IF YOU LOVE YOUR LIFE, MOVE OUT!NIGERIA: foRcEd EvIctIoN IN bAdIA EAst, lAGos stAtE24IntheearlyeveningofThursday,21February,MeganChapmanaSERACstaffattorneycalledtheBaalessecretarybecauseofreportsthathehadbeenpresentwhentheBaalereceivedthenotice.ShereportsthattheBaalessecretarytoldherthattherewasnotimeframefordemolitionandthathehadpersonalinformationthatnodemolitionwouldbeoccurbeforeaconsultationcouldbeheldbetweenLagosstategovernmentandresidentsattheOjorapalace.AcommunityleaderalsostatedthatsheandothercommunitymemberswenttotheOjoraspalacethesamedaybutwereunabletomeetwithhim.TheywereonlyabletomeettheOjoraonFriday,22February.OthercommunitymembersclaimedthataftermuchpromptingtheOjoraconfirmedthatthenoticewasfordemolitionsbutthathehadsentthedocumenttohislawyer.82Someresidents,alongwithSERACrepresentatives,approachedvariousgovernmentofficestogetacopyofthisdocumentandinformationonthegovernmentsplans.InthelateafternoonofThursday,21February,theymetwiththeLagosstateSpecialAdvisoronHousingwhotoldthemheknewnothingaboutaplanneddemolitionandsaidwedontdemolish;webuildhouses.83InameetingwithSERACrepresentativeson22February,theCommissionerofHousingunequivocallydeniedknowledgeofanyplanneddemolition,evenwhileadmittingthathisMinistryhadplansforaprojecttobeundertakeninthecommunity.BythecloseoftheIndex: AfR 44/06/2013 amnesty International august 2013IF YOU LOVE YOUR LIFE, MOVE OUT!NIGERIA: foRcEd EvIctIoN IN bAdIA EAst, lAGos stAtE25Residents of Badia East protestingas their homes were beingdemolished by the Lagos stategovernment. Social and Economic Rights Action Centre (SERAC)meeting,theCommissionercommittedtoraisingSERACsconcernsabouttheneedforamoreconsultativeplanningprocessataninter-ministerialmeetingthefollowingweek.Despitethesedenialsandpromises,thegovernmentstarteddemolishingBadiaEastlessthan20hourslater.SeveraloftheresidentswhowereinterviewedalsostatedthattheydidnotrecognizethecurrentBaaleastheirleader.84Thecopyofthenotice,whichthegovernmentsharedsubsequentlywithAmnestyInternational,isanabatementofnuisancenotice,issuedundertheLagosStateEnvironmentalSanitationLawof2000.Thenoticewasaddressedtotheowners/occupiersofillegalshantiesandcontainerinIjoraBadiabyRailwaylineandindicatedthatanenvironmentalnuisancehadbeencreatedincontraventionoftheLagosStateenvironmentallaw.Itorderedtheabatementofthenuisancewithin48hours.Whenaskedwhyanabatementofnuisancenoticeratherthananevictionorderwasusedforthiseviction,theLagosStateAttorney-GeneralsaidanabatementofnuisancenoticeisgiventopeoplewhohavenoCertificateofOccupancy85 orbuildingpermission.86Thenoticedocumentdoesnotspecifythepeopletowhomthenoticeisdirected,northestructuresaffected.Itwasnotservedonpeopleindividuallyorpubliclyadvertised.Itstatesthattherelevantsectionsofthelawwillbeimplementedifthenuisanceisnotabatedbutdoesnotclarifywhatstepswillbetakenifthenoticeisnotcompliedwith.Neitherdoesitprovideanyinformationonhowthedecisioncanbechallenged.TheuseofanabatementnoticetocarryoutdemolitionofhomesandevictionofpeopleisalsoproblematicunderNigerianlaw.On5March2013,aLagosStateHighCourtstatedthatanabatementofnuisancenoticeundertheEnvironmentalSanitationLawcouldnotbeusedtocarryoutdemolitionswithoutrecoursetothecourt.Thecourtsaid:Theprovisionsofthelawareclearastotheprosecutionofoffendersbyaspecialcourtandtheimpositionoffinewheresuchoffendersarefoundguilty...TheEnvironmentalSanitationLawunderwhichtheallegedlyoffensivenoticewasissuedcannotbeappliedwithoutdueandproperrecoursetotheprovisionsonprosecutionbytheSpecialCourt.87Asanoticetopeoplewhomaybeevicted,itisgrosslyinadequateandcompletelyfailstomeetbasicdueprocessrequirements,whichwouldrequirethatallthoseaffectedbenotifiedandbegivenanopportunitytochallengethedecision,irrespectiveoftheirtenurestatus.TheCommitteeonEconomic,SocialandCulturalRightshasidentifiedadequateandreasonablenoticeforallaffectedpersonspriortothescheduleddateofevictionasoneofthekeyproceduralprotectionsinsituationsofevictions.88 TheUNBasicPrinciplesandGuidelinesonDevelopment-BasedEvictionsandDisplacement89 alsoprovidethatAnydecisionrelatingtoevictionsshouldbeannouncedinwritinginthelocallanguagetoallindividualsconcerned,sufficientlyinadvance.90 Thetimeperiodprovidedtopeopleunderthenoticeshouldenablethemtobeabletotakeaninventoryoftheirpossessions,goodsandotherlossesthatmayensue.91 Itisalsoessentialthatpeoplebegivensufficienttimeandopportunitytochallengethedecisiontoevictandseeklegalremedies.92 TheLagosstategovernmenthasfailedtomeetalloftheserequirements;onthecontrary,theCommissionerforHousingdeniedthatthegovernmentwasplanningdemolitionseventhedaybeforetheforcedeviction.amnesty International august 2013 Index: AfR 44/06/2013 IF YOU LOVE YOUR LIFE, MOVE OUT!NIGERIA: foRcEd EvIctIoN IN bAdIA EAst, lAGos stAtE26fRIdAy oGuNyEmIIt was my house that they first demolished.friday ogunyemi (pictured right) is 28 years old and has lived his entire life in badia. he was among those who lost their homes and livelihood on 23 february 2013.I owned a house which I built and another that Iinherited from my father. I am self employed andowned a public bathroom in the community whichwas the source of my livelihood.I was chased out of my house with my five-year-olddaughter and three-year-old son. the police said ifwe went back into the house they were going toshoot us; my kids were the only ones I could carryleaving all my belongings behind. my wife was notaround; she had gone to buy some cleaningproducts. by the time she returned our house hadbeen demolished; it was the first house to bedemolished in the area.I could not take any of my possessions because there were lots of policemen who came with the taskforce; they came with their task force black maria ; they even arrested three of my brothers. Also therewere lots of hard boys [gangs of young men] with sledgehammers that came with the task force andthe lagos state physical planning and development Agency. the policemen that came with the taskforce said, if you love your life, move out. the police were fully armed and had batons. people startedrunning for their lives, including pregnant women; people were shouting.before the demolition my children were schooling in lafred private school in Ebute meta, they are nolonger able to go to school, there is no means... I had my public toilet that I earned from, I had roomswith tenants. I made my money from the rent I collected and it served as a daily income for me that I could use to feed my children, to train them for schooling. then my life was better, they have turnedmy life crippled, they have turned it anti-clockwise. up till now they have not met with us, they havenot seen maybe we are living or existing, they only want us to die. If not for the help of sERAc andmsf [mdecins sans frontires/doctors without borders] who had provided mosquito nets, many of us are dying of malaria. In fact after this demolition many have died, as at last week somebody died,so we dont know who is next.I am using this opportunity to reach out to the world because I dont have any power to fight thegovernment. they have been treating us as if we are animals; because we are less privileged theytreat us as if we dont have a right to own a house in this country. they are treating us as if we arenot Nigerians. we are the ones who have been voting for them but they are now destroying the lives of the poor.the only thing they give us poor people residing on this federal land [badia] is demolition; they shouldthink that everyone is equal before the eyes of God.Index: AfR 44/06/2013 amnesty International august 2013IF YOU LOVE YOUR LIFE, MOVE OUT!NIGERIA: foRcEd EvIctIoN IN bAdIA EAst, lAGos stAtE27 Amnesty InternationalsEVERE FaILUREs In ThE EVIcTIOn pROcEssI was in my farm in Abeokuta , it was on environmental day; they called me and said that theLagos state government is about to demolish every house, I was surprised and I said but theyhave to send a notice, all my property was in the house. When I arrived the caterpillar was infront of my house, they [the Police] said if I go in they will shoot me, they said do you have a C of O [Certificate of Occupancy]. I said but let me enter my house and pick some of mybelongings; they said no way. They said if I enter they will gun me down. There were manypolice with guns; they were here with Black Maria; any one who resisted was put in it. Theydemolished everything. Till today there is no accommodation; I had to go back to myhometown because I cannot live rough. I am 75 years and diabetic.chief ola Egbayelo23February2013fellonthelastSaturdayofthemonth,environmentalsanitationday,whenallresidentsinLagosstatemustcleanuptheirhousesandplacesofworkandallroadtrafficisrestrictedfrom710am.95 Fromwitnessaccounts,itappearsthatthefirstbulldozerarrivedatthecommunityatapproximately7.30am.Evenatthisstage,membersofthecommunitysaythattheoperatorsofthebulldozerdeniedthattheyhadcometocarryoutdemolitionsandevictions.96BalogunBola,a57-year-oldwomanwhorentedashopwithanattachedroomwhichwasdemolished,said,Iwashereon23February.Itwasanenvironmentsanitationday.Isawthecaterpillar,ithasbeenusedbeforetodemolish.Thecaterpillardriversaidtheywereonlyherefortheenvironmentexercise.97TheChairmanoftheLagosStateEnvironmentalandSpecialOffencesEnforcementUnit(TaskForce)toldAmnestyInternationalthatpeopleweregivenachancetoremovetheirbelongingsandthattheirstaffalsocheckedeachhousebeforeitwasdemolishedtoensureresidentssafety.98 Whenpressedfordetails,however,hewasunabletodescribetheprocessthroughwhichpeoplehadbeengivenanopportunitytoremovetheirbelongings;whetheranyannouncementshadbeenmadeatthebeginningoftheprocess;orifpeoplehadbeengivenasettimeinwhichtosalvagebuildingmaterialsandpossessions.99Witnessaccountsfrompeoplewhosehomesandbusinessesweredemolished,andfromSERACstaff,paintacompletelydifferentpictureofwhatoccurred.Allthepeopleinterviewedstatedthattheywerenotgivenanyopportunitytoremovetheirbelongingsandthattheyhadtoshouttootherresidentstocomeoutoftheirhouses.Thedemolitionswerecarriedoutwithbulldozers,whoseoperatorsworeuniformsoftheLagosStatePhysicalPlanningandDevelopmentAgencyuniforms,andmeninoverallswhousedsledgehammerstodestroypartsofhomesthatthebulldozerscouldnoteasilyreach.MembersoftheTaskForce100 anddozensofarmedpoliceaccompaniedthedemolitioncrews.101SundayOmomoluwa,a37-year-oldresident,stated,atabout7.30amwesawexcavators[bulldozers]alongtherailroad;suddenlytheycameinandstatedshouting;everybodycomeoutside,theydroveeverybodyoutsideandstarted,preventedpeoplefromcomingindemolishingourhomes.Wewerenotevenallowedtogointotakeourclothes.TheyarrestedsomeofusandputthemintheBlackMaria.Thepolicesaidnobodyshouldgoinsideamnesty International august 2013 Index: AfR 44/06/2013 IF YOU LOVE YOUR LIFE, MOVE OUT!NIGERIA: foRcEd EvIctIoN IN bAdIA EAst, lAGos stAtE28totakeanythingandpointedtheirgunsatusandthreatenedtoshoot.Peoplewhodidnotcomeoutoftheirhomesontimewerebeatenbythepolice.102BayoEgbayelo,aged37,wasoneofthosebeatenfortryingtorecoversomeofhispossessions.Hesaid,thepolicebeatmemercilesslybecauseIwantedtorescuesomeofmybelongings,theysaidIshouldhavedoneit[before].IsaidtothembutyoudidnotgivemenoticewhydoyouexpectmetodowhatIhavenotbeennotified.Iwasinjuredmychest,myhead,allmyjoints;Iwasinbedfortwoweeks.103AndrewMaki,astaffattorneyatSERAC,alsostatedthatthepoliceharassedpeoplewhoweretakingphotographsandvideos:therewereotherformsofharassment,thepolicedidnotwantanyonetakingphotographsoranyvideoofwhatwasongoing,theyseizedseveralcameras,threatenedpeopleincludingmyself.TheysaidifIcontinuedtotakepicturestherewouldbetrouble...Wespoketoanumberofpeoplewhosephoneshadbeenseizedbecausetheyweretakingpictures.AtonepointSERACsvideocamerawasseizedbecausemycolleaguewasfilming.Theywouldnotallowthat.Weendedupgettingitbacklaterinthedayaftersomenegotiations.Towardstheendoftheday,therewaspanicasthey[theTaskForceofficials]hadsaidtheyweregoingtodemolishuptoacertainpointandlaterintheafternoonitappearedtheyweregoingtodemolishbeyondthatpoint.SeveralpeoplebeganfranticallyIndex: AfR 44/06/2013 amnesty International august 2013IF YOU LOVE YOUR LIFE, MOVE