History and development

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<ul><li> 1. April 17, 2011</li></ul> <p> 2. </p> <ul><li>I n 1895, German physicist Wilhelm Roentgen (1845-1923) experimented with a cathode ray tube </li></ul> <ul><li>This tube made it possible to screen through human tissue leaving the bones and metals visible to the naked-eye(X-ray, n.d.). </li></ul> <p>Copyright 2010 by The Nobel Foundation 3. </p> <ul><li>Cathode ray </li></ul> <ul><li>tube </li></ul> <ul><li>Copyright 2011 bycrtsite.com </li></ul> <p> 4. </p> <ul><li>Roentgen used a plate of Barium Platino- Cyanide (fluorescent crystals) on a table six feet away in his workroom, and when he activated the tube, it glowed(The Cathode Ray Tube Site, n.d.) . </li></ul> <ul><li>Even after covering the tube with black cardboard it kept glowing(The Cathode Ray Tube Site, n.d.) . </li></ul> <ul><li>. </li></ul> <p> 5. </p> <ul><li>As a result, Roentgen used aa photographic plate and took his first x-ray picture. </li></ul> <ul><li>The picture was his wife's (Anna) hand which clearly revealed her wedding ring and her bones. </li></ul> <p>Copyright 2011 by Afflictor.com 6. </p> <ul><li>For this miraculous discovery, Roentgen admitted that he did not know the precise nature of these new rays. </li></ul> <ul><li>From his experiment, this is how he named this phenomenathe "X-ray </li></ul> <ul><li>(since "X" is the mathematical symbol for the unknown(X-ray, n.d.)). </li></ul> <p> 7. </p> <ul><li>In 1901, Roentgen was awarded the Nobel Prize in Physics in recognition of the extraordinary services he has rendered by the discovery of the remarkable rays subsequently named after him (The Nobel Prize in Physics 1901, 2010) . </li></ul> <p> 8. </p> <ul><li>The news of discovery spread quickly throughout the world-scientist everywhere duplicated his experiment, and was clinically used to in the U.S.(X-ray, n.d.).</li></ul> <ul><li>This was the landmark discovery was recognized as a development of medicine (medical diagnostic tool).</li></ul> <p> 9. </p> <ul><li>X-ray was not sophisticated and had limitations. </li></ul> <ul><li><ul><li>The internal structures were imposed on each other </li></ul></li></ul> <ul><li><ul><li>Lack of depth</li></ul></li></ul> <ul><li>Scientists developed methods with use of computers that made it possible for advance innovation. </li></ul> <p> 10. </p> <ul><li>In early 1970 </li></ul> <ul><li><ul><li>Godfrey Hounsfield and Allen Cormack developed Computer tomography (CT).</li></ul></li></ul> <ul><li>Between 1974 and 1976 </li></ul> <ul><li><ul><li>First clinical CT scanners were installed (original systems were dedicated to head imaging only). </li></ul></li></ul> <ul><li>In1976 </li></ul> <ul><li><ul><li> Whole body systems with larger patient openings became available. </li></ul></li></ul> <p> 11. </p> <ul><li>By about 1980 </li></ul> <ul><li><ul><li>CT became widely available. </li></ul></li></ul> <ul><li>In the early 1980s </li></ul> <ul><li><ul><li>A couple of hospitals in Lebanon (including AUBMC) acquired this technology. </li></ul></li></ul> <ul><li>Today</li></ul> <ul><li><ul><li>More than 6,000 CT scanners installed in the U.S. and more than 30,000 installed worldwide (Mostafa, 2007). </li></ul></li></ul> <p> 12. Copyright 2011 by ABCnews.com 13. Copyright2010 by Slate.com 14. </p> <ul><li>With advancement of technology in the 21 stcentury, the scans have revolutionized medical imaging and higher resolution (producing three-dimensional views of organs and other tissues), speed, and patient comfort (Problematic medical scans, 2007).</li></ul> <ul><li>The scans have become undeniably of great value in helping doctors diagnose just what is causing a patient's illness or pain (Problematic medical scans, 2007). </li></ul> <p> 15. </p> <ul><li>Hodgson, W. E. [Artist]. (2011). [Untitled drawing of Professor Roentgen at work]. Retrieved on April 4, 2011, fromhttp://www.crtsite.com/image/roentgen%20at%20work.jpg </li></ul> <ul><li>Mostafa, G. (2007).Quick history about the CT scanner and its uses . Retrieved fromhttp://www.syndicateofhospitals.org.lb/magazine/issue-1/Page%2040-042.pdf </li></ul> <ul><li>Problematic medical scans . (2007 November 30). New York Times .pg. A.22 Retrieved fromhttp://proquest.umi.com.mutex.gmu.edu/pqdweb?index=4&amp;did=1390829971&amp;SrchMode=2&amp;sid=6&amp;Fmt=3&amp;VInst=PROD&amp;VType=PQD&amp;RQT=309&amp;VName=PQD&amp;TS=1297038331&amp;clientId=31810 </li></ul> <p> 16. </p> <ul><li>Roentgen. (2010). Retrieved on April 2, 2011, fromhttp://nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/physics/laureates/1901/rontgen-bio.html# </li></ul> <ul><li>Roentgen Wife Hand. (2011). Retrieved on March 6, 2011, fromhttp://afflictor.com/wp-content/uploads/2011/02/Roentgen_wife_hand.jpg </li></ul> <ul><li>The cathode ray tube site .(n.d.). Retrieved on April 10, 2011, from http://www.crtsite.com/page5.html </li></ul> <ul><li>The Nobel Prize in Physics 1901 . (2010). Nobelprize.org. Retrieved fromhttp://nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/physics/laureates/1901/ </li></ul> <ul><li>T </li></ul> <p> 17. </p> <ul><li>[Untitled photograph of body scanner]. (2010). Retrieved fromhttp://a.abcnews.com/images/Health/nm_ct_scan_100708_mn.jpg </li></ul> <ul><li>[Untitled photograph of body scanner]. (2010). Retrieved on March 6, 2011, fromhttp://www.slate.com/id/2273844/ </li></ul> <ul><li>X-ray . (n.d.). Retrieved on February 6 ,2011, fromhttp://www.discoveriesinmedicine.com/To-Z/X-ray.html </li></ul>