Habitat influences on diversity of bacteria found on German cockroach in Beijing

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<ul><li><p>Journal of Environmental Sciences 21(2009) 249254</p><p>Habitat influences on diversity of bacteria found on German cockroachin Beijing</p><p>FU Xue1,2, YE Lefu1,2, GE Feng1,</p><p>1. State Key Laboratory of Integrated Management of Pest Insects and Rodents, Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences,Beijing 100101, China. E-mail: fuxue@ioz.ac.cn</p><p>2. Graduate University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100080, China</p><p>Revised 26 February 2008; revised 03 April 2008; accepted 05 May 2008</p><p>AbstractCockroaches are worldwide indoor pests carrying microorganisms of medical importance. German cockroaches (Blattella</p><p>germanica) were sampled in five habitats (hospital, restaurant, oce home, and market) in Beijing, and the bacteria were isolated fromtheir external surface and alimentary tract and identified using a Biolog identification system. Cockroach densities significantly dieredamong habitats (market &gt; home &gt; oce &gt; restaurant &gt; hospital). However, no significant dierences in bacterial abundance carried byindividual German cockroaches (of either sex) were found among habitats. The bacterial abundance in the gut was significantly higherthan that on the surface. There were no significant dierences in bacterial species richness observed among habitats, sex, carryingposition or their interaction. Cluster analysis showed that cockroach densities and bacterial abundance found in the market dieredsignificantly from the other four habitats. The bacterial diversity was not significantly reduced in sensitive facilities such as hospital andrestaurant, even though pesticide and bactericide were more frequently applied there. The implications of these findings were discussedin this article.</p><p>Key words: German cockroaches; Blattella germanica; diversity; bacteriaDOI: 10.1016/S1001-0742(08)62259-7</p><p>Introduction</p><p>Cockroaches are omnivorous (Bennett, 1993) and vec-tors of bacteria, fungi, viruses, and parasites (Bracke et al.,1979; Fotedar et al., 1989; Graczyk et al., 2005; Lemos etal., 2006; Salehzadeh et al., 2007). Some bacterial speciescarried by this urban indoor pest are medically important(Cloarec et al., 1992; Pai et al., 2004). Thus, cockroachesare a major target pest of urban pest management. Manymethods, including insecticide applications, are used tomanage cockroach infestations. However, management isdicult because cockroaches are notoriously resilient andreadily infest diverse habitats (Service, 1996). All habitatsin the urban ecosystem should be considered together tomanage cockroaches using integrated pest management(IPM) (Schal and Hamilton, 1990) because piecemealsolutions often do not work (Ebesu, 2003). Understandingthe influence of habitats on species diversity of bacteriacarried by cockroaches is an important step toward developan eective cockroach integrated pest management (IPM)strategy.The species and population abundance of bacteria car-</p><p>ried by the German cockroach vary in dierent habitats.Burgess (1984) found that cockroaches in hospitals, restau-</p><p>* Corresponding author. E-mail: gef@ioz.ac.cn</p><p>rants, hotels and private homes could harbor pathogenicorganisms. Chaichanawongsaroj et al. (2004) surveyed thepathogenic Gram-negative bacteria carried on the cuticlesof cockroaches in hospitals, food-handling establishments,and human dwellings in Thailand. However, informationon species and strains of pathogenic bacteria carried bycockroaches in various habitats is limited (He et al., 1992;Guo et al., 1999).German cockroach (Blattella germanica), is one of the</p><p>most important pests in Beijing and accounts for 96.9%of all cockroach species in the city (Yan et al., 2005).Cockroaches occur in dierent habitats, such as hospital,restaurant, oce, home, and market, in