OUT!NIGERIA: foRcEd EvIctIoN IN bAdIA EAst, lAGos stAtE29 Social and Economic Rights Action Centre (SERAC)A police officer wields a stick atsome residents of Badia East.runningtocollecttheirbelongingsstillinthosehousesandshopsthattheyhadthoughtweresafeatleastforthetimebeing.IwitnesseddozensofpoliceofficerschasingpeoplewithbatonsinandthroughthesmallpassagewaysandwalkwaysandlittlealleysintheAjeromipartofthecommunityastheyweretryingtocollectwhateverbelongingstheycouldcarry.104ThechairmanoftheTaskForcesaid:NoforcewasusedinBadiaEast;thepeoplewereallowedtoremovetheirbelongings.HealsoclaimedthatonlyonepersonwasarrestedanddetainedintheBlackMariabecausehehadtriedtostealsomeoneelsesbelongings.HealsoassertedthatBlackMariasareusedforprotectivecustodyofsuspectsassomesuspectshadtriedtoescapecustodyinthepastandinjuredthemselves.109amnesty International august 2013 Index: AfR 44/06/2013 IF YOU LOVE YOUR LIFE, MOVE OUT!NIGERIA: foRcEd EvIctIoN IN bAdIA EAst, lAGos stAtE30usE of A blAcK mARIA to dEtAIN pEoplE oN sItEtwo sERAc staff attorneys who arrived at badia around 11am on 23 february 2013 confirmed thattask force staff detained three people in a black maria.105Andrew maki, a sERAc staff attorney, stated, the black maria was parked off the main road alongthe rail road. when we arrived, there were three young men already inside the black maria and intalking to some of the police officers that were on site, they said anyone that threatened to breachthe peace will be locked up as well.106megan chapman, another sERAc staff attorney, described how she and her colleague were told bycommunity members that the three men had been arrested at the beginning of the demolitionexercise when the task force arrived. we were told the men had been locked up in the black mariafor about three or four hours before we arrived; it was getting on to midday and it was very hot; theblack maria was locked and the only air flow was through the air vent, it was like a metal box. over the course of the next few hours after we arrived, the three men remained in the black maria.I was approached by several people who were concerned about their wellbeing and about what wasgoing to happen to them.107when megan approached the black maria to ask the men how they were, they replied that theywere hot, thirsty and needed water. she was permitted by police to buy water and food for them.I insisted I wanted to give it to them personally which allowed the police to open the black maria.then I asked the policemen to leave the door open so that they [detained men] can have somefresh air. I requested that the men be released since they had done nothing wrong. the police told me they will only release them to a family member. they also said they would not release them unless the chairman of the task force authorized it. I went to find the chairman. thechairman of the task force did not give his consent. when I asked him to authorize the release, he said it will be when the time was right that they will finish their work when they are done. the three men were released later in the day. the police told me that they [the men] were a knownsecurity risk that they did not want trouble during the demolition exercise and that is why theywere locked up the black maria was present on site even on the following day. It was used as a tool of intimidation.108Index: AfR 44/06/2013 amnesty International august 2013IF YOU LOVE YOUR LIFE, MOVE OUT!NIGERIA: foRcEd EvIctIoN IN bAdIA EAst, lAGos stAtE31A "Black Maria" belonging to the Lagos State Environmental and Special Offences Enforcement Unit (Task Force), with police officersguarding it, parked on site during the demolition in Badia East. At least three residents were detained inside the vehicle for over six hours. Social and Economic Rights Action Centre (SERAC)pROVIsIOn OF LEgaL REMEDIEs anD LEgaL aIDI built one structure myself My husband also had a structure .... I did not know about thedemolition. I was away when the demolition happened. People called me and told me. I sleepoutside now. I used to sell food in a shop before. I dont do anything now. I am getting helpfrom the church. My husband is in Ogun State.E, a 63-year-old woman who has lived in badia for 20 years110TheLagosstategovernmentdidnotprovideanylegalremediestothoseaffected.Asdiscussed intheearliersectionDemolishingpeopleshomeswithoutnotice,eventheabatementofnuisancenoticedocumentgavenoinformationonavenuestochallengethatdecision.Thegovernmentdidnotthenorsubsequentlyprovideanyinformationtopeopleontheremediesavailable,howtoaccessthemandhowtoobtainlegalaidservices.TheLagosstateAttorney-GeneralinformedAmnestyInternationalthattherearetwolegalaidservicesinLagosstate:theFederallegalaidservice,whichhesaidhadlimitedcapacity;andtheOfficeofthePublicDefender,runbythestategovernment.111 SomeoftheaffectedpeoplewhospoketoAmnestyInternationalsaidtheyhadneverheardoftheOfficeofthePublicDefenderandwereneverinformedtheycouldreceivelegalaid.112 OfficialsoftheBadiaEastCommunityDevelopmentAssociationsaidtheonlylegalaidtheyhadreceivedwasfromSERAC,whoassistedthecommunityinfilingacase113 incourttochallengetheforcedeviction.114nO aLTERnaTIVE hOUsIng anD cOMpEnsaTIOn The people are clearly trespassers and illegal occupants of the place. The governmentcannot pay to provide houses for these people. If the government pays then it will fuel theactivities of illegal settlements.the lagos state Attorney-General and commissioner for Justice.116TheUNCommitteeonEconomic,SocialandCulturalRightshasspecified:Evictionsshouldnotresultinindividualsbeingrenderedhomelessorvulnerabletotheviolationofotherhumanrights.Wherethoseaffectedareunabletoprovideforthemselves,theStatepartymusttakeallappropriatemeasures,tothemaximumofitsavailableresources,toensurethatadequatealternativehousing,resettlementoraccesstoproductiveland,asthecasemaybe,isavailable.116 TheCommitteehasalsostatedthatStatespartiesshallalsoseetoitthatalltheindividualsconcernedhavearighttoadequatecompensationforanyproperty,bothpersonalandreal,whichisaffected.117TheBasicPrinciplesstipulatethatallthoseevicted,irrespectiveofwhethertheyholdtitletotheirproperty,shouldbeentitledtocompensationfortheloss,salvageandtransportoftheirpropertiesaffected,includingtheoriginaldwellingandlandlostordamagedintheprocess.Considerationofthecircumstancesofeachcaseshallallowfortheprovisionofcompensationforlossesrelatedtoinformalproperty,suchasslumdwellings.118 Theyalsoprovidethat[c]ompensationshouldbeprovidedforanyeconomicallyassessabledamage,asappropriateamnesty International august 2013 Index: AfR 44/06/2013 IF YOU LOVE YOUR LIFE, MOVE OUT!NIGERIA: foRcEd EvIctIoN IN bAdIA EAst, lAGos stAtE32andproportionaltothegravityoftheviolationandthecircumstancesofeachcase,suchas:lossoflifeorlimb;physicalormentalharm;lostopportunities,includingemployment,educationandsocialbenefits;materialdamagesandlossofearnings,includinglossofearningpotential;moraldamage;andcostsrequiredforlegalorexpertassistance,medicineandmedicalservices,andpsychologicalandsocialservices.119ThefactthattheLagosstategovernmentdidnotprovideanyoptionsforresettlementandalternativehousingtothoseevictedon23February2013,orprovideorputinplaceanyprocessforcompensationforlosses,isaparticularlystarkfailureconsideringthatitdidnotgiveadequatenoticetothoseaffected,therewasnosupportofferedtotransportpossessions,andevenonthedayoftheeviction,peoplewerenotgiventimetosalvagebuildingmaterialsandtheirbelongings.Theconsequences,asdiscussedingreaterdetailinthenextchapter,havebeendireforthewomen,menandchildrenwhosehomesandbusinessesweredemolished.120 Peoplewerelefthomelessandmanyarestilllivingintheopen,inmakeshiftsheltersoraredependentonfriendsandfamily.Numeroussmallbusinessesandsourcesoflivelihoodhavebeendestroyed.Peoplehavelosttheirclothes,thepersonalpossessionsthattheyhadboughtovermanyyearsandinmanycases,documentsandequipmentthattheyusedfortheirbusinessorwork.121TheLagosStateCommissionerforHousingannouncedontelevisionseveraldaysaftertheforcedevictioninBadiaEastthatThisisathreephaseprogramme;thefirstoneiswhereIndex: AfR 44/06/2013 amnesty International august 2013IF YOU LOVE YOUR LIFE, MOVE OUT!NIGERIA: foRcEd EvIctIoN IN bAdIA EAst, lAGos stAtE33Children lie on a mattresssalvaged from the ruins of theirhome. Their home in Badia Eastwas demolished on 23 February bythe Lagos state government. Social and Economic Rights Action Centre (SERAC)peoplearenotresiding;itisastackupplacewherepeoplejustkeptthings,thatiswherewecleared;andtheintentionistobuildsixblockshere[theareacleared],thefirstphase,andthenmovepeoplefromthesecondphasetothissixblocks.Eachblockconsistsof48units;sowemovethemtothisfirstphaseandthenwestarttobuildthesecondphase.Thatistheplanwehaveandthenwemovetothethirdphase.Wearehavingaphaseonenow,wearegoingtomovepeoplefromthephasetwotothisbuildingafterwehaveconstructedit,thestategovernmenthastheintentionofrelocatingthemtothebuildingforfree.122 However,inameetingwithAmnestyInternational,123 hestatedthatallthepeoplewhowereevictedon23FebruarywillnotberesettledbythegovernmentinthehousingprojectbutwouldhavetheoptionofapplyingforthehousingschemelikeotherresidentsofLagosstate.TheCommissionerrepudiatedtheannouncementhemadeontelevisionregardingprovisionoffreehousingandassertedthathewasmisquoted,eventhoughhewasfilmedsayingthisonnationaltelevision.TheCommissionersaidthatthehousingprojectwasintendedtobenefitalltheresidentsofLagosstateandthatthegovernmentwasencouragingaschemewhererichandpoorpeoplelivetogether.TheCommissionerandhisstaffstatedthattherewasnoprojectplaninwritingavailableandneitherwasthereadocumentoutliningtheprocessandcriteriabywhichthehousingunitswillbeallocated.Hesaidthatthegovernmentisfinalizingthesedetailsbutlessaffluentpeoplewouldhavetheoptionofpurchasingthesmallerhomes124 throughasubsidisedmortgageschemethatthegovernmentisalsointheprocessofdeveloping.125 Itappearsthatpeoplewouldstillneedtomeetstandardrequirementsformortgages,suchasdocumentedearnings,andevenwithasubsidisedinterestrate126 theschemewouldbeoutofthereachofmanyoftheaffectedpeopleorthosecurrentlylivinginBadia.AfterconsiderablepressurefromSERAC,AmnestyInternationalandothers,thegovernmenthassincestated,theLagosstategovernment,incollaborationwiththeWorldBankGroup,hassetinmotionmodalitiestosupportpeoplewhowereaffectedduringtheFebruaryexerciseofitsurbanregenerationprogramme.127 ThiswasalsoconfirmedbytheWorldBankcountryoffice.128 Whilethisisawelcomestep,theseprocedureshavenotbeenimplementedandthereareanumberofconcernsthatneedtobeaddressedtoensurethatallthoseaffectedareprovidedwithadequatealternativehousingandresettlement.Thesearediscussedinthenextchapter.amnesty International august 2013 Index: AfR 44/06/2013 IF YOU LOVE YOUR LIFE, MOVE OUT!NIGERIA: foRcEd EvIctIoN IN bAdIA EAst, lAGos stAtE344/LIVEs DEsTROYED: ThE IMpacTOF FORcED EVIcTIOnnUMbER OF hOUsEhOLDs anD pEOpLE aFFEcTEDItisdifficulttoaccuratelyrecordthefullextentofthedestructionon23Februaryasthegovernmentdidnotclearlyidentifythehomesthatwouldbedemolished,recorddetailsofthepeoplewhowereaffected,ortakeaninventoryoftheirpossessionspriortotheeviction.TheBadiaEastTechnicalCommitteehascreatedadatabaseofaffectedhouseholds,includingdetailsoflandlordsandtenants,andestimatesoffinanciallosses.129 Thesearebasedonestimatesoflost/damaged/destroyedmovablepropertyandthevalueofthestructuredestroyed.Theyhavenotincludedlostincome,injuries/healthconsequences,damagesforperiodsofhomelessnessorperiodsoftimechildrenhavebeenoutofschoolbecauseofdifficultiesquantifyingtheseharms.Despiteconsiderableefforts,theyhavenotbeenabletoidentifyeveryoneaffected,particularlydetailsofsomeoftheformertenants,manyofwhomscatteredaftertheforcedeviction.Accordingtothedatabase,atleast266structures130 weredestroyed:170inAjeromiand96inOkeIlu-Eri.Some2,237householdslosttheirhomesandbusinesses.Ofthese,247householdsbelongtolandlordsandtheremaining1,990aretenanthouseholds.Itisestimatedthathouseholdsizesrangedbetweenfourandeightpeople.Ataminimum,therefore,evengoingbythelowerestimateofhouseholdsizes,atleast8,948peoplewereforciblyevicted.Index: AfR 