HypnosisA social interaction in which one person (the hypnotist) makes suggestions about perceptions, feelings, thoughts, or behaviors, and another person (the subject) follows those suggestionsHypnotist serves as a coach or tutor showing you the way.
HypnosisState of awarenessHighly focused attentionIncreased responsiveness to suggestionVivid imageryWillingness to accept distortions of logicPeople do NOT lose control of their behavior. Instead, they remain aware of where they are, who they are, and what is transpiring. Alteration of sensation and perception
Is Hypnosis a Special State of Consciousness?
State view Hypnosis is a special or altered state of consciousness (see Hilgards neodissociation).Non-State view Hypnosis is not a special state and similar effects can be produced when people are properly instructed and motivated.Social-cognitive view subject responds to social demands of the situation. Play the role of what is expected from a good hypnotic subject.
Social Influence TheoryPowerful social influences produce a state of hypnosis.This theory notes that a persons physiological state does not change under hypnosis.Social factors influence people to believe hypnosis will work.
Divided Consciousness TheoryPromoted by Ernest Hilgard (1904-2001)People experience dissociation the splitting of consciousness into two or more simultaneous streams of mental activity.Neodissociation theory of hypnosis a hypnotized person consciously experiences one stream of mental activity that is responding to the hypnotists suggestions. A second dissociated stream known as the hidden observer is processing info that is unavailable to the consciousness of the hypnotized subject.
A woman doesnt notice the smell of ammonia. How can this be explained?
Evidence Supporting HypnosisRole-Playing hypnotics drop the act when not observed while actually hypnotized subjects maintain the act when not observed.PET Scans reveal activity increased in the left and right hemisphere color areas when they were told they were seeing color. Activity decreased in the left and right hemisphere color areas when they were told to see gray rectangles regardless of what color they were. Only the right hemisphere color areas were activated in people not hypnotized. This shows hypnosis is a mental state.Imaginative suggestibility the degree to which a person is able to experience an imaginary state of affairs as if it were real. Many people are open to suggestion even when not under hypnosis.
Hypnotic InductionThe process by which a hypnotist creates a state of hypnosis in a subjectUsually done by voicing a series of suggestionsVoice is usually calm and of a rhythmic tone
HypnotizabilityDifferences in the ability of people to become hypnotizedVaries from person to personVaries from situation to situationMost adults are moderately hypnotizable. Children are easier to hypnotize. People who have positive, receptive attitudes towards hypnosis and expectations that they respond tend to hypnotize easier.
Hypnotic Techniques:Hypnotic Suggestions
Limits to Hypnotic SuggestionsSuggestions usually involve sensations, thoughts, emotions, and a wide variety of behaviors.Hypnosis does not cause behaviors.Hypnosis can lead people to certain behaviors but so can ordinary suggestions.
Hypnotic Techniques:Posthypnotic Suggestions
Posthypnotic SuggestionsA suggestion, made during a hypnosis session, that the subject will carry out when no longer hypnotizedTechnique can be used to encourage helpful behavior changes, such as stopping smoking or losing weight.Most only last for a few hours or days.
Hypnosis and Memory
Hypnosis and MemoryThere are isolated cases of hypnosis helping recall.Cannot be sure if the memory came back due to hypnosisCannot be sure if the memory is accurate or one that is created to please the hypnotist
Hypnosis and MemoryPosthypnotic Amnesia person is unable to recall specific info or events that occurred before or during hypnosis. Produced by a hypnotic suggestion. Effects are usually temporary and where off either spontaneously with a posthypnotic signal.Hypermnesia Enhancement of memory for past events using hypnotic suggestion. Not proven to work and can lead to distortions and inaccuracies or pseudomemories.Age Regression Recall or reexperience an earlier developmental period. Often distorted and not accurate.
Hypnosis and Pain Control
Pain and HypnosisHypnosis does work as a means to control pain.Hypnosis can cause temporary blindness, deafness, or complete loss of sensation in a part of the body. Because of this, hypnosis can be used as a form of pain therapy (see Time article)
HypnosisPlay Hypnotic Dissociation and Pain Relief (3:03) Segment #2 from The Mind: Psychology Teaching Modules (2nd edition).If Time Allows.Watch this & read Time article on this subject.Our cerebral cortex allows to filter out certain info and focus on other info.
Other Hypnotic Claims
Placebo EffectImprovement due only to the power of positive expectationsPeople think they will get better so they do
Feats of StrengthMany feats of strength done under hypnosis can be accomplished without hypnosis.
Feats of StrengthThe "amazing" hypnotized "human plank" Actually, unhypnotized people can also perform this feat.
Limits to HypnosisYou cannot be hypnotized against your will.Hypnosis cannot make you perform behaviors that are contrary to your morals and values.Hypnosis cannot make you stronger or give you new talents.
MeditationAim to control or retrain attention. Two general categories.Concentration Techniques focusing on a visual image, your breathing, a word or phrase. Often a mantra is repeated mentally.Opening-up Techniques Present-centered awareness of the passing moment, without mental judgment. Concentrate on the here and now without distractive thoughts. Zazen or just sitting technique of Buddhism is a form of this.
Effects of Meditation Transcendental Meditation (TM) Concentrative meditation that does not require any lifestyle changes and follows a simple format. Sit with eyes closed and say a mantra or focus on breathing over an over allowing distracting thoughts to fall away.
BENEFITS: lowering of psychological arousal bylowering heart rateblood pressurechange to alpha-brain-waves similar to the state of drowsiness that precedes stage 1 sleep.
SPECT scans show increased blood flow to both frontal lobes and decreased blood flow to the left parietal lobe during meditation. Frontal lobes are involved in attention focusing tasks and parietal lobes are involved in visual-spatial tasks, which are not needed in mediation.