Human Rights in East Asia From a Margin of Appreciation Perspective

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  • 8/13/2019 Human Rights in East Asia From a Margin of Appreciation Perspective

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    Carlotta Fagioli (Student No. 11906456)

    LW843: International u!an "ig#t$ La%&a''liation

    *+N "I,-S IN +S- +SI+ F"/* + *+",IN /F +"CI+-I/N "SC-I

    Introdution

    +ll #u!an rig#t$ are uni2er$al indi2i$ile and interde'endent and

    interrelated. -#e international o!!unit !u$t treat #u!an rig#t$ gloall

    in a air and e7ual !anner on t#e $a!e ooting and %it# t#e $a!e e!'#a$i$.

    W#ile t#e $igniiane o national and regional 'artiularitie$ and 2ariou$

    #i$torial ultural and religiou$ aground$ !u$t e orne in !ind it i$ t#e

    dut o State$ regardle$$ o t#eir 'olitial eono!i and ultural $$te!$ to

    'ro!ote and 'rotet all #u!an rig#t$ and unda!ental reedo!$1.

    -#e a!iguit o artile 5 o t#e 1993 ienna elaration and rogra!!e o +tion 'ro2ide$ a

    2alid $u!!ar o t#e #eated deate %#i# arou$ed %it# regard to t#e e$tali$#!ent o uni2er$al

    $tandard$ o #u!an rig#t$. I on t#e one #and We$tern a$$ertion$ o t#e nee$$it to 'ro2ide a

    unior! 2ie% o t#e !atter re!ain 'o%erul on t#e ot#er non&We$tern de!and$ or t#e

    introdution o a #ig#er le2el o leiilit in t#e taling o t#e 'role! #a2e inrea$ed in urgen.

    -#e i$$ue i$ redited %it# 'ratial rele2ane %it# regard to t#e all or legiti!a o a non&

    traditional a''roa# to #u!an rig#t$ 'ut or%ard +$ian leader$ in t#e la$t deade$.

    -#i$ e$$a %ill argue t#at %#ile no one$$ion$ !u$t e gi2en to t#e 'olitial e'loitation o

    #u!an rig#t$ in t#e international $truggle et%een o''o$ite eono!i $$te!$ it !a e %ort#

    %elo!ing $o!e o t#e all$ or t#e u$e o a #ig#er le2el o leiilit t#e international ;udiial

    odie$ in t#e in2e$tigation 'roedure$. In ot#er %ord$ it i$ de$irale to a2oid i!'o$ing eternal

    ultural 'aradig!$ on an ountr indi$ri!inatel %it#out taing into aount t#e 'o$iti2e

    ontriution a !ediation t#roug# t#e loal #i$torial and ultural #eritage %ould !ae.

    -o egin %it# t#i$ e$$a atte!'t$ to retrae riel t#e #i$torial origin$ o t#e deate on t#e

    a''arent antit#e$i$ et%een We$tern and +$ian 2alue$ 'ro2iding an outline o t#e ontet %it#in

    %#i# t#e di$'ute aro$e. -#e $eond 'art %ill deal %it# t#e !a;or rationale$ 'ro2ided or and

    again$t t#e ad!i$$iilit o an +$ian a''roa# to #u!an rig#t$ and %it# t#e %ider ra!e%or %#i#

    eno!'a$$e$ t#e deate t#at i$ to $a t#e long&ti!e ontro2er$ et%een uni2er$ali$! and ultural

    relati2i$!. La$tl t#e inal $etion o t#e e$$a %ill ou$ on t#e !argin o a''reiation dotrine

    1 nited Nation$ World Conference on Human Rights art. 5 ienna 14&

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    elaorated t#e ;uri$'rudene o t#e uro'ean Court o u!an "ig#t$ and on it$ 'o$$iilit o

    $er2ing a$ an in$tru!ent to grant $tate$ a #ig#er range o di$retion and to ailitate t#e $trea!lining

    o t#e in2e$tigation 'roedure.

    -#e 2er one't o @#u!an rig#t$A i$ %idel deated and #a$ oten een grounded in t#e one o

    @#u!an natureA. -#e ad2oa o $u# orrelation o learl We$tern origin #a$ ailed to tae into

    aount t#e dna!i 'roe$$ re're$ented #i$torial ultural and eono!i de2elo'!ent: t#i$

    deiien i$ one o t#e !ain rea$on$ %# t#e traditional one'tion o #u!an rig#t$ #a$ een

    7ue$tioned.

