This PPT may help us to understand the tradition of Jain manuscript painting, which is very important to know Indian miniature art.
Lecture-6 FNA 105 History of Indian art-2
Pala and Jaina manuscript paintings
In western India between the 1100 -1500 centuries miniature painting developed. These small paintings were part of manuscripts written at the time and illustrate the subjects of the manuscripts. These miniatures are found in some Hindu and Jain manuscripts and are of 2 to 4 inches in size. Western Indian Jaina miniatures were divided into Shvetambara and Digambara.
During 1100 -1500 century western Indian miniature paintings flourish very rich. Modern western Indian states; Gujarat state and Rajasthan state were integrated into western India of that time. Particular manuscript miniature painting developed in the western part of India that is modern state of Gujarat. From 17th century Rajput miniature painting developed in the western part of India that is modern western state of Rajasthan. Rajput miniature painting has its own style and beauty.
'Subjects- The subjects of these miniature paintings are in relation to the subjects of the manuscripts mostly religious and literary. Many paintings are from Sanskrit and folk literature. It is on the subject of love stories. Some paintings from Vaishnav sect of Hindu religion and some are from Jain cult. The Paintings of Vaishnav sect are regarding various occasions of the life of Lord Krishna and Gopies. Vaishnav paintings of "Gita Govinda" is about Lord Krishna. The paintings of Jain cult is concerning to Jain Lords and religious subjects.
Equipments- These paintings were created on Taadpatra that means the leaf of the palm tree, and Paper. During that period earlier manuscripts were created from the leaf of the palm tree and later on from the paper.
Characteristic- In these paintings there are very few human characters with front face are seen. Most of the human characters are seen with side profile. Big eyes, pointed nose and slim waist are the features of these paintings. The skin colours of human being are Brown and fair. The skin colour of the Lord Krishna is Blue. The colour of the hair and eyes is black. Women characters have long hair. Human characters have worn jewellery on hand, nose, neck, hair, waist and ankles. Man and women have worn traditional Indian dress, sleepers and shoes. Men have turbans on the head. In these paintings trees, rivers, flowers, birds, the land, the sky, houses, traditional chairs, cushions, curtains, lamps, and human characters have been painted.
. Colours-Mostly Natural colours have been used in these paintings. Black, red, white, brown, blue, yellow and gold colors are used to decorate the paintings. Painted and written on Talpatra Deonagri Lipi Colors Red(Sindoor, Hingul and Mahawar) Blue- Neel, Lajwardi) White- Khadia or Kasagar) Black- Kajal Yellow- Shankhiya
Promoters- The Kings, Courtiers of the kings, wealthy businessmen, and religious leaders of the time were the promoters of these miniature paintings.Painters- Painters of these pictures were from the local society." Vaachhak " was the famous painter of the time. Painters tried to make the subject of the manuscript live by these pictures so that the readers of the manuscript can enjoy reading.
Garmnts- dhoti has been made specially beautiful. The garments of saints have been shown white like pearls or golden. Garlands and mukta have been specially designed and nicely painted.
Jain Manuscript Painting 1100 -1500 One facet of Jaina art is painting, generally known as miniature painting because most of the pictures are rendered in small size Jaina miniature painting sprung up in Western India, that is to say in Gujarat and the adjacent areas of Rajasthan..
First of all we find the paintings of jain gods in Sittanvasala cave in 700 AD. This is the oldest example of this school are the paintings of Parswa Nath, Nemi Nath and Rishi Nath etc. Name of 20 trithankara are described in Kalaka-Charya Katha and Kalp Sutra.
All Jainas, Shvetambaras as well as Digambaras worshipped images or murtis since the beginning of our era (rough estimate). The images were mostly Jina images, but there were also images of Jaina gods and goddesses and images of monks. The abolition of image worship dates back to Lonka Shah, a Shvetambara monk who lived in Gujarat in the 15th century. He gave rise to the aniconic form of Shvetambara Jainism (perhaps under Islamic influence). The traditional image worshipping Shvetambara Jainas became hence known as Murti-pujakas (image worshippers
According to Lama Tara Nath and Dr. Anand Kr. Swami Western Indian Style
Nanhlal Chamanlal mehta Said Gugrat Style 1924, Rupam MagazineDr. Motichandra and Rai Anandkrishn says Apbharansh style
Kalpsutra, Jain chitra kalp lata, Sachitra kalpa sutra Sri jain chitra kalpadruma , Neminath charitra, Katharatna sagar, Trishashthi salaka purush charit, Angsutra, Kalakatha.Balgopal-stuty, Geetgovind , Ratirahasya, Chourpanchasikha, Durgasaptshati these are jain manuscript along with other religion.
Basantvilas found at Gujarat-1451 related with Jain religion painted by Jain hermit Kalpsutra- Jaunpur-1465 painted by Pandit Karan Singh
Female figures is rare in jain school . However some are found there, but they are worshipped goddesses of the trithankaras which are painted in Chitra kalpdrum.