44/06/2013 amnesty International august 2013IF YOU LOVE YOUR LIFE, MOVE OUT!NIGERIA: foRcEd EvIctIoN IN bAdIA EAst, lAGos stAtE35 Social and Economic Rights Action Centre (SERAC)A section of the Badia Eastcommunity before the forcedeviction of 23 February 2013.amnesty International august 2013 Index: AfR 44/06/2013 IF YOU LOVE YOUR LIFE, MOVE OUT!NIGERIA: foRcEd EvIctIoN IN bAdIA EAst, lAGos stAtE36pAul paul [pictured above with his wife and their triplets] is a 38-year-old transporter who rented a home inbadia East. As a result of the demolition, paul is now living apart from his family. he sleeps in the openunder a bridge as he looks for work, while his wife and babies live with her parents and other familymembers in one room.I travelled during that period [around 23 february 2013] to see my sick mother in the village. I left mywife with my two-year-old boy, my first son. my womans pregnancy was eight months old, you know aneight months pregnancy is dangerous [she was pregnant with triplets]. the shock of that bulldozerthat my woman saw and the way they start bulldozing the houses she was shocked and fainted.because of the shock, she started labour. According to the doctor, she was given an injection insteadof an operation. she had to give birth at eight months, she delivered the triplets. she had triplets thatare premature. they are not strong. I had to take them to incubator at university teaching hospital inIkeja. Right now, her health she is not strong now, the shock. we are not living together right now. Idont have a house. I sleep under the bridge. she is with her parents, her mother and father in theirhouse. In one room with her mother, her other sisters and brother, including my four sons. I came back after one week. my property, everything lost. I dont have money toget an apartment. my work right now is no good. for the past how many months, I have not worked. I goto see my wife and children sometimes but going there without money, I am ashamed. the father andmother are trying to do whatever they can. If I had money, I would have rented an apartment becausethe babies too are missing me right now, their father. Social and Economic Rights Action Centre (SERAC)pEOpLE LEFT hOMELEss anD DEsTITUTEI have suffered a lot from demolitions; it has caused me a lot of setback. My house and shopin Oke Ilu-Eri was burnt by KAI (Kick Against Indiscipline Brigade)131 last year, that was beforethe canal was built; and now again my house in Ajeromi was demolished in February. I slept in the open with my family for three Sundays [three weeks] after the demolition;afterwards I was able to buy some tarpaulin, which I used in constructing a small shelter. We now sleep in a makeshift shelter, whenever it rains we get beaten heavily and we use nylon [plastic bags] to cover up the children. There has been no help, no water they [thegovernment] have not even provided garri [a cassava based cereal] for us to drink. I now begfor food because I cannot die. ... Poverty is not good, now that I do not have food to eat Irealise what poverty is. Before the demolition I could eat, I had a shop sold groceries andmineral drinks in crates; all was destroyed. It is now that my business has been destroyedand I no longer receive rent from my house that I have become this poor. Esther ogundana, a woman aged in her 70s who has lived in badia for over 15 years.132TheLagosstategovernmenthasleftpeoplehomelessafteritforciblyevictedthemon23February.Intheabsenceofanysupportintermsofresettlementandwiththedestructionofmeansoflivelihood,mostofthepeopleinterviewedbyAmnestyInternationalandSERACsaidthattheyareunabletorentorprocurealternativehousingforthemselves.Severalsaidthattheyweresleepingoutintheopenorunderthebridge.133Sunday,a45-year-oldtenantwhorentedoutmachinesanddidoccasionaltransportwork,said,Ididnottakeanythingoutofthehouse,evenmyclothes.EventheclothesIamwearingnow,peoplegaveme.Myhometheatre,myfridge,mysetofchairs.Ihadsomemoneyinsidethehouse,almost35,000Naira(US$215).Ididnottakeanythingoutofthehouse.Idonthaveanywheretogo,Iamstranded.Nohome,Ihaverunoutofevenfood.AsIamherewithyou,Iamhungry.IhavelosteverythingIcouldhave,evenmymachine....Idonthaveanapartment,Iamsleepingoutside.134Withnootherplacetogo,somepeopleresortedtoconstructingmakeshiftsheltersinanylocationtheycouldfindandseveralstructureshavesprungupontheothersideoftheWorldBankfundedLMDGPcanalborderingthecommunity.Theflimsieststructurescompriseapieceoftarpaulintiedtoapostorsupportedbysticks.Somefamilieshavemanagedtoconstructmoresolidstructuresmadeoutofwoodandmetalsheetsbuteventhenmanyofthemarestrugglingtofindmoneytoeatproperlyoraccessmedicaltreatment.135Index: AfR 44/06/2013 amnesty International august 2013IF YOU LOVE YOUR LIFE, MOVE OUT!NIGERIA: foRcEd EvIctIoN IN bAdIA EAst, lAGos stAtE37Mosquito nets erected in the openin Badia East. Many affectedresidents whose homes weredemolished slept in the open forseveral weeks as they had nowhereto go. Social and Economic Rights Action Centre (SERAC)Inarecentlyerectedstructureinthenewsettlementnearthecanal,representativesofAmnestyInternationalandSERACwereshownthebodyofIwalewaOwoyemi,agedinher70s.Accordingtoherdeathcertificate,shehaddiedthepreviousnightoftyphoid.Herfamilysaidthattheyhadbeenmadedestitutebytheforcedeviction.IwalewaOwoyemihadbeenillandtheycouldnotaffordmedicalcare.Herfamilywereforcedtorelyontheassistanceoffriendsandothermembersofthecommunitytomeettheburialcosts.137Communitymembershighlightedafewothercasesofdeathsofelderlypeoplewhosehealthhadsufferedafterbeingforciblyevicted.Manyofthesedeathswereascribedtotheshockoftheevictionbutaccordingtofamilyandothercommunitymembersreflected,inpart,thedifficultiesfacedbymanypeoplesleepingintheopen,especiallytheelderlyorthosewithpre-existinghealthconcerns.Onewomanwhowasforciblyevictedon23Februarydiedon7Marchfromacutebronchitis,accordingtoherdeathcertificate.138TheUNBasicPrinciplesprovidethatafteraneviction,thegovernment,ataminimumandregardlessofthecircumstancesandwithoutdiscrimination,shallensurethatevictedpersonsorgroups,especiallythosewhoareunabletoprovideforthemselves,havesafeandsecureaccessto:essentialfood,potablewaterandsanitation;basicshelterandhousing;appropriateamnesty International august 2013 Index: AfR 44/06/2013 IF YOU LOVE YOUR LIFE, MOVE OUT!NIGERIA: foRcEd EvIctIoN IN bAdIA EAst, lAGos stAtE38GRoup dIscussIoN wIth womEN tENANts136In a group discussion, six women tenants whose homes had been demolished and who had beenforcibly evicted highlighted the difficulties they have faced since 23 february 2013. five of thewomen were in their thirties and the youngest was 28. most of them had small businesses, in shops inside or attached to their homes. they all said thattheir homes were completely demolished and they could not rescue anything. since the demolition,one of the women was staying with a friend and the others were sleeping outside.All the women had sent their children to relatives in other villages, leading to disruptions in theireducation as they will lose the school year. they described the difficulties of being parted fromtheir children and how they would try to speak to them over the phone. they were also concerned about being at greater risk of illnesses living out in the open, particularlytyphoid and malaria. they described how they could no longer afford to buy medicines fortreatment since they had lost their businesses and sources of income. only one of them had beenable to get the medicine she needs from a friend. A 35-year-old woman complained of the harassment that she faces sleeping outside and statedthat she had been attacked at night by a man but had fought him off. Another said that, sleepingout in the open, they had faced rape attempts from area boys [gangs of young men] from otherlocalities.Another woman, aged 39, who said she had been managing on her own after her husband had lefther, described her current situation as dire. she said the government has left us outside andhungry. their primary request to the lagos state government was for money to rent a house andstart a business. they said they wanted to be able to look after our children ourselves.clothing;essentialmedicalservices;livelihoodsources;accesstocommonpropertyresourcespreviouslydependedupon;andeducationforchildrenandchildcarefacilities.139 NostepshavebeentakenbytheLagosstategovernmenttoprovideanyformofrelieforassistancetotheaffectedpeople.FORcED InTO DEpEnDEncY bY LOss OF LIVELIhOODsManywomeninparticularhighlightedhowthelossoftheirsmallbusinesseshadforcedthemtobecomedependentonfriends,familyorthebroadercommunityforfoodandclothing.BalogunBola,a57-year-oldtenant,hadlivedinBadiafornineyears.SheisoriginallyfromEdostateandcametoLagoswithherhusbandin1998.Nowretired,hewasasoldierandtheylivedtogetherinthebarracks.Balogunsaid,Hemarriedagainandtheotherwomanforcedusout.Ihaveeightchildren,fourboysandfourgirls.Hedoesntgivemeanymoneyortakecareofthechildren.BalogunrentedashopwithanattachedroominAjeromiandlivedtherewithheryoungerchildren.Shesoldfoodintheshop.Shesaid,Irentedfromthesamelandlordandpaid1,000Naira(US$6.14)monthly.Onaverage,Imade8-10,000Naira(US$49.11-61.38)amonth.Thechildrenwereinthegovernmentschoolbutnowarewithmysisterinthevillagebecausetherewasnowhereforthemtostay[afterthedemolition].Theywilltrytofinishtheirschoolyearthere.Iamnowstayingwithafriend,whohastwochildren.Allfourofusstayinoneroom.Myfriendishelpingme.Sheassertedthatsheandotherresidentswerenotallowedbythepolicetotakebuildingmaterialsortheirpossessionsfromtheirhomes.Wewaitedforthecaterpillar[bulldozers]toleavebeforegoingbacktoour[demolished]homes.Westayedforoneweekoutsideintheopen.Itisnotsafetostayoutside.Therearemosquitoesandotherthings.Somepeoplewererobbedatnight.Ilostallmystock,pots,platesandchairs.IhadaTV,fridge,cookingmaterials,bed,chairs,fansandagenerator.Iboughtitmyself.Iborrowedmoneytostartthebusiness,whichIpaidback.Idontwantmychildrentostayforlonginthevillage.Istarteddevelopingacold,paininIndex: AfR 44/06/2013 amnesty International august 2013IF YOU LOVE YOUR LIFE, MOVE OUT!NIGERIA: foRcEd EvIctIoN IN bAdIA EAst, lAGos stAtE39The corpse of Iwalewa Owoyemi;according to her death certificateshe died of typhoid. Her familysaid that she was made destituteby the forced eviction and theycould not afford her medical carewhen she fell ill. Amnesty Internationalamnesty International august 2013 Index: AfR 44/06/2013 IF YOU LOVE YOUR LIFE, MOVE OUT!NIGERIA: foRcEd EvIctIoN IN bAdIA EAst, lAGos stAtE40Albert Olorunwa, a former youth president of Badia East and a member of the Badia East Community Development Association. His homewas demolished during the forced eviction of 23 February 2013. Amnesty Internationalmyribs,andheadachefromthetension.Iwantmoneytostartmybusinessagain.Thegovernmentshouldhelpmetostartmylifeagain.Itisnoteasytodothatwhenyouareover50.140AlbertOlorunwa,aged47,whorentedoutastructureandalsolivedinAjeromi,injuredhislegandcouldnotaffordtreatment.HetoldAmnestyInternational,IamstayingwithafriendinEbuteMeta.Mywifeisalsostayingwithafriend.Sincetheyhavedemolishedmysourceoflivelihood,IhavetobegbeforeIcaneat.Outofmyfourchildren,threeofthemhavedroppedoutofschoolsincethedemolitionbecauseIcouldnotaffordtokeeptheminschool.Ihavescatteredthreeofmychildrentolivewithmybrother.Onlyoneiswithme.141Everyoneinterviewedsaidhowpainfulitwastobedependentonothersforbasicnecessities.InTIMIDaTIOn anD haRassMEnT aFTER ThE EVIcTIOnAnumberofpeoplecomplainedthattheywereharassedandintimidatedbythepoliceandstaffoftheTaskForceformanydaysaftertheeviction.Oneaffectedpersonsaid:Afterthedemolition,whereweerectedoursheltertosleep,they[theLagosstategovernment]camewiththeirTaskForcetothreatenourlives.142 