    I.

    a. The context.

    u!an rig#t$ alt#oug# en;oing a 2er long and turulent #i$tor #a2e on$tantl ar2ed out a

    !eaningul role or t#e!$el2e$ in t#e gloal 'olitial agenda at lea$t $ine 1948 %#en t#e

    international o!!unit elaorated t#e ni2er$al elaration o u!an "ig#t$. In onte!'orar

    $oial and 'olitial deate old and ne% international attain!ent$ are in2oed to o''o$e to or to #o'e

    or go2ern!ent inter2ention in order to deend a 2a$t 2ariet o 2alue$ and intere$t$ and to $u''ort

    a %ide range o !oral one'tion$. It i$ in t#i$ ontet t#at t#e etre!el ontro2er$ial deate on

    t#e $o alled @+$ian 2alue$A ari$e$ 'ro2iding t#e t#eoretial $u$trate or t#e di$u$$ion onerning

    an artiulated and o!'le $$te! o $oial and ultural 2alue$ %#i# aording to a $iBeale

    nu!er o $#olar$ are to e ounter'o$ed to t#e el$e%#ere 're2ailing We$tern 'rini'le$. Su#

    !atter o ontention reer$ to t#e ontro2er$ial i$$ue o t#e 'otential uni2er$alit o #u!an rig#t$

    alt#oug# ultural dierene$ an ea$il e deteted.

    -#e deate onerning t#e @+$ian 2alue$A tae$ 'lae ot# out$ide and in$ide +$ia it$el

    e$'eiall in o''o$ition to t#o$e %#i# are identiied and 'erei2ed a$ @We$tern 2alue$A ut it'rini'all gain$ rele2ane %it# regard to t#e %ider !atter onerning t#e indi2iduation o !utual

    dutie$ et%een $tate$ and itiBen$ #ig#l inluening t#e di$u$$ion on t#e $aeguard o t#e

    indi2idual and t#e oligation$ $tate$ #a2e to ulil. +$ a !atter o at a$ 'ro!'tl noted a$#

    ,#ai in #i$ anal$i$ o +$ian 2ie%$ on de!ora and #u!an rig#t$ D$o!e go2ern!ent$ #a2e 'ut

    or%ard t#e argu!ent t#at t#e ultural !atri %it#in %#i# relation$ et%een indi2idual$ and t#e

    $tate are e!edded are unda!entall dierent in +$ia ro! t#at in t#e We$t

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    $#ar'l identi t#e %#ole entiret o t#eir #uge and #eterogeneou$ 'o'ulation.

    Ne2ert#ele$$ it oug#t to e orne in !ind t#at lingering on $i!ilar re!ar$ an e a$olutel

    !i$leading and dee'ti2e. E eaerating $u# o'inion$ one !a !i$taenl a$$u!e t#at t#ere i$

    onl one urrent o t#oug#t %#i# an e on$idered a$ re're$entati2e o t#e entire +$ian region

    t#at i$ to $a t#e o!!onl $#ared 2ie% %#i# e!'#a$i$e$ t#e role o entral aut#orit and %#i#

    2alue$ t#e e$tali$#!ent o an eeti2e and eiient go2ern!ent rat#er t#an t#e a#ie2e!ent o t#e

    indi2idual liertie$ 'rioritiBed We$tern $oietie$3. Indeed a$ $ugge$ted -ania ,ro''i

    /rdinar roe$$or o uli La% at t#e ni2er$it o Siena unlie %#at ourred in ot#er 'art$ o

    t#e %orld international #u!an rig#t$ la% #a$ not ull ontriuted to t#e introdution o $o!e

    ele!ent$ o regional #o!ogeneou$ne$$ in +$ia: it #a$ een o$er2ed t#at t#e tenden to%ard$ t#e

    indi2iduation o regional $tandard$ %#i# #a$ 'rodued #ig#l $igniiant re$ult$ in ot#er are$ (e.g.t#e +rian C#arter o u!an "ig#t$) #a$ $o!e#o% 'a$$ed t#e a$tern territorie$ 4. -#ereore

    one annot a2oid agreeing %it# +!arta SenD$ a$$u!'tion t#at t#e te!'tation to on$ider +$ia a$ a

    $tati and !onolit#i entit atuall re2eal$ a 'er$'eti2e %#i# an ea$il e identiied a$ euro&

    entri5.