the urban com-munity together with the bacteria they harbor. However,the species and abundance of bacteria carried by them indierent habitats in Beijing are not well known.In this article, the study on the diversity of bacteria</p><p>carried by German cockroach in an urban communityand the relationships among the bacterial flora carried bycockroaches in dierent habitats was conducted to addressthree questions: (1) What bacterial species are carried byGerman cockroaches in Beijing? (2) What are the similar-ities and dierences in abundance and diversity of bacteriacarried by German cockroaches in dierent habitats? (3)How does one develop ecient urban IPM strategies for</p></li><li><p>250 FU Xue et al. Vol. 21</p><p>the cockroaches and pathogens if the bacterial species,abundance and distribution are known?</p><p>1 Materials and methods</p><p>1.1 Cockroach collection</p><p>The investigation was carried out in Chaoyang District,Beijing, in dierent habitats located in one community.We selected five dierent representative habitats includinghospital, restaurant, oce, dwelling house, and market.German cockroaches were sampled continuously from</p><p>five habitats from 20 June to 20 July, 2006. Three trapswere placed in each habitat (Jeery et al., 1984). AdultGerman cockroaches were collected daily from each trap.Cockroach sex was determined by presence/absence ofmale styli on the ninth abdominal sternum. Roaches werethen placed separately in sterile tubes for later research.Altogether 55 roaches were randomly selected for laterresearch from all the five habitats.</p><p>1.2 Microorganism isolation and identification</p><p>Each tube containing a cockroach was frozen for 5 min,then 2 mL of sterile normal saline was added, followedby vigorous shaking for 2 min, the bacterial suspensionformed from the external surface (ES). The roach wasdipped in 70% ethanol for 5 min and washed with sterilesaline for 3 min, followed by drying at room temperatureunder sterile conditions. Gut dissection was conductedwith sterile appliances and the gut was triturated with amortar and pestle after 2 mL of sterile normal saline wasadded to the mortar which was the suspension from thealimentary tract (AT).The bacterial suspension (0.2 mL) from the ES and</p><p>AT was inoculated onto the plate of Biolog UniversalGrowth Agar (Biolog Inc., Hayward, USA) and incubatedat 35C for 24 h.Colonies on each plate were counted and representative</p><p>ones were chosen for isolation and purification. Eachisolated pure strain was identified by Gram-staining andBiolog identification system (Biolog Inc., USA).</p><p>1.3 Data analysis</p><p>Calculations using Shannon-Wieners diversity index(H) (Shannon and Wiener, 1949) were conducted tomeasure the bacterial community diversity (all species ofbacteria) in each habitat:</p><p>H = PilnPi (1)</p><p>Pi = ni/N (2)</p><p>where, Pi is the proportion of the ith bacterial species inthe total sample, N is the number of species richness.Jaccards index of similarity was used to analyze the</p><p>similarity of the bacterial community among habitats (Jac-card, 1912).</p><p>p = c/(a + b c) (3)</p><p>where, p is Jaccards index of similarity, c is the number of</p><p>the shared bacterial species, a is the number of species inone habitat, b is the number of species in another habitat.The number of colony forming units found from the</p><p>cuticle and the gut of each cockroach was compared usingmultiple ANOVA (MANOVA). Rank correlation analysiswas used to determine whether the abundance of bacteriaon the external surface correlated to that in the alimentarytract. The frequencies of each kind of bacteria isolatedfrom the ES and AT sites were compared using x2 andFishers exact test, as appropriate.Spearmans test of rank correlation was used to compare</p><p>the ES and AT bacterial species in each of the five habitats.The bacterial species isolated from the gut, surface, andtotal number in dierent habitats were compared usingseparate Chi-square tests. Using Jaccards index of similar-ity and the unweighted arithmetic average sorting strategy,cluster analysis was applied to classify habitats (Yuan andLiu, 2000). The data were standard transformed whennecessary. Quantitative data analysis was performed withSPSS 13.0.1 for PC (SPSS Inc., IL, USA).Male and female cockroaches were not significantly</p><p>dierent in bacterial abundance or species represented, andthese data were pooled for further analysis.