Anothersaid:Inordertocoverupwhatthey[TaskForce]havedone,theystartedchasingdisplacedpeopleawayfromthesite.143Residentsstatedthaton25March2013policeofficersvisitedBadiaEastandthreatenedthepeoplelivingintheopenandinprovisionalstructureswitharrestiftheydidnotmoveelsewhere.TheyalsostatedthatofficialsoftheMonitoringandEnforcementTaskForcechasedpeopleawayfromwheretheyhadbeencampinganddestroyedtheirprovisionalsheltersonthenextday(26March2013).144AWorldBankrepresentativewhovisitedthecommunityaftertheevictionrequestedtheLMDGPtosupplyemergencywatertotheresidentssincethepipehadbeencutoffbyoneofthebulldozers.Followingthevisit,residentshadstartederectingawatertanktoreceivetheemergencywater.On25March,fivepeopleamongthoseforciblyevictedon23Februaryandhelpingwiththebuildingofthewatertank,werearrestedbypoliceandaccusedofstealing;beingcultist(gangmembers);andposingathreattolife.CommunityleadersandSERACwereabletogetthemenreleased.Twomenwerereleasedaftersomehoursinpolicecustodywhilethreemenweredetainedforover48hours;thefivemenwereneverchargedwithacrimeorproducedbeforeacourt.Oneoftheconditionsthepolicegaveforreleasingthemenwastheremovaloftheemergencywatertank.cOMMUnITY EFFORTs TO chaLLEngE ThE FORcED EVIcTIOnBadiaEastisastrikingexampleofacommunitythatcontinuestoorganizeitselftoseekremediesforthehumanrightsviolationstheyhavesuffered,despitethefactthatmostpeoplehavelosteverythingtheyhad.Twodaysaftertheevictions,on25February2013,BadiaEastresidentsorganizedalargeandpeacefulprotestinfrontoftheLagosstateGovernorsoffice.TheprotestersstoodoutsidefornearlyfivehoursrequestingtomeettheGovernor,buthedidnotappear.Index: AfR 44/06/2013 amnesty International august 2013IF YOU LOVE YOUR LIFE, MOVE OUT!NIGERIA: foRcEd EvIctIoN IN bAdIA EAst, lAGos stAtE41amnesty International august 2013 Index: AfR 44/06/2013 IF YOU LOVE YOUR LIFE, MOVE OUT!NIGERIA: foRcEd EvIctIoN IN bAdIA EAst, lAGos stAtE42Forcibly evicted people of Badia East peacefully protesting against the forced eviction at the Lagos State Governor's office in Ikeja on 25 February 2013. The protesters stood outside for nearly five hours requesting to meet the Governor, but he did not appear.Index: AfR 44/06/2013 amnesty International august 2013IF YOU LOVE YOUR LIFE, MOVE OUT!NIGERIA: foRcEd EvIctIoN IN bAdIA EAst, lAGos stAtE43All images: Social and Economic Rights Action Centre (SERAC)On28February,SERACfiledasuitonbehalfoftheaffectedBadiaEastresidents;inthesuit,anapplicationwasmadeseekinganurgentinjunctiontopreventfurtherforcedevictionsandtopreventtheLagosstategovernmentfrommakinguseofthelandthatwasforcefullyacquired.Theapplicationwasdismissedbythecourton11April.TheLagosstategovernmenthadnotsubmitedacounter-affidavitorenteredanappearanceincourt.SERAChasappealedtherulingtotheCourtofAppeal.145 Thesubstantivesuit,whichseekscompensationandremediesforthosewhowereforciblyevictedon23Februaryandotherorderstorestrainfurtherdemolitions,ispendingbeforetheLagosstateHighCourt.146On5March,SERACpetitionedtheNationalHumanRightsCommission(NHRC)toinvestigatetheevictioninBadiaEast.147 TheNHRCrespondedbysendingateamofofficialstoLagosstatetocarryoutaninvestigation.Atthetimeofwriting,theNHRChasnotyetpublisheditsfinaldecision.On28June2013fourBadiaEastcommunityleadersandaSERACrepresentativemetwiththeNHRCinAbujawhopromisedthatthematterwouldbeheardanddecidedduringapublicinquirytentativelyscheduledforSeptember2013.Thecommunityhasbeenveryproactiveinsupportingvictimsoftheforcedeviction;ithasalsotakenstepstoprepareforthethreatoffurtherdemolitionsbyLagosstategovernment.Sincethedemolition,thecommunityhasgatheredeveryThursdayformeetingstodiscussproblems,progressandnextsteps.Thecommunityhashostedandmetwithnumerousmediarepresentativesandinternationaldelegationsinanefforttoraiseawarenessoftheplighttheyface.TheyhavecontinuedtopetitiontheFederalMinistryofLands,HousingandUrbanDevelopmenttodefendthelandsasfederalandtoimplementthelong-awaitedregenerationprojectdescribedabove.148 Theefforttocompileadatabaseofallpersonsaffectedbythe23Februarydemolitionrequiredweeksofworkbyaseven-personcompilationteamandnumerousothers.ThecommunityiscurrentlyundertakingacomprehensivemappingandenumerationexerciseoftheremainderofAjeromiwithaviewtoadvocatingforacommunity-ledandpeople-centredinsituupgradeasanalternativetofutureforcedevictioninBadiaEast.amnesty International august 2013 Index: AfR 44/06/2013 IF YOU LOVE YOUR LIFE, MOVE OUT!NIGERIA: foRcEd EvIctIoN IN bAdIA EAst, lAGos stAtE44AyINKE stEphENThey should see us and treat us like any normal nigeriansAyinke stephen (picture below right), a 39-year-old woman who used to work as a health outreachofficer. she has lived in badia East since she was born.I was born and brought up in this community. my grandmother would tell me stories. they lived inAjeromi, had no money and were not educated, did not know their policies [rights]. they had no onewho could tell them what to do. [before the 1986 eviction] No one told us. I was coming back fromschool. there was no house. my parents and grandmother met me on the way. they told me we havelost everything I finished my school but couldnt study further because of money. In 2003, the Governorcame one afternoon; he said he gave us 48 hours. on sunday [after the Governors visit in 2003], wesaw the bulldozer. my stepfathers house was demolished A family friend said lets go to sERAc.we are part of the youth that work for the community.this community centre was run as a mobile clinic. I used to work as an outreach officer for the msfproject in the community. I am a person living withhIv. I went to Abuja to advocate for free ARvs[antiretroviral drugs]. In 2006, I found out I waspositive. the salvation Army helped people carry outtests. I was one of 14 mothers who took the test. we have children, we are responsible people. theyshould feel for us, as humans we feel pain. theyshould consider us. they should see as and treat uslike any normal Nigerians.I inherited my mothers house along with my othersiblings. we are five children and I have fivechildren of my own. because I am positive, theygave me the largest share. fifteen people stayed inthat house, all five siblings. I didnt have achance to take anything. I am just left with thisshop that I rent, in which I do counselling. my msfcontract ended last year, now I do volunteer work.we are sleeping in the community centre I spend a lot of money to go to the maternity [hospital] forfree ARvs I am hardly eating because I dont have money. .. my husband has married again. .. hedoes not support us, from time to time he gives me 500 or 300 Naira (us$3.07 or us$1.84) I cantlook after five children on my own. I am a person living with hIv, getting a job in Nigeria is not easy.msf gave me an opportunity. I was willing to open up to other mothers in my situation to show themthat being positive is not the end of life.I walked with bulldozers throughout that day.[23 february 2013] from 1985, the government does notremove its hand from our neck. we are Ilaje. they should leave us alone. this is our parents community;they suffered a lot for it. I am not myself. I have seen my people suffering. the people I was working withare scattered. .. I have witnessed three forced evictions in 1985/86, 2003 and 2013. I am sufferingbecause I am not educated. I want my people to remain in this community.Index: AfR 44/06/2013 amnesty International august 2013IF YOU LOVE YOUR LIFE, MOVE OUT!NIGERIA: foRcEd EvIctIoN IN bAdIA EAst, lAGos stAtE45 Amnesty International5/REsETTLEMEnT wIThIn ThELMDgp REsETTLEMEnT pOLIcYFRaMEwORkWe really want to embrace development butnot harsh treatment, not sending people out of the community, not adding poverty topoverty, not pushing boys into crime, notpushing girls into prostitution, because this is what is happening now as I speak to you.Abiola ogunyemi, badia East community leader.149TheLagosstategovernmenthasnowstatedthattheLagosStateGovernmentincollaborationwiththeWorldBankGrouphassetinmotionmodalitiestosupportpeoplewhowereaffectedduringtheFebruaryexerciseofitsurbanregenerationprogramme.Theinitialcensusofaffectedpersonswhichwassuperintendedbythetraditionalruleroftheareawillbevalidatedandasocio-economicassessmentoftheimpactwillbeconductedinaccordancewithprinciplessetoutbytheResettlementPolicyFramework,endorsedbytheStateGovernmenttoidentifythosegenuinelyaffectedbytheexercisewithaviewtorenderingneededsupporttothem.153Whilethisisawelcomeandoverduefirststep,thereareanumberofoutstandingconcernsthatmustbeaddressedasamatterofprioritytoensurethateveryonewhowasforciblyevictedbytheLagosstategovernmentisprovidedwithaneffectiveremedy,includingadequatealternativehousingandcompensationforlosses.amnesty International august 2013 Index: AfR 44/06/2013 IF YOU LOVE YOUR LIFE, MOVE OUT!NIGERIA: foRcEd EvIctIoN IN bAdIA EAst, lAGos stAtE46cOnsULTaTIOn On ThE REsETTLEMEnT acTIOn pLanTheWorldBankNigerianCountryOfficeinformedAmnestyInternationalandSERACthattheBankhadraisedconcernsaboutthe23FebruaryevictionwiththeGovernorofLagosstate.154 TheWorldBankalsoconfirmedthattheLagosstategovernmenthasagreedtoextendtheResettlementPolicyFrameworktothepeoplewhohavebeenevicted.ThisrequiresthepreparationofaResettlementActionPlan(RAP),155 andrepresentativesfromthecountryofficeoftheBankarecurrentlyworkingwiththegovernmenttodevelopit.AccordingtotheResettlementPolicyFramework,resettlementactionplansshouldbedevelopedinconsultationwiththeaffectedpeopleandotherstakeholders156 andbeforeanydisplacementoccurs.157 Thisisalsoarequirementunderinternationalhumanrightslaw.158AlthoughtheRAPforBadiaEastisbeingdevelopedretrospectively,therequirementforconsultationwiththeaffectedpeopleisevenmorevitalinthissituationtoensurethattheresettlementandcompensationarrangementsthatareagreeduponareappropriatefortheirneedsandcanprovidereparationfortheharmtheyhavesuffered,whichisgreatlycompoundedbythemonthsofdelay.TheWorldBankhascommittedthatThepreparationoftheRAPwillbeunderpinnedbyastrongconsultativeprocess.159TheLagosstategovernmentconvenedastakeholdersmeetingon4July2013,forwhichitpostednoticesinBadiaEaston2-3July2013.ThenoticeonlyidentifiedOkeIlu-Eri[notAjeromi]astheareaaffectedbythe23February2013demolition,andacknowledgedonlythatthedemolitionentailedtheremovaloftemporarywoodenstructuresoccupiedbysomeindividuals.160Index: AfR 44/06/2013 amnesty International august 2013IF YOU LOVE YOUR LIFE, MOVE OUT!NIGERIA: foRcEd EvIctIoN IN bAdIA EAst, lAGos stAtE47thE RIGht to AN EffEctIvE REmEdyAll victims of human rights violations have the right to an effective remedy. this right has beenrecognized under international and regional human rights treaties and instruments, to whichNigeria is a party.150 the basic principles and Guidelines on development based Evictions anddisplacement also provide that All persons threatened with or subject to forced evictions have the right of access to timely remedy. Appropriate remedies include a fair hearing, access to legalcounsel, legal aid, return, restitution, resettlement, rehabilitation and compensation.151Any resettlement must comply with international standards on adequate housing. In particular itmust meet the seven elements of adequacy of housing identified by the committee on Economic,social and cultural Rights legal security of tenure; availability of services, materials, facilitiesand infrastructure; affordability; habitability; accessibility; location; and culturalappropriateness.152the lagos state government must provide all those who were forcibly evicted with an effectiveremedy, including adequate alternative housing and compensation. the world bank, as it supportsthe government in developing and implementing a resettlement action plan, must also ensure thatthe plan and any resettlement complies with international human rights law.Themeeting,whichtookplaceattheNationalTheatreinIganmu,wasconvenedbytheLagosstategovernmentTechnicalCommitteeonBadiaEast,161 