    Not%it#$tanding %#at #a$ een $aid ao2e it i$ diiult not to detet t#at a 'rolii deate

    onerning t#e o!'atiilit o #u!an rig#t$ %it# indeter!inate @+$ian 2alue$A #a$ een arried

    out or $e2eral ear$ $o ar. o%e2er it i$ i!'ortant to 'roeed %it# etre!e aution %#en

    e'loring $u# a !atter o ontention or it #a$ een uilding t#e oundation$ or t#e !a;or

    a$$u!'tion$ 'ut or%ard in t#e ;u$tiiation o aut#oritarian regi!e$ and $$te!ati 2iolation$ o

    #u!an rig#t$. /n t#e ot#er #and a$ 'ro'o$ed aniel Eell in t#e late 1990$ Ddi$tinti2e a$t

    +$ian one'tion$ o 2ital #u!an intere$t$ !a indeedG ;u$ti $o!e 'olitial 'ratie$ t#at dier

    to $o!e etent ro! #u!an rig#t$ regi!e$ t'iall endor$ed in We$tern ountrie$D6. -#u$ a$ %e

    an ea$il notie t#e deate i$ etre!el ri# and ontro2er$ial and it #a$ to e taled ro!

    dierent 'er$'eti2e$. I a! no% going to introdue t#e !ain 'oint$ at i$$ue and to retrae riel

    t#e origin$ o t#e di$'ute.

    b. The origins and the nature of the debate.

    3 Lee Huan e% in $'ee# entitled @e!ora u!an "ig#t$ and t#e "ealitie$A (S'ee# to -#e Create

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    -#e e're$$ion @+$ian 2alue$A %a$ oined at t#e end o t#e 1980$ and %a$ a$ried to t#e t#en

    ri!e *ini$ter o Singa'ore Lee Huan e% it %a$ t#en ado'ted e$'eiall t#roug#out t#e 1990$

    $e2eral ot#er +$ian leader$ t#e *ala$ian ri!e *ini$ter *a#at#ir to !ention ;u$t one. It i$

    generall reogniBed t#at t#e $'read o $u# a urrent o t#oug#t rea#ed it$ a'e during t#e 1993

    nited Nation$ Conerene on u!an "ig#t$ in ienna?

    %#o$e 'rogra! o ation %a$ dra%n u'

    !aing reerene to t#e rea!le o t#e nited Nation C#arter in 'artiular to t#e intention o

    reair!ing t#e allegiane to t#e dignit and t#e 2alue o t#e #u!an eing and to unda!ental

    #u!an rig#t$ %#i# are to e attriuted e7uall and regardle$$ o gender and nationalit 8. In order

    to o!'re#end t#e gi$t o t#e !atter it i$ unda!ental to ear in !ind t#at t#e aore!entioned

    Conerene %a$ 'reeded a #eated deate %#i# on$titute$ a 'reedent ad2oate$ o o''o$ite

    t#eorie$ %#o den reognition to 'an&+$ian 2alue$ annot $i!'l ignore. Indeed $u# a deate i$

    not iru!$ried to lai!$ ro! 'art leader$ or to aade!i artile$ ut it #a$ ound it$or!ali$ation in a $'eii 'olitial dou!ent t#e $o&alled @Eango elarationA %#i# %a$

    ado'ted in 1993 t#e re're$entati2e$ o t#irt&our ountrie$ in 're'aration to t#e u'o!ing

    ienna Conerene. I on t#e one #and $u# a tet an e $een a$ an ae'tane o #u!an rig#t$

    a$ %ell a$ t#eir uni2er$alit on t#e ot#er t#e nee$$it to tae into aount $e2eral or!$ o ultural

    $'eiiitie$ i$ learl air!ed reogniBing t#at e2en t#oug# #u!an rig#t$ are endo%ed %it#

    $o!e uni2er$alit eature$ t#e #a2e to e on$idered a$ a dna!i 'roe$$ in a ontet o on$tant

    nor!ati2e de2elo'!ent9. Eearing in !ind t#e $igniian o national and regional #arateri$ti$

    and realling $e2eral ti!e$ t#e rele2ane o t#e deene o national $o2ereignt a entral role in t#e

    ad!ini$tration o #u!an rig#t$ #a$ to e 'laed t#e $tate t#ereore lea2ing little roo! or

    international inter2ention and t#e reation o regional o!'laint !e#ani$!$10.