andwasattendedbyalargedelegationofLagosstateofficials,includingCommissionersforHousing,PhysicalPlanning,andAgriculture,awellasarepresentativeoftheWorldBankNigerianCountryOffice,officialsfromtheLMDGP,theOjora,andthousandsofresidentsofBadiaEast.MostofthemeetingcomprisedlengthypresentationsandspeechesbyLagosstategovernmentofficials,primarilyaimedaturgingresidentstowelcometheplannedMinistryofHousingproject,includingsubsequentdemolitions.Thereafter,approximatelyeightresidentsofBadiaEast,includingtheBaaleandtheBaalesSecretary,wereaffordedtheopportunitytospeakfortwominuteseachandaskquestions.Inhisresponsetoaquestion,theLagosStateCommissionerforHousingtoldresidentsthattheinconveniencestheyweresufferingwerefortheirownbenefit.Soonthereafter,themeetingconcludedwithoutanyresponsetothequestionsanddemandsthatwereraisedbyafewBadiaEastresidents.TheonlymentionofthedevelopmentofaResettlementActionPlanorcompensationcamefromtheWorldBanksrepresentative.TheWorldBankrepresentativesstatedthattheyexpectedthecensustobecompletedby31July2013andtheResettlementActionPlantobedevelopedby31August2013.162TheWorldBankandtheLagosstategovernmentshouldurgentlycommunicatetoallaffectedpeopledetailsoftheprocessthatwillbeusedtodeveloptheResettlementActionPlanandwhatpeopleareentitledtoundertheResettlementPolicyFramework.Suchaprocessmustincludeopportunitiesfortheaffectedpeopletoprovideaninputonpossibilitiesforresettlementandcompensation,andtosuggestotherfeasibleoptions.ThetimelinefordifferentstagesofdevelopmentandimplementationoftheRAPshouldalsobeconveyedassoonaspossible.IDEnTIFYIng aLL ThOsE aFFEcTED TheLagosstateAttorney-GeneralinformedAmnestyInternationalthatthegovernmentwouldvalidatethecensussuperintendedbythetraditionalruler(theOjora).TheBaalessecretaryinformedAmnestyInternationalthathewaspartofthegroupwhohadbeennominatedtopreparealistofpeoplewholivedintheareapriortothe23Februaryevictionasheisalong-termresidentofthearea.HestatedthathecompletedthedatabaseofhouseownersinOkeIlu-Eri.163 However,AmnestyInternationalandSERAChavebeenunabletofindanyannouncementofaformalprocessthroughwhichsuchasurveywasconductedorthroughwhichresidentsweregivenopportunitytoreviewandchallengetheresultsofthesurvey.ConsideringtheongoingdisputebetweentheOjorafamilyandmanyoftheresidentsofBadiaEastaboutownershipoftheland,itisallthemorenecessaryfortheprocessofidentificationofclaims/usageoflandtobecarriedoutbyanindependentparty.TheWorldBankhasalsorespondedtoconcernsabouttheaccuracyofthiscensus:theBankteamhassuggestedanumberofmechanismsthatcouldbeusedtocompilethedatasetsrequiredforthecensus,includinglistsandphotospreparedbythelocalcommunityinBadiaEastforthehouseholdsandstructuresdemolishedonFebruary23rdand24th.TheteamhasalsoinformedtheGovernmentthatthecensusundertakenbytheOjorawouldnotmeetBankrequirementsandthatatransparent,consultativeprocessisrequired.164amnesty International august 2013 Index: AfR 44/06/2013 IF YOU LOVE YOUR LIFE, MOVE OUT!NIGERIA: foRcEd EvIctIoN IN bAdIA EAst, lAGos stAtE48Anyprocessusedtoidentifybeneficiariesmustbefullytransparent,independentandwidelynotified.Itmustalsobedevelopedinconsultationwiththeaffectedpeopleandtheymusthavetheopportunitytoverifyandchallengeanyfinallistsofbeneficiariesand/orestimatesoflosses.Thedatabasepreparedandverifiedbythe10-personcommitteemadeupofBadiaEastresidentsandleaders(frombothOkeIlu-EriandAjeromi)mayofferabetterstartingpointfortheexerciseconsideringthatitincludesbothlandlordsandtenantsaffectedandhasgonethroughmultiplestagesofverificationbythecommitteemembers,SERACandthroughabroad-basedandopenverificationexercise.OpTIOns FOR REsETTLEMEnTTheWorldBankstatedtoAmnestyInternationalthatthegovernmentwouldidentifyoptionsforresettlementofpeoplewhowereevictedinlinewiththeResettlementPolicyFramework.InsubsequentconversationswithSERAC,WorldBankofficialshavehighlightedthatthegovernmentmaynotprovideanyresettlementtotheaffectedpeople.TheyalsostatedthatitislikelythatgovernmentwillextendtheresettlementactionplanitdevelopedtocoverpeoplewhowereevictedforconstructionoftheLMDGPCanalinBadiaEast,underwhichpeoplewereofferedsmallsumstoassisttheminrebuildingtheirdemolishedstructuresonthesamesitewithinthecommunity.InalettertoAmnestyInternational,theWorldBankstatedthattheBankteamexplainedtotheGovernmentthat,inaccordancewithOP4.12,theRAPaddendumwouldneedtoclearlyexplainwhypeoplecouldnotberelocatedtoanothersite,includinganynearBadia,ifthisisindeedthecase.Theteamhasfurtheradvisedthatifcashcompensationisallthatisoffered,thegovernmentneedstoensurethataffectedpeopleareprovidedwithappropriatesustainablelivelihoodassistance,suchasskillstraining,micro-credit,andemploymentopportunities.165Itisessentialthatpeoplewhoareunabletoprovideforthemselvesareofferedadequatealternativehousing.TheUNBasicPrinciplesprovidethat[c]ashcompensationshouldundernocircumstancesreplacerealcompensationintheformoflandandcommonpropertyresources.166 TheyalsoelaborateontheguidanceprovidedbytheCommitteeonEconomic,SocialandCulturalRightsandstate,TheStatemustmakeprovisionfortheadoptionofallappropriatemeasures,tothemaximumofitsavailableresources,especiallyforthosewhoareunabletoprovideforthemselves,toensurethatadequatealternativehousing,resettlementoraccesstoproductiveland,asthecasemaybe,isavailableandprovided.Alternativehousingshouldbesituatedascloseaspossibletotheoriginalplaceofresidenceandsourceoflivelihoodofthoseevicted.167TheLagosstategovernmenthasmadevaguepromisesaboutgivingaffectedpeopletheoptiontobuyintoitsplannedhousingscheme,butallindicationsarethatmostwouldbeunabletoqualifyfororaffordthemortgage.Moreover,thefirstphaseof288unitsplannedforthealreadydemolishedareawouldaccommodateonlyafractionofthe2,237affectedhouseholdsandarenotscheduledtobecompleteduntilDecember2014.Theoptiontopurchaseahomeinthehousingschemeisnotanadequateformofresettlementandwouldnotsatisfyrequirementstoprovideadequatealternativehousingforthosewhocannotprovideforthemselves.Index: AfR 44/06/2013 amnesty International august 2013IF YOU LOVE YOUR LIFE, MOVE OUT!NIGERIA: foRcEd EvIctIoN IN bAdIA EAst, lAGos stAtE49Onepossibilityforfullandeffectivereparationthatshouldbeconsideredistherelocationofpeoplebacktotheoriginalsitefromwhichtheywereforciblyevicted.TheBasicPrinciplesprovidethatwhencircumstancesallow,Statesshouldprioritizetheserights[ofrestitutionandreturn]ofallpersons,groupsandcommunitiessubjectedtoforcedevictions.168ManyofthepeoplewhowereforciblyevictedbytheLagosStategovernmenton23FebruaryhaveextremelystronglinkstoBadiaEastanditisimportantthatthegovernmentconsiderresettlementoptionsinBadiaitself.Anyproposalsforresettlementmustbedevelopedinconsultationwithallthoseaffectedandcomplywithinternationalhumanrightsstandards,includingthesevenelementsofadequacyofhousing.169aDDREss IMMEDIaTE nEEDs FOR assIsTancEWhiletheResettlementActionPlanisbeingdevelopedandpendingitsfullimplementation,theLagosstategovernmentshouldurgentlyprovidethemuch-neededemergencysupportandassistancethatthecommunityrequires.Thisincludesoptionsfortemporaryhousing;accesstohealth,education,water,sanitationandotherservices;provisionoffoodandclothing;andsupportinre-establishingsmallbusinessesandaccessingsourcesofwork.170amnesty International august 2013 Index: AfR 44/06/2013 IF YOU LOVE YOUR LIFE, MOVE OUT!NIGERIA: foRcEd EvIctIoN IN bAdIA EAst, lAGos stAtE506/a TREnD OF DEMOLITIOns anDFORcED EVIcTIOns In LagOssTaTEThe23FebruaryforcedevictionisreflectiveofabroaderpatternofforcedevictionsbyLagosstateauthorities,whichAmnestyInternationalandSERAChavedocumented.Massevictionsanddemolitionofthehomesofthousandsofpeoplehavetakenplaceintheabsenceoflegalandproceduralsafeguards,includingopportunitiesforgenuineconsultation,adequatenotice,accesstolegalremedies,andprovisionofadequatealternativehousingandcompensation.ThousandsofpeopleinseveralinformalsettlementsinLagosStateremainatriskofforcedevictionsandwithnolegalsecurityoftenure.BadiaEastcommunity,inparticular,hassufferedrepeatedlyfromdemolitionsandforcedevictions.171Makoko,anotherinformalsettlementinLagosState,hassufferedrepeatedlyfromdemolitionsandforcedevictions.OverthreedaysinApril2005,atleast3,000peoplewereforciblyevictedfromtheirhomes.Bulldozersdemolishedhomes,churches,schoolsandamedicalclinic.Afterdemolishingthebuildings,officialswerereportedtohavesettheremainingmaterialonfiresothattheycouldnotbeusedforrebuilding.Affectedpersonsreportedlystatedthattheyreceivednonoticeofthedemolition.172 Todate,theyhavereceivednocompensationoralternativeaccommodation.173Between19and22April2010,officialsoftheKAIBrigadeassistedbyheavilyarmedpoliceenteredasectionoftheMakokocommunityandforciblyevictedtheresidentsbydestroyingtheirhomes,propertiesandlivelihoods.Over1,000peopleweremadehomeless.Thisevictionwascarriedoutwithoutadequatenotice,consultation,compensationorprovisionofalternativeaccommodation.174On23December2010,theTaskForce,accompaniedbyarmedpoliceofficersenteredanareaofMakokoalongWrightStreetandcarriedoutaviolentdemolitionandforciblyevictedthousandsofresidents.Duringthecourseofthedemolition,thepoliceshotdeadoneMakokoresident,leftsomeresidentsandbystanderswounded,andarrestedover30individualswhoweredetainedwithoutchargeforseveraldays.Theforcedevictionfolloweda48-hourabatementofnuisancenoticeandtherewasnoconsultation,compensationorprovisionofalternativeaccommodation.175Index: AfR 44/06/2013 amnesty International august 2013IF YOU LOVE YOUR LIFE, MOVE OUT!NIGERIA: foRcEd EvIctIoN IN bAdIA EAst, lAGos stAtE51From1621July2012,thousandsofpeoplewereforciblyevictedandmadehomelessbytheLagosstategovernmentontheMakoko/Iwayawaterfront,aninformalsettlementinLagos.NumerousstructuresbuiltonstiltsovertheLagosLagoonweredemolished,affectingatleast770households.176 Therewasnogenuineconsultationwiththecommunityandonlythreedaysnoticewasgiventoafewresidentsbeforetheforcedeviction.177 Forseveraldaysafterwards,manyaffectedpeoplewereforcedtoliveintheircanoes.SERACslongstandingengagementwiththeMakokocommunity,andvisitsbyAmnestyInternationalinFebruaryandMay2013,confirmedthatmanypeoplearestilldisplaced,withsomeforciblyevictedresidentsstilllivinginmakeshiftshelters.TheforcedevictioninMakokoonlyappearstohavestoppedbecauseofaprotestmarchandpublicoutcryafteracommunityleaderwasshotdeadbypolice.Thefearoffurtherforcedevictionscontinuestonegativelyaffectthecommunitywhoareconcernedthatthegovernmentmayresumeitsplanstodemolishthewaterfront.amnesty International august 2013 Index: AfR 44/06/2013 IF YOU LOVE YOUR LIFE, MOVE OUT!NIGERIA: foRcEd EvIctIoN IN bAdIA EAst, lAGos stAtE52A makeshift home in Makoko,Lagos State, in February 2013.The Lagos state authorities hadforcibly evicted people from theirhomes seven months earlier, inJuly 2012. Amnesty InternationalOn5March2013inthecommunityofOdo-IragunshinearEpe,LagosState,theLagosStateEnvironmentalandSpecialOffences(Enforcement)Unitdemolishedanestimated182housesinthecommunityofOdo-IragunshinearEpe,LagosState,andforciblyevictedresidents.Thedemolitiontookplacewhileresidentswereawaitinga13MarchconsultationwithLagosstategovernment,includingtheMinistryofLandandMinistryofPhysicalPlanningandUrbanDevelopment,facilitatedbytheLagosstateHouseofRepresentatives.Atleast40familieswereleftsleepingoutsideandothersintheircarsforseveralweeksafter.Todate,therehasbeennoprovisionofcompensationoralternativeaccommodation.178kIck agaInsT InDIscIpLInE bRIgaDE anD ThE LagOs sTaTEEnVIROnMEnTaL anD spEcIaL OFFEncEs EnFORcEMEnT UnITDevelopment will not happen if what is on ground is not changed.179chairman of the lagos state Environmental and special offences Enforcement unitTheKickAgainstIndiscipline(KAI)BrigadeandtheLagosStateEnvironmentalandSpecialOffencesEnforcementUnit(TaskForce)aretwoagenciesoftheLagosstategovernmentthathavebeeninvolvedwithcarryingoutforcedevictionsanddemolitionofhomesinLagosState.Theiroperationsaremostlysupportedbyheavilyarmedsecurityforceswho,inthecaseofMakokodescribedabove,usedisproportionateforce,includingliveammunition,againstresidents.Accordingtoeyewitnessesandsurvivorsofthe23December2010demolitionatWrightStreetinMakoko,aTaskForcevehiclepulledupatthesceneofthedemolitionwitharmedpolicemenshootingindiscriminatelyfromthevehicle.Onemanwaskilledandseveralotherresidentsandbystanderswereinjured;thosewhowereinjuredweretakenbacktoTaskForceofficeanddetaineduntilaSERACinterventionledtothembeingtransferredtohospitalforurgentmedicalattention.180 On22July2012,thesixthdayofthedemolitionoftheMakokowaterfront,acommunityleaderwasshotandkilledbyapoliceman.Hehasbeensubjectedtointernalpolicedisciplinaryproceduresbutasofthetimeofwriting,hasnotbeenprosecuted.181DuringitsdemolitionofhomesinBadiaEastinMarch2012,theKAIBrigadesetfiretosomeofthestructuresendangeringthelivesofpeoplelivinginthosestructures.InJuly2012inMakoko,thebrigadeusedchainsawsandaxestocutthestiltsofthestructureswhilefamilies,includingchildren,werestillintheirhomes.Someofthestructureswerealsosetonfirebythebrigade.Index: AfR 44/06/2013 amnesty International august 2013IF YOU LOVE YOUR LIFE, MOVE OUT!NIGERIA: foRcEd EvIctIoN IN bAdIA EAst, lAGos stAtE537/cOncLUsIOnTheLagosstategovernment,astheexecutiveorganofaterritorialunitoftheNigerianstate(asecondtierunitwithintheNigerialfederalsystem),mustactconsistentlywithNigeriasobligationsunderinternationallaw.ThisreporthasdescribedhowtheLagosstategovernmenthasviolatedtherighttoadequatehousingoftheresidentsofBadiaEastbyfailingtoputinplaceanyofthelegalsafeguards,requiredunderinternationallaw,priortoevictingthousandsofresidentsofBadiaEaston23February2013.TheLagosstategovernmentsfailuretorespecttherighttoadequatehousingoftheresidentsofBadiaEasthashaddevastatingconsequencesontheirlives.AlthoughthisreporthasfocusedonthespecificcaseofBadiaEast,thissituationandtheissuesitraisesarecharacteristicofabroaderpatternofforcedevictionsbytheLagosstategovernment.InnumerousforcedevictionsdocumentedbySERACandAmnestyInternational,theLagosstategovernmenthasfailedtoconsultpeopletoexplorealternativestotheeviction,provideadequatenotice,legalremedies,compensationandadequatealternativehousing.Thelackofanexplicitprohibitiononforcedevictionsundernationallaw,andlegislationsettingouttheproceduralsafeguardsthatmustbecompliedwithpriortoanyeviction,hasenabledthesefailurestopersist.TheNigeriangovernmenthasfailedthepeopleofBadiaEastbysettlingmanyofthemintheareawithoutdocumentsthatwouldprotecttheirsecurityoftenure.IthasnotprovidedeffectiveremediestopeoplewhowereforciblyevictedorpreventedrepeatedforcedevictionsbytheLagosstategovernmentinBadiaEast.Bothfederalandstategovernmentshavefailedtoadoptastronglegalframeworkontherighttoadequatehousing,includingforcedevictions,whichwouldregulatetheactionsofallpublicofficialsandagents.Withoutsuchalegalframework,itisverydifficultforpeoplewhoserightsareviolatedtoholdpublicofficialsaccountableandtoaccesseffectiveremediesandreparation.TheconsequencesofthefailuresoftheLagosstateandNigeriangovernmenttocomplywiththeirobligationstorespecttherighttoadequatehousingarefeltmostseverelybypeoplewhoarealreadylivinginpoverty.ManyNigerianslivingininformalsettlements,liketheresidentsofBadiaEast,havebeenrepeatedlyforciblyevictedandhadtorebuildtheirlivesmanytimesover.TheresidentsofBadiaEastmustbeprovidedwitheffectiveremediesandreparationfortheviolationstheyhavesuffered.TheNigeriangovernmentmusttakethegreatlyoverduestepofimposingamoratoriumonmassevictionsuntilithasadoptedlegislationprotectingallpersonsfromforcedevictions.ThisistheonlywayitcanprovidejusticetopeopleinBadiaEastandmanyotherswholivedailyunderthreatofforcedevictions.amnesty International august 2013 Index: AfR 44/06/2013 IF YOU LOVE YOUR LIFE, MOVE OUT!NIGERIA: foRcEd EvIctIoN IN bAdIA EAst, lAGos stAtE54REcOMMEnDaTIOns to thE lAGos stAtE GovERNmENtn Immediatelystopcarryingoutforcedevictionsandensurethatallpublicofficialsandagentsofthestatedonotcarryoutorsupportforcedevictions.n ProvideaneffectiveremedyandreparationtoallthosewhowereforciblyevictedfromBadiaEaston23February2013.Suchreparationshouldinclude,amongotherthings,adequatealternativehousingforallthosewhocannotprovideforthemselvesandcompensationforalllosses.n ConsultallaffectedpeopleonthedevelopmentandimplementationoftheResettlementActionPlanforBadiaEastandensurethatanyresettlementthatisofferedcomplieswithinternationalstandardsonadequacyofhousing,n Immediatelyprovideassistancetoallthosewhowereevicted.Suchassistanceshouldincludeoptionsfortemporaryhousing,accesstowater,sanitation,educationandhealthcareservices,provisionoffoodandclothingandsupportinre-establishingbusinessesandaccessingsourcesofwork.n ConsultresidentsofBadiaEastontheplansforregenerationoftheareaandensurethattheseplanscomplywithinternationalstandards,includingrequirementstoprioritisethemostdisadvantagedgroupsandtorefrainfromforcedevictions.n Adoptastate-levelmoratoriumonmassevictionsuntiladequatelegalandproceduralsafeguardsareinplacetoensurethatallevictionscomplywithinternationalhumanrightsstandardsandnationallaws.n IntroduceabillintheLagosStateHouseofAssemblythatexplicitlyprohibitsforcedevictionsandsetsoutsafeguardsthatmustbestrictlyfollowedbeforeanyevictioniscarriedout.ThislawshouldbebasedontheUNBasicPrinciplesandGuidelinesonDevelopment-basedEvictionsandDisplacementandcomplywithinternationalhumanrightsstandards.n Ensurethatanyhousingprogrammesandpoliciesprioritisethemostdisadvantagedgroups.n Respectanyfederalmoratoriumonmasseviction.to thE GovERNoR of lAGos stAtEn PubliclycommittostoppingforcedevictionsinLagosstate.n Signintolaw,withoutdelay,anyLagosStateHouseofAssemblybillexplicitlyprohibitingforcedevictions.n DirecttheKickAgainstIndisciplineBrigadeandtheLagosStateEnvironmentalandSpecialOffencesEnforcementUnittoensurethattheydonotcarryoutforcedevictionsandtoIndex: AfR 44/06/2013 amnesty International august 2013IF YOU LOVE YOUR LIFE, MOVE OUT!NIGERIA: foRcEd EvIctIoN IN bAdIA EAst, lAGos stAtE55ensurethatanyuseofforcebythemduringanevictionisproportionate,lawfulandnecessaryandcomplieswithinternationalstandards.to thE lAGos stAtE housE of AssEmblyn AdoptaresolutioncondemningforcedevictionsinLagosstate.n Passintolaw,withoutdelay,abillexplicitlyprohibitingforcedevictions.to thE fEdERAl GovERNmENtn EnsurethatallthosewhowereforciblyevictedfromBadiaEastareprovidedwitheffectiveremediesandreparation.Suchreparationshouldinclude,amongotherthings,adequatealternativehousingforallthosewhocannotprovideforthemselvesandcompensationforalllosses.n ProvidedocumentstoresidentsofBadiaEastconferringsecurityoftenureonthemandimplementtheholisticslumregenerationplandevelopedin2004-2005.n PubliclycondemnallforcedevictionsinNigeria.n Adoptafederalmoratoriumonmassevictionsuntiladequatelegalandproceduralsafeguardsareinplacetoensurethatallevictionscomplywithinternationalhumanrightsstandardsandnationallaws.n IntroduceabillintheNationalAssemblythatexplicitlyprohibitsforcedevictionsandsetsoutsafeguardsthatmustbestrictlyfollowedbeforeanyevictioniscarriedout.ThislawshouldbebasedontheUNBasicPrinciplesandGuidelinesonDevelopment-basedEvictionsandDisplacementandcomplywithinternationalhumanrightsstandards.n RatifytheOptionalProtocoltotheInternationalCovenantonEconomic,SocialandCulturalRights.to thE NAtIoNAl AssEmblyn AdoptaresolutioncondemningallforcedevictionsinNigeria.n Passintolaw,withoutdelay,abillexplicitlyprohibitingforcedevictions.to thE NAtIoNAl humAN RIGhts commIsIoNn SupportthosewhowereforciblyevictedinBadiaEastinaccessingeffectiveremediesandpubliclyreleasethedeterminationoftheNHRCfollowingitsinvestigationintotheforcedevictioninBadiaEast.amnesty International august 2013 Index: AfR 44/06/2013 IF YOU LOVE YOUR LIFE, MOVE OUT!NIGERIA: foRcEd EvIctIoN IN bAdIA EAst, lAGos stAtE56n Acceleratetheprocesstoconductanation-wideinquiryintoforcedevictionsandenablecivilsocietyandcommunitiesparticipationinsuchaprocess.n Prioritiseplansforthedevelopmentofguidelinessettingoutsafeguardsagainstforcedevictions,basedoninternationalhumanrightsstandards,includingtheUNBasicPrinciplesonDevelopment-BasedEvictionsandDisplacement,inconsultationwithcivilsocietyandaffectedcommunities.thE woRld bANKn EnsuretheresettlementactionplanbeingdevelopedbytheLagosstategovernmentwiththesupportoftheWorldBankfullycomplieswiththegovernmentscommitmentsundertheLMDGPResettlementPolicyFrameworkandinternationalhumanrightsstandards,inparticularontherightstoaneffectiveremedyandadequatehousingn RequiretheNigeriangovernmentandanyrelevantstategovernmenttoexplicitlycommittonotcarryingoutforcedevictionsinrelationtoanyprojectssupportedbytheWorldBank,evenifsuchevictionsarenotdirectlylinkedtoprojectfundedactivities,astheymaynegativelyimpactprojectbeneficiaries.n PutinplaceadequatesafeguardstoensurethatWorldBankdoesnotsupportanyprojectsoractivitiesthatmayresultinforcedevictionsorotherhumanrightsabuses.Index: AfR 44/06/2013 amnesty International august 2013IF YOU LOVE YOUR LIFE, MOVE OUT!NIGERIA: foRcEd EvIctIoN IN bAdIA EAst, lAGos stAtE578/EnDnOTEsamnesty International august 2013 Index: AfR 44/06/2013 IF YOU LOVE YOUR LIFE, MOVE OUT!NIGERIA: foRcEd EvIctIoN IN bAdIA EAst, lAGos stAtE581 AgbaraisanotherareainLagosstate.2 Extractsfrominterview,BadiaEast,15May2013.3 ThesameagencyisalsoreferredtoastheLagosStateEnvironmentalandSpecialOffencesEnforcementUnitandoccasionallyastheEnvironmentalSanitationEnforcementAgency,seehttp://www.lagosstate.gov.ng/entities.php?k=135(lastaccessed4July2013).4 TheBadiaEastTechnicalCommitteehascreatedadatabaseofaffectedhouseholds,includingdetailsoflandlordsandtenants,andestimatesoffinanciallosses.5 TheUNCommitteeonEconomic,SocialandCulturalRightsdefinesaforcedevictionasthepermanentortemporaryremovalagainsttheirwillofindividuals,familiesand/orcommunitiesfromthehomesand/orlandwhichtheyoccupy,withouttheprovisionof,andaccessto,appropriateformsoflegalorotherprotection.SeeUNCommitteeonEconomic,SocialandCulturalRights,GeneralCommentNo.7:Therighttoadequatehousing(Article11.1)oftheInternationalConventiononEconomic,SocialandCulturalRights):forcedevictions,para3,(Sixteenthsession,20May1997),E/1998/22,AnnexIV,para3.6 WorldBank,Nigeria - Lagos Metropolitan Development andGovernance Project: Project Appraisal Document,WorldBank,2006,p.5,availableat:http://documents.worldbank.org/curated/en/2006/06/6864622/nigeria-lagos-metropolitan-development-governance-project(lastaccessed12June2013).7 WorldBank,Nigeria - Lagos Metropolitan Development andGovernance Project: Project Information Document,WorldBank,2006,p.5,availableat:http://documents.worldbank.org/curated/en/2006/01/6774640/nigeria-lagos-metropolitan-development-governance-project(lastaccessed10July2013).8 ProjectAppraisalDocument,p.5.Alsoseep.92,Theactivitiesunderinfrastructureinvestmentsforupgrading9slumswillentailcivilworksinupgradingsub-projectsin:Agege,Ajegunle,Amukoko,Badia,Iwaya,Makoko,Ilaje,Bariga,Ijeshatedo/Itire.9 AmnestyInternationalmeetingwiththeLagosstateCommissionerforHousing,Secretariat,Ikeja,17May2013.ThiswasalsoconfirmedbytheLagosstategovernmentofficialsintheStakeholdersMeetingon4July2013,whichsomeSERACstaffmembersattended,wheretheytoldBadiaEastresidentsthattheywouldhavetheoptiontobuyhousingunits.10 Lagosstategovernmentstatementofdefence,para.6,inPrinceJ.A. Ilawole & others and the Governor of Lagos State & others,SuitNo:M/162/2013,11 AmnestyInternationalinterviewwiththeLagosstateAttorney-GeneralandCommissionerforJustice,Secretariat,Ikeja,Lagos,15May2013.12 LettertoAmnestyInternationalfromtheLagosstategovernment,sentbytheLagosAttorney-General,dated4May2013.13 WorldBank,Resettlement policy framework, Vol. 1, Nigeria -Lagos Metropolitan Development Project: resettlement plan,section5.2,p.11,availableathttp://documents.worldbank.org/curated/en/2005/05/6059098/nigeria-lagos-metropolitan-development-project-resettlement-plan-vol-1-3-resettlement-policy-framework(lastaccessed25June2013).14 TheBadiaEastTechnicalCommitteewasestablishedintheimmediateaftermathofthe23February2013forcedevictiontoadvocateforadequateremedyforallthoseaffected.TheCommitteecomprises10communityleadersfromtheAjeromiandOkeIlu-EricommunitiesofBadiaEast.Note:thisCommitteehasnorelationshipwiththeLagosStateGovernmentTechnicalCommitteeonBadiaEast.15 AnareaofLagosstatethatincludesBadiaEast16 Interview,BadiaEast,16May2013.17 Amegacityisacitywithapopulationofmorethan10millionpeople.18 UNDepartmentofEconomicandSocialAffairs/PopulationDivision,World Urbanization Prospects: The 2011 Revision Highlights,UN.Doc.ESA/P/WP/224,March2012,UnitedNations,pp.2223.19 UnitedNationsHumanSettlementsProgramme(UN-HABITAT),The challenge of slums: Global report on human settlements 2003,UN-HABITATandEarthscan,2003,p.267.20 UNDepartmentofEconomicandSocialAffairs/PopulationDivision,World Urbanization Prospects: The 2011 Revision Highlights,p.24.21 F.Morka,A place to live: a case study of the Ijora-Badiacommunity in