    -#e a$$ertion$ 'ut or%ard t#e +$ian leader$ #a2e ontriuted to 'ut a largel $#ared lieral

    2ie% in a diiult 'o$ition t#at i$ to $a t#e idea t#at t#ere i$ a $ort o @$trutural orre$'ondeneA

    et%een t#e de2elo'!ent o t#e a'itali$ti !aret on t#e eono!i $ide and t#e ri$e o lieral

    de!ora on t#e 'olitial one11 t#i$ i$ ea$il notieale i %e ;u$t tae a loo at t#e 'rodigiou$

    eono!i de2elo'!ent %#i# #a$ aeted t#e Sout#&a$tern region$ o +$ia o2er t#e la$t deade$.

    Follo%ing ro! %#at #a$ een $aid +$ian tradition i$ on$idered ino!'atile %it# #u!an rig#t$ o

    We$tern !atri %#i# are ounded u'on indi2iduali$!: a$ a !atter o at it a2our$ t#e dutie$ o

    ? Haren ngle @Culture and u!an "ig#t$: t#e +$ian 2alue$ deate in ontetA(. ). *. Journal of #nternational

    Law and +olitics 3< (1999&

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    t#e indi2idual$ %it# regard to t#e o!!unit rat#er t#an t#eir rig#t$ !ore $'eiiall olleti2e

    rig#t$ 're2ail u'on indi2idual liertie$. Wit# t#i$ $ort o #ierar#ial $truture ultural and $oial

    olleti2e rig#t$ $u# a$ t#e rig#t to de2elo'!ent o t#e nation 're2ail u'on 'ri2ate indi2idual

    reedo! $u# a$ t#e rig#t to 'artii'ate t#e 'olitial lie o t#e ountr. +$ $tated Liu ua7iu

    ead o t#e C#ine$e elegation to t#e ienna Conerene o 1993 t#e one't o #u!an rig#t$ i$

    elie2ed $e2eral a$t&+$ian go2ern!ent to e onl a !ere 'rodut o t#e #i$torial de2elo'!ent

    and t#e eono!i and 'olitial ondition$ o a ountr. -#ereore one $#ould not on$ider t#e

    'attern indiated a grou' o ountrie$ a$ t#e onl a''ro'riate one and ad2oate a general

    onor!ation to it1

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    !oral oligation o t#e o!!unit %#i# a$rie$ rig#t$ to t#e indi2idual. "elati2i$t$ a$e t#eir

    lai!$ on t#e a$$u!'tion t#at #u!an rig#t$ 'lae t#e indi2idual ao2e t#e o!!unit and ind t#i$

    unae'tale in non&We$tern ountrie$. +tuall it #a$ oten een $ugge$ted t#at $e2eral rig#t$

    a''ear to e !eaningle$$ i inter'reted a$ rig#t$ o t#e indi2idual again$t t#e o!!unit or

    regardle$$ o it. er$onal liertie$ are a$ried to t#e indi2idual in order to 'rotet t#e unda!ental

    2alue$ o t#e o!!unit and to enourage in2ol2e!ent in it$ lie 14. -#u$ or in$tane reedo! o

    religion i$ not nee$$ar in order to allo% t#e indi2idual to 'ra #i$ ,od in 'ri2ate ut to allo%

    large grou'$ o 'eo'le %#o $#are t#e $a!e elie$ to !eet in a 'uli 'lae %it#out an intru$ion

    t#e go2ern!ent or ot#er$ %#o 'roe$$ a dierent religion.

    +$$u!ing t#e ei$tene o a lo$e ond et%een indi2idual$ and $oiet it i$ lear t#at

    traditional 2ie%$ on #u!an rig#t$ do not 'ut or%ard a #ierar#ial or!ali$ation o it: 2er $i!'l

    t#e role o t#e grou' i$ li!ited to t#e $aeguard and t#e realiBation o t#e intere$t$ o it$ !e!er$%#o are t#en 'roteted again$t t#e au$e o oeri2e 'o%er$ t#e aut#oritie$. u!an rig#t$

    on$titute t#en a li!ited nu!er o ee'tion$ to t#e 'rini'le o $o2ereignt K %#i# #a$

    on$tantl een realled +$ian leader$ in t#eir lai!$ o 2iolation$ o t#e N C#arter15& and not

    a or! o $uordination o o!!unit to indi2idual$. Fro! t#i$ 'oint o 2ie% #u!an rig#t$ re$ult

    o!'atile %it# !o$t o non&We$tern '#ilo$o'#ie$ a$ long a$ t#e are not intended a$ a

    Ddi$i'linar i2iliBing !i$$ion o uro'eD16.