Lagos, Nigeria,CasestudypreparedforEnhancingUrbanSafetyandSecurity:GlobalReportonHumanSettlements2007,availableathttp://www.unhabitat.org/grhs/2007(lastaccessed19June2013),p.4.22 Report of the Presidential Task Force on Lagos Mega City,2006,p.13,(onfilewithSERAC).23 F.Abosede,HousinginLagosMegaCityImprovingLivability,InclusionandGovernance,PaperpresentedatSERACsInternationalConferenceonBuildingNigeriasCapacitytoImplementEconomic,SocialandCulturalRights:LessonsLearned,ChallengesandtheWayForward,Abuja,2728September2006.24 WorldBank,Nigeria - Lagos Metropolitan Development andGovernance Project: Project Appraisal Document,WorldBank,2006,availableat:http://documents.worldbank.org/curated/en/2006/06/6864622/nigeria-lagos-metropolitan-development-governance-project,p.2.25 World Bank, Nigeria - Lagos Metropolitan Development andGovernance Project: Project Appraisal Document,p.2.26 SeeWorld Bank, Nigeria - Lagos Metropolitan Development andGovernance Project: Project Appraisal Document,p.32.27 F.Morka,A place to live: a case study of the Ijora-Badiacommunity in Lagos, Nigeria,p.7.28 SocialHousingInitiativeTalksBegin,serac@work(Nov.2005)pp.8-9.29 InterviewwithChiefA.A.Ilawole,BadiaEast,15May2013.30 F.Morka,A place to live: a case study of the Ijora-Badiacommunity in Lagos, Nigeria,p.3.Interviews,BadiaEast,15May2013.31 F.Morka,A place to live: a case study of the Ijora-Badiacommunity in Lagos, Nigeria,p.3.32 F.Morka,A place to live: a case study of the Ijora-Badiacommunity in Lagos, Nigeria,p.3.33 Estimateprojectedfrom2005surveydatainwhich46.43%ofworkersinBadiawerereportedtoearnlessthanN7,500permonth.SocialHousingInitiativeTalksBegin,serac@work(Nov.2005)pp.8-9.AllconversionsofNigerianNairatoUSdollarsisbasedontheexchangerateavailableathttp://www.oanda.com/currency/converter/(valueasof3July2013).34 CopiesofregisteredsurveysandotherrelevantdocumentsonfileatSERAC.35 F.Morka,A place to live: a case study of the Ijora-Badiacommunity in Lagos, Nigeria,p.8.36 LettersfromNationalRailwayCorporationtoBadiaEastCDAonfileatSERAC;F.Morka,A place to live: a case study of the Ijora-Badia community in Lagos, Nigeria,p.12;MolajConsultants,UrbanRenewalinBadia,ApapaLocalGovernment,LagosState:DetailedSiteInvestigationReport(FederalMinistryofHousingandUrbanDevelopment,2005)(onfileatSERAC).37 Aromire & Ors v. Daniel & Ors,SuitNoLD/443/2002(onfilewithSERAC).38 AllSlumstoGo:Makoko,Ijora,Badiya,Ilubirin&11OthersAffected,PMNews,15July1996,pp.1and5(quotingtheCommissionerofEnvironmentandPhysicalPlanning).39 AllSlumstoGo:Makoko,Ijora,Badiya,Ilubirin&11OthersAffected,PMNews,15July1996,p.5.40 Whenwillfulblindnessdoesntcutit:MakingthecaseforWorldBankaccountabilitytothewomeninLagosslums,AccessQuarterly(SERAC,4thquarter,1999)p.5-10;RequestforInspectionIntheMatteroftheLagosDrainageandSanitationProject(CreditNo.2517-0),filedbySERAC17June1998(reproducedinfullpp.8-10serac@work,April-August1998).41 RequestforInspection,WorldBankInspectionPanelIntheMatteroftheLagosDrainageandSanitationProject(CreditNo.2517-0),filedbySERAC17June1998(reproducedinfullpp.8-10serac@work,April-August1998).42 F.Morka,A place to live: a case study of the Ijora-Badiacommunity in Lagos, Nigeria,p.9.43 F.Morka,A place to live: a case study of the Ijora-Badiacommunity in Lagos, Nigeria,p.12;ThousandsrallyagainstwidespreaddemolitionsinLagosState,SERAC@Work(January-March2004),pp.1-2;Chief Ogunyemi Adewale v. Governor ofLagos State & Ors.SuitNo.M/419/2003.Index: AfR 44/06/2013 amnesty International august 2013IF YOU LOVE YOUR LIFE, MOVE OUT!NIGERIA: foRcEd EvIctIoN IN bAdIA EAst, lAGos stAtE5944 F.Morka,A place to live: a case study of the Ijora-Badiacommunity in Lagos, Nigeria,pp.12-14.45 F.Morka,A place to live: a case study of the Ijora-Badiacommunity in Lagos, Nigeria,pp.12-14.46 MolajConsultants,UrbanRenewalinBadia,ApapaLocalGovernment,LagosState:DetailedSiteInvestigationReport(FederalMinistryofHousingandUrbanDevelopment,2005,onfileatSERAC).47 CorrespondencefromBadiaEastCDAtoFederalMinistryofLands,Housing,andUrbanDevelopment,2009-2013(onfileatSERAC);interviewwithChiefA.A.Ilawole,BadiaEast,15May2013;interviewwithSecretarytolateBaaleofOkeIlu-Eri,BadiaEast,15May2013.48 InterviewwithSecretarytolateBaaleofOkeIlu-Eri,BadiaEast,15May2013;correspondencefromFederalMinistryofLands,Housing,andUrbanDevelopment,2010-2011(onfileatSERAC).49 Interview,BadiaEast,inwhichcommunitymembersnarratedinformationobtainedoveraphonecallwiththeFederalMinistry.SERACmeetingswithDeputyDirectorofDepartmentofUrbanandRegionalDevelopment,MinistryofLands,Housing,andUrbanDevelopment,Abuja,28February2013;SERACmeetingwithDirectorofDepartmentofUrbanandRegionalDevelopment,MinistryofLands,Housing,andUrbanDevelopment,Abuja,28June2013.50 KAIBrigadeistheLawEnforcementUnitoftheLagosStateMinistryoftheEnvironment.Itwasestablishedon3rdNovember2003bythethenGovernorofLagosState,BolaTinubu.TheBrigadewasestablishedtoenforcetheEnvironmentalSanitationLawofLagosState.51 SERACmonitoredtheeviction.PartofthisinformationwascollectedduringSERACandtheLMDGPProjectDirectors,visittoBadiaEaston6March2012;SERACandLMDGPProjectDirectoralsohadameetingwithBadiaEastcommunityon7March2012.52 TheamountspaidrangedfromN176,000-N380,000(US$10802332),documentsrelatedtocompensationunderRAP(onfileatSERAC).53 Article11(1)oftheInternationalCovenantonEconomicSocialandCulturalRights,accededtobyNigeriaon29July1993;Article27(3)oftheConventionontheRightsoftheChild,ratifiedbyNigeriaon19April1991;Article5(e)(iii)oftheInternationalConventionontheEliminationofAllFormsofRacialDiscrimination,accededtobyNigeriaon16October1967;Article17oftheInternationalCovenantonCivilandPoliticalRights(ICCPR),accededtobyNigeriaon29July1993;andArticle16oftheProtocoltotheAfricanCharteronHumanandPeoples'RightsontheRightsofWomeninAfrica,ratifiedbyNigeriaon16December2004.54 Article27,ViennaConventionontheLawofTreaties1969.55 TheAfricanCharteronHumanandPeoplesRights(ACHPR)wasdomesticatedbyNigeriain1983astheAfricanCharteronHumanandPeoples'Rights(RatificationandEnforcement)Act.TheprovisionsoftheACHPRarebindingandpersonsexercisinglegislative,executiveorjudicialpowersinNigeriaaremandatedtoapplyitandgiveitfullrecognitionandeffect.56 Social and Economic Rights Action Center (SERAC) and Centerfor Economic and Social Rights (CESR) v. Nigeria,CommunicationNo.155/96,para60.57 Chapter4ofNigeriasConstitutionprovidesforfundamentalhumanrightsandtheseareenforceableinthecourtsthroughthemechanismprovidedforundertheFundamentalRights(EnforcementsProcedure)Rules2009.Economic,socialandculturalrights,however,arenotguaranteedasfundamentalhumanrightsundertheConstitutionbutareprovidedforinChapter2asFundamentalObjectivesandDirectivePrinciplesofStatePolicy.Nomechanismexistsfortheirenforcement,becauseeconomic,socialandculturalrightsaretreatedasnotjusticiableandthereforeunenforceableinthecourts.58 NigeriabecameastatepartytotheInternationalCovenantonEconomicSocialandCulturalRightson29July1993;theInternationalCovenantonCivilandPoliticalRights(ICCPR)on29July1993;andtheAfricanCharteronHumanandPeoples'Rightsonon22June1983.59 UNCommitteeonEconomic,SocialandCulturalRights,GeneralCommentNo.7:Therighttoadequatehousing(Article11.1)oftheInternationalConventiononEconomic,SocialandCulturalRights):forcedevictions,para3,(Sixteenthsession,20May1997),E/1998/22,AnnexIV,para3.amnesty International august 2013 Index: AfR 44/06/2013 IF YOU LOVE YOUR LIFE, MOVE OUT!NIGERIA: foRcEd EvIctIoN IN bAdIA EAst, lAGos stAtE6060 UNCommitteeonEconomic,SocialandCulturalRights,GeneralCommentNo.761 UNCommitteeonEconomic,SocialandCulturalRights,GeneralCommentNo.7,para.15.62 UNCommitteeonEconomic,SocialandCulturalRights,GeneralCommentNo.7,para.16.63 UNCommitteeonEconomic,SocialandCulturalRights,GeneralComment7,para14.64 AmnestyInternationalinterviewwiththeLagosstateAttorney-General,Secretariat,Ikeja,Lagos,15May2013.65 AmnestyInternationalinterviewwiththeLagosstateAttorney-General,15May2013.66 LettertoAmnestyInternationalfromtheLagosstategovernment,sentbytheLagosAttorney-General,dated4May2013,respondingtoAmnestyInternationalscorrespondenceraisingconcernsabouttherecentforcedevictionofpeoplefromBadia.IntheinterviewwithAmnestyInternationalon15May2013,theAttorney-Generalalsomaintainedthattheareawhichwasclearedwaspronetofloodingandtherewasariskthatrefusecouldgointothedrainswhenitrainedandcausefloodinginthatandsurroundingareas.Therewerealsosanitaryconcernsastherewasnoprovisionoftoilets.Therewereadditionalhealthandcrimeissues.67 AmnestyInternationalinterviewwiththeLagosAttorney-General,15May2013.InthelettertoAmnestyInternational,dated4May2013,theLagosstategovernmentstatedthataStateGovernmentdelegationvisitedtwicetosensitisethepeopletotheneedtomoveaway,especiallyinviewofthesecurity,healthandfloodingrisksposedtotheentireareabytheiractivities.68 AmnestyInternationalinterviewwiththeLagosCommissionerforHousing,Secretariat,Ikeja,Lagos,17May2013.69 InterviewwithresidentsandofficersoftheBadiaEast`TechnicalCommittee,BadiaEast,16May2013;namewithheldbecauseofsecurityconcerns.70 InterviewwithresidentsandofficersoftheBadiaEastTechnicalCommittee,BadiaEast,16May2013;namewithheldbecauseofsecurityconcerns.71 LettertoAmnestyInternationalfromtheLagosstategovernment,sentbytheLagosAttorney-General,dated4May2013.72 Sunriseprogramme,Badia: After the demolition,ChannelsTelevision,2March2013,extractsavailableathttp://www.youtube.com/watch?v=wnBC3rrp5bA(part1),http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=XsuHVyRmJ4Iand(part2)http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=MfJHeCwLLdI(part3)(lastaccessed20June2013).73 DigitalGlobeAnalysisCentersatelliteimageryanalysisILU-ERIcommunity/Lagos,Nigeria,2013.74 ABaaleisthetraditionalheadofaYorubacommunity.TheBaaleofIganmuAlawowasappointedbytheOjoraofIjoraland,thetraditionalruleroftheareathatincludesBadiaEast.75 LettertoAmnestyInternationalfromtheLagosstategovernment,sentbytheLagosAttorney-General,dated4May2013,76 TheBaaleofIjoraAlawoclaimshewasappointedbytheOjoraofIjoralandon9June2012asthetraditionalheadofanareathatincludesBadiaEast.However,theaffectedpeopleinterviewedbythedelegatesrejectedhimastheirBaale,claimingtheyhadtwoBaales,onefortheAjeromiCommunityandanotherforOkeIlu-Ericommunity.TheysaidbothBaalespassedawayrecently.77 AmnestyInternationalinterviewwiththeBaaleandhissecretary,Badia,16May2013.78 ThepersonintroducedhimselfastheBaalessecretaryandstatedthathewasauthorizedtospeakonbehalfoftheBaale.TheBaale,whowaspresentatthemeeting,confirmedthathewashappywiththisarrangementandattheendalsothatheagreedwithallthestatementsmadebytheSecretaryonhisbehalf.79 TheChairmanoftheTaskForcealsoclaimedthattheBaalehadatowncrierwhowentaroundBadiatellingpeoplethattheyhadreceivedanotice.AmnestyInternationalinterview,Taskforceoffice,AlausaIkeja,14May2013.80 Interview,BadiaEast,andonthetelephone,16Mayand26June2013;namewithheldforsecurityconcerns.81 InterviewswithresidentsandSERACstaff.82 Interview,BadiaEast,15May,namewithheldforsecurityconcerns.Index: AfR 44/06/2013 amnesty International august 2013IF YOU LOVE YOUR LIFE, MOVE OUT!NIGERIA: foRcEd EvIctIoN IN bAdIA EAst, lAGos stAtE6183 MeetingwithLagosStateCommissionerofHousing,Alausa,Ikeja,22February2013.Onthesameday,SERACalsodeliveredalettertotheGovernorofLagosStateexpressingconcernsoverthepossiblythreateneddemolitioninBadiaEastandaskedforfulldisclosureofthegovernmentsplans,copyingtheLagosstateCommissionersforAgriculture,PhysicalPlanningandUrbanDevelopmentandEnvironment,theLagosstateAttorneyGeneral,theTaskForce,theKickAgainstIndisciplineBrigade,andseniorofficialsoftheLMDGP.SeeSERAClettertoGovernorofLagosState,22February2013(acknowledgmentcopiesonfileatSERAC,availableonlineat:http://www.scribd.com/doc/127150823/Letter-to-Governor-Fashola-on-Badia-East-Threatened-Demolition).84 Interview,15May2013.85 ACertificateofOccupancyisanevidenceofastatutoryrightofoccupancyoflandanditisissuedbytheGovernorofastateinNigeriainaccordancewiththeLandUseAct1978.86 AmnestyInternationalinterviewwiththeLagosAttorney-General,15May2013.87 Agbodemu Musbau & others v. Lagos State EnvironmentalSanitation Enforcement Agency & others;SuitNo:M/710/2011.SERACrepresentedtheapplicantsinthiscase.88 CommitteeonEconomic,SocialandCulturalRights,GeneralComment7,para15(b).89 TheUNSpecialRapporteuronAdequateHousingdevelopedtheBasicPrinciplesandGuidelinesonDevelopment-basedEvictionsandDisplacement(theBasicPrinciples),whichreflectexistingstandardsandjurisprudenceontheissueofforcedeviction.SeeUNDoc.A/HRC/4/18(Annex1),5February2007.90 Principle41.91 SeePrinciple42,theBasicPrinciples.92 SeeCommitteeonEconomic,SocialandCulturalRights,GeneralComment7,paras13and15(g).93 ABlackMariaisapolicevehicleusedtotransportsuspects.ItiscommonlyusedinNigeriabylawenforcementagencies.94 AbeokutaisthecapitalofOgunstate,whichbordersLagosstate.95 TheLagosStateenvironmentalsanitationexerciseismandatoryforallLagosStateresidents.IttakesplaceonthelastSaturdayofeverymonthandthemovementofallpersonsisrestrictedbetween7amand10am.96 Interviewswithresidents,BadiaEast,13,15and16May2013.97 Interview,BadiaEast,16May2013.98 AmnestyInternationalinterviewwiththeChairmanoftheTaskforce,Alausa,Ikeja,14May2013.99 AmnestyInternationalinterviewwiththeChairmanoftheTaskforce,14May2013.100 TheChairmanoftheTaskForceconfirmedthathisagencycarriedoutthedemolitionsandthatheandhisstaffwerephysicallypresentonthesite.AmnestyInternationalinterviewwiththeChairmanoftheTaskforce,14May2013.101 Interviewswithresidents,BadiaEast,13,15and15May2013.102 Interview,BadiaEast,16May2013.103 Interview,BadiaEast,16May2013.104 PhoneinterviewconductedbyAmnestyInternationalwithAndrewMaki,20June2013.105 ABlackMariaisapolicevehicleusedtotransportsuspects.ItiscommonlyusedinNigeriabylawenforcementagencies.106 PhoneinterviewconductedbyAmnestyInternationalwithAndrewMaki,20June2013.107 PhoneinterviewconductedbyAmnestyInternationalwithMeganChapman,20June2013.108 PhoneinterviewconductedbyAmnestyInternationalwithMeganChapman,20June2013.109 AmnestyInternationalinterviewwiththeChairmanoftheLagosStateEnvironmentalandSpecialOffencesEnforcementUnit,14May2013.110 Interview,BadiaEast,16May2013,namewithheldforprivacyandsecurityconcerns.111 AmnestyInternationalinterviewwiththeLagosAttorney-General,15May2013.112 InterviewwithresidentsandmembersoftheBadiaEastTechnicalCommittee,BadiaEast,16May2013.113 Thecase,Prince J.A. Ilawole & others and the Governor of amnesty International august 2013 Index: AfR 44/06/2013 IF YOU LOVE YOUR LIFE, MOVE OUT!NIGERIA: foRcEd EvIctIoN IN bAdIA EAst, lAGos stAtE62Lagos State & others,SuitNo:M/162/2013,wasinstitutedon28February2013inaLagosHighCourt.114 InterviewwithmembersoftheBadiaEastTechinicalCommittee,BadiaEast,16May2013.115 AmnestyInternationalinterviewwiththeLagosStateAttorney-GeneralandCommissionerforJustice,15May2013.116 CommitteeonEconomic,SocialandCulturalRights,GeneralComment7,para16.117 CommitteeonEconomic,SocialandCulturalRights,GeneralComment7,para13.118 Principle61,UNBasicPrinciplesandGuidelinesonDevelopment-basedEvictionsandDisplacement.119 Principle60,UNBasicPrinciplesandGuidelinesonDevelopment-basedEvictionsandDisplacement.120 Interviewswithresidents,BadiaEast,13,15and16May2013.121 Interviewswithresidents,BadiaEast,13,15and16May2013.Seechapterxformoredetails.122 Sunriseprogramme,Badia: After the demolition,ChannelsTelevision,2March2013.123 AmnestyInternationalinterviewwiththeCommissionerforHousing,17May2013.124 TheCommissionersaidtheprojectconsistsof1,2and3-bedroomunits.125 AmnestyInternationalinterviewwiththeCommissionerforHousing,17May2013.126 TheCommissionersaidthegovernmentistryingtokeeptheinterestto10percentorbelowbuttheschemeisyettobefinalised.127 LettertoAmnestyInternationalfromtheLagosstategovernment,sentbytheLagosAttorney-General,dated4May2013.128 MeetingswiththeWorldBank,AmnestyInternational(Abuja,20May2013)andSERAC(SheratonHotelinLagos,7May2013;SheratonHotelinLagos,31May2013;SheratonHotelinLagos,7June2013).129 Tocompilethisinformation,affectedpeople(headsofhousehold,bothlandlordsandtenants)completedadetailedquestionnaire,providedapassportphotographandcontactphonenumber,andsigned/thumb-printedtoverifytheinformation.Landlordsalsoprovidedthenamesoftheirtenantstocross-checkagainstpossiblemisrepresentation.SERACstaffreviewedcarefullyforanyduplicatesorunreasonablefinancialclaims;subsequently,a10-personcommitteemadeupofcommunitymembersandleadersfromOkeIlu-EriandAjeromireviewedthecompileddatabase.Finally,thedatabasewassubjectedtoaSERACfacilitatedcommunityverificationexerciseopentoallaffectedpersonsandtheremainingAjeromicommunity.130 Structuresarebuildingsthatwereusedasshopsand/orhomes.Manystructurescontainedmultiplehouseholds(familyunits)asfamiliesoftenrentedaroomorroomsratherthantheentirehouse.131 KAIBrigadeistheLawEnforcementUnitoftheLagosStateMinistryoftheEnvironment.Itwasestablishedon3November2003bythethenGovernorofLagosState.TheBrigadewasestablishedtoenforcetheEnvironmentalSanitationLawofLagosState.132 Interview,BadiaEast,15May2013.133 Interviewswithresidents,BadiaEast,15and16May2013.134 Interview,BadiaEast,16May2013.135 Interviewswithresidents,BadiaEast,15and16May2013.136 BadiaEast,16May2013.Nameswithheldtoensureprivacyandsecurity.137 AmnestyInternationalwasgivenacopyofherdeathcertificatebyfamilymembers.138 AmnestyInternationalwasgivenacopyofherdeathcertificatebyfamilymembers.139 Principle52,BasicPrinciples.140 Interview,BadiaEast,16May2013.141 Interview,BadiaEast,16May2013.142 Interview,BadiaEast,16May2013.143 Interview,BadiaEast,16May2013.144 Interviewswithresidents,BadiaEast,15and16May2013.145 Inherbenchruling,JusticeIpayeheldthatanawardofdamageswouldsufficientlycompensatethem[theApplicants/Index: AfR 44/06/2013 amnesty International august 2013IF YOU LOVE YOUR LIFE, MOVE OUT!NIGERIA: foRcEd EvIctIoN IN bAdIA EAst, lAGos stAtE63BadiaEastevictees]foranylossestheyhavesuffered,therebynottakingintoconsiderationtheLagosstategovernmentsstatedplansforfurtherdemolitions.TheRulingonMotionforInterlocutoryInjunctionisonfilewithSERAC.146 Thecase,Prince J.A. Ilawole & others and the Governor of LagosState & others,wasinstitutedinaLagosstateHighCourt.147 SERACmeetingwithExecutiveSecretary,NationalHumanRightsCommission(Abuja,5March2013);SERACpetitiontoNationalHumanRightsCommission,UrgentPetition,RE:MassForcedEvictioninBadiaEast,Lagos,5March2013(availableonlineat:http://www.scribd.com/doc/139687618/Petition-to-NHRC-Regarding-Badia-East-Forced-Eviction-Mar-5-2013).148 SERACandBadiaEastcommunitymeetingwithDirector,UrbanandRegionalDevelopment,MinistryofLands,HousingandUrbanDevelopment(Abuja,28June2013).149 Interview,BadiaEast,15May2013.150 Article2,InternationalCovenantonEconomic,SocialandCulturalRights,article2(3),InternationalCovenantonCivilandPoliticalRights,andarticle1,AfricanCharteronHumanandPeoplesRights.TheCommitteeonEconomic,SocialandCulturalRightshasstatedthattheCovenantnormsmustberecognizedinappropriatewayswithinthedomesticlegalorder,appropriatemeansofredress,orremedies,mustbeavailabletoanyaggrievedindividualorgroup,andappropriatemeansofensuringgovernmentalaccountabilitymustbeputinplace.SeeCommitteeonEconomic,SocialandCulturalRights,General Comment 9: Thedomestic application of the Covenant,UNDoc.E/C.12/1998/24,1December1998,para2.151 Principle59,theBasicPrinciples.152 CommitteeonEconomic,SocialandCulturalRights,GeneralComment 4: The Right to Adequate Housing,UNDoc.E/1992/23(annexIII),para8.153 LettertoAmnestyInternationalfromtheLagosstategovernment,sentbytheLagosAttorney-General,dated4May2013.154 AmnestyInternationalinterviewwiththeWorldBankNigeriaCountryOffice,Abuja,20May2013,SERACmeetingswiththeWorldBank,WorldBankcountryofficeinAbuja,28February2013;LMDGPofficeinLagos,15March2013;SheratonHotelinLagos,7May2013;SheratonHotelinLagos,31May2013;SheratonHotelinLagos,7June2013.155 WorldBank,Resettlement policy framework, Vol. 1, Nigeria -Lagos Metropolitan Development Project: resettlement plan,section5.2,p.11,availableathttp://documents.worldbank.org/curated/en/2005/05/6059098/nigeria-lagos-metropolitan-development-project-resettlement-plan-vol-1-3-resettlement-policy-framework(lastaccessed25June2013).156 WorldBank,Resettlement policy framework, Vol. 1,section9.5,pp.2325.157 WorldBank,Resettlement policy framework, Vol. 1,section4,p.8.158 SeeCommitteeonEconomic,SocialandCulturalRights,GeneralComments4and7andPrinciple68andSectionV,BasicPrinciples.159 LetterfromtheWorldBankNigeriaCountryOfficeDirectortoAmnestyInternational,dated28June2013.160 NoticeofInvitationtoStakeholdersMeeting,LagosStateGovernmentTechnicalCommitteeonBadiaEast(onfilewithSERAC).161 TheLagosStateGovernmentTechnicalCommitteeonBadiaEastwasestablishedinApril/May2013todevisetheLagosstategovernmentsresponsetodemandsforcompensation,relocation,andotherformsofremedybythoseaffectedbytheforcedevictionof23February2013.162 ThestakeholdersmeetingwasattendedbysixSERACstaff.163 AmnestyInternationalinterviewwiththeBaaleandhissecretary,Badia,16May2013.164 LetterfromtheWorldBankNigeriaCountryOfficeDirectortoAmnestyInternational,dated28June2013.165 LetterfromtheWorldBankNigeriaCountryOfficeDirectortoAmnestyInternational,dated28June2013.166 Principle60,BasicPrinciples.167 Principle43,BasicPrinciples.168 Principle64,BasicPrinciples.169 Formoreguidanceontheseinternationalstandards,seeCommitteeonEconomic,SocialandCulturalRights,GeneralComments4and7andPrinciple68andSectionV,BasicPrinciples.amnesty International august 2013 Index: AfR 44/06/2013 IF YOU LOVE YOUR LIFE, MOVE OUT!NIGERIA: foRcEd EvIctIoN IN bAdIA EAst, lAGos stAtE64SeealsoAmnestyInternational,Know your obligations: A guide topreventing forced evictions,Index:ACT35/009/2012,27November2012,availableat:http://www.amnesty.org/en/library/info/ACT35/009/2012.170 Principle52,BasicPrinciples.171 Seechapterx.[addinfinalversion]172 Makokoundersiege,SERAC@Work(November2005)pp.1-3;SERACinitiatedlitigationagainsttheLagosstategovernmentforenforcementoffundamentalrightsasaresultofthe2005forcedevictioninMakoko.ThecaseispresentlybeforetheCourtofAppeals.Ajimuda & Ors. v. Lagos State Government & Ors,AppealNo.CA/L/637m/2009.AmnestyInternational,Nigeria: Making thedestitute homeless forced evictions in Makoko, Lagos state,IndexAFR44/001/2006,24January2006.173 SERACsongoingmonitoringofsituationandlegalrepresentationofaffectedpersons.174 SERAC,TheIllegalDemolitionofMakokoCommunity:TheLawlessness,Indiscipline,ImpunityandBrutalityoftheKICKAGAINSTINDISCIPLINE(KAIBrigade),SERACPressRelease,11May2010,availableathttp://www.serac.org/Pages.asp?id=293.175 SERACmonitoredthiseviction.Seeinthisregard:BloodbathinMakoko,SERAC@Work(September-December2010)pp.24-25;SERACinitiatedlitigationagainsttheLagosstategovernmentforenforcementoffundamentalrightsasaresultoftheDecember2010forcedevictioninMakoko.ThecaseispresentlybeforetheHighCourtofLagosState.Babarinde Babatunde & Ors. v. Lagos StateEnvl and Special Offences (Enforcement) Unit & Ors.,SuitNo.M/198/2012.176 Alistof770households(comprising4,034people)affectedbythedemolitionwascompiledbytheSecretarytotheMakoko/IwayaWaterfrontCommunityinDecember2012(onfilewithSERAC).177 SERACinitiatedlitigationagainsttheLagosstategovernmentforenforcementoffundamentalrightsasaresultoftheJuly2012forcedevictioninMakoko.Francis Agoyon & Ors. v. Lagos StateGovernment & Ors.,SuitNo.FHC/L/CS/1577/2012.178 SERACInternalReport,Post-demolitionfactfindingvisittoOdo-Iragunshi,LagosState(March9,2013)(onfilewithSERAC);InterviewswithaffectedresidentsofOdo-Iragunshionthesiteofthedemolitionon9March2013andatSERACon25May2013.179 AmnestyInternationalinterviewwiththeChairmanoftheLagosStateEnvironmentalandSpecialOffencesEnforcementUnit,14May2013.180 BloodbathinMakoko,SERAC@Work(September-December2010)pp.24-25.181 EyewitnessaccountsgiventoSERACon21July2012atPantiPoliceStation;certifiedtruecopyofautopsyreportforTimothyAzinkponoHunkpoyanwa(onfilewithSERAC).Index: AfR 44/06/2013 amnesty International august 2013IF YOU LOVE YOUR LIFE, MOVE OUT!NIGERIA: foRcEd EvIctIoN IN bAdIA EAst, lAGos stAtE65amnesty International august 2013 Index: AfR 44/06/2013 IF YOU LOVE YOUR LIFE, MOVE OUT!NIGERIA: foRcEd EvIctIoN IN bAdIA EAst, lAGos stAtE66

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