    Criti$ o t#e notion o +$ian 2alue$ 'ut or%ard nu!erou$ argu!ent$. "egardle$$ to t#e eat

    identiiation o t#e$e 2alue$ t#eir ultural and religiou$ oundation i$ on$ideral di$'utale. In

    at it i$ ea$il detetale t#at t#e reerene$ to Conuiani$! Eudd#i$! and indui$! lead t#e

    di$u$$ion to a #ig# le2el o a$tration on$idering t#e large nu!er o 'euliaritie$ %#i#

    #arateriBe dierent area$ o t#e ontinent. In t#i$ %a !an region %ould e negleted $u#

    on$ideration$: Cat#oli #ili''ine$ or I$la!i *ala$ia and Indone$ia %ould not $ee! to !eet t#e

    re7uire!ent$ to 7uali a$ +$ian 2alue$ ad2oate$. Furt#er!ore $e2eral We$tern t#iner$ #a2e

    o$er2ed t#at +$ian 2alue$ en#aning t#e on$er2ati2e 'redo!inane o a!il o!!unit and

    $oiet on indi2idual$ a2our t#e eono!i de2elo'!ent o a ountr to t#e detri!ent o t#e

    a#ie2e!ent o 'olitial a%arene$$ and i2i re$'on$iilit. -#ereore t#e an e ea$il

    on$idered a$ t'ial o a $$te! %#i# 'lae$ eono!i de2elo'!ent ao2e e2ert#ing and ind in

    t#e! a $oure o ;u$tiiation or it$ ureaura and trann. /n t#e ot#er #and #ig#l de2elo'ed

    14 Witor /$iatn$i @ni2er$alit dei diritti u!aniAi1ionario dei diritti umani *tet (a2ailale at#tt':>>dirittiu!ani.utet.it>dirittiu!ani>re2iarioMdirittiMu!ani.;$'2Ouni2er$alitaMdeiMdirittiMu!aniPa'O

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    ountrie$ $u# a$ Singa'ore a$e t#e legiti!a o t#eir 2iolation$ o $o!e traditional liertie$ on

    t#e a$$ertion t#at t#eir urrent le2el o eono!i 'ro$'erit #a$ een a#ie2ed in a$ene o $u#

    one$$ion$ on #u!an rig#t$ t#u$ 'ro'o$ing t#e!$el2e$ a$ a !odel or ot#er +$ian nation$1?.

    -raditional #u!an rig#t$ #a2e oten een 'erei2ed a$ a or! o ultural #ege!on an

    i!'o$ition We$tern ountrie$ on t#e re$t o t#e %orld. +tuall t#i$ an e on$idered true to a

    ertain etent: alt#oug# eing a good o!'ro!i$e et%een dierent ideologie$ and tradition$ t#e

    ni2er$al elaration o u!an "ig#t$ %a$ indeed t#e 'rodution o a li!ited grou' o ountrie$

    a$ t#e !a;orit o +$ian and +rian ountrie$ %ere not et re're$ented in t#e nited Nation$ in

    1948. o%e2er a$ #ig#lig#ted =a onnell it i$ true t#at D#u!an rig#t$ initiall e!erged in

    uro'e not eau$e o $u'erior We$tern 2irtue or in$ig#t ut eau$e or etter or %or$e !odern

    $tate$ and a'itali$! ir$t a''ear t#ere. QG W#ate2er a''liailit K or ina''liailit K

    internationall reogniBed #u!an rig#t$ #a2e i$ inde'endent o t#eir 'lae o originD

    18

    .

    $'eiall during t#e 1990$ t#e deate on #u!an rig#t$ #a$ dra%n t#e attention o $e2eral

    'olitial leader$ and $#olar$ re7uentl eo!ing rat#er #eated and in2ol2ing t#e u$age o

    o!ati2e 'uli r#etori19. It eo!e$ e2en !ore ontro2er$ial i %e $ituate it in t#e ontet o t#e

    enturie$&old antit#e$i$ et%een...

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