</p><p>2 Results</p><p>2.1 Infestation of cockroaches and microbes</p><p>Altogether 72, 114, 266, 354, 510 of cockroaches werecaptured from hospital, restaurant, oce, dwelling house,and market, respectively. The cockroaches captured pertrap from hospital and restaurant were significantly lessthan those from the dwelling and oce. The highestdensity of cockroaches occurred in the market (Fig. 1).Bacterial density per cockroach did not dier by sex</p><p>or among habitats, or their interaction (Table 1). Roachesdid have significantly more abundant bacteria internallythan externally (df = 1, F = 96.338, P = 0.000). Thebacterial abundance detected on the pest surface variedfrom 0 to 1.2106 per cockroach and the number fromthe gut ranged from 8.9103 to 1.4107 per cockroach.Correlation analysis showed that relative surface and gutbacterial abundance were consistent for each cockroach,i.e., a roach with high density on the surface wouldalso have high density in the gut (Spearman correlationcoecient = 0.531, P = 0.000).</p><p>Fig. 1 The number of cockroaches captured per trap during 20 June to20 July 2006 in dierent habitats in Beijing, China.</p></li><li><p>No. 2 Habitat influences on diversity of bacteria found on German cockroach in Beijing 251</p><p>Table 1 Bacterial abundance and species richness per cockroach using MANOVA (n = 51)</p><p>Source Bacteria Abundancedf F P df F P</p><p>Habitat 4 1.840 0.128 4 0.491 0.743Sex 1 0.155 0.695 1 2.661 0.107Carrying position 1 99.734 0.000 1 0.426 0.516Habitat vs. sex 4 1.553 0.194 4 0.610 0.657Habitat vs. carrying position 4 0.587 0.673 4 0.978 0.424Carrying position vs. sex 1 0.007 0.933 1 0.532 0.468Habitat vs. carrying position vs. sex 4 1.925 0.113 4 1.028 0.398</p><p>2.2 Isolation of microorganisms</p><p>In this study, 51 cockroaches out of the 55 from trapswere observed for the presence of bacterial flora and 387strains of bacteria were obtained. Total 28 genera and 55species, including 32 species of Gram-positive bacteria and23 species of Gram-negative bacteria, were isolated fromthe cuticles and the guts of the German cockroaches in fivehabitats (Tables 2 and 3). No significant dierence of thepositive rate was found between the external surface andthe alimentary tract for the Gram-positive species richness(2 = 0.00, df = 1, P &gt; 0.05) (Table 2). However, therewas significantly lower Gram-negative species richnessexternally than internally (2 = 13.95, df = 1, P &lt; 0.001)(Table 3).</p><p>Table 2 Gram-positive bacterial species and frequency of isolationfrom B. germanica collected from five habitats in Beijing (n = 51)</p><p>Bacterial Number from Number from Pspecies ES (%) AT (%)</p><p>A. bernardiae 1 (1.96) 0 NSA. cumminsii 12 (23.53) 6 (11.76) NSB. amyloliquefaciens 0 1 (1.96) NSB. badius 4 (7.84) 1 (1.96) NSB. cereus 7 (13.73) 3 (5.88) NSB. licheniformis 1 (1.96) 2 (3.92) NSB. maroccanus 0 2 (3.92) NSB. megaterium 2 (3.92) 0 NSB. myoides 2 (3.92) 1 (1.96) NSB. pumilus 15 (29.41) 9 (17.65) NSB. subtilis 7 (13.73) 10 (19.61) NSC. cellulans 1 (1.96) 1 (1.96) NSC. agropyri 5 (9.80) 4 (7.84) NSE. avium 1 (1.96) 3 (5.88) NSE. durans 1 (1.96) 1 (1.96) NSE. faecalis 12 (23.53) 13 (25.49) NSE. ranosus 3 (5.88) 7 (13.73) NSG. thermoglucosidasius 3 (5.88) 0 NSK. sibirica 4 (7.84) 0 NSL. grayi 2 (3.92) 2 (3.92) NSL. monocytogenes 1 (1.96) 0 NSM. bovicus 1 (1.96) 1 (1.96) NSM. caseolyticus 3 (5.88) 0 NSM. equipercicus 1 (1.96) 1 (1.96) NSM. luteus 25 (49.02) 19 (37.25) NSM. lylae 3 (5.88) 3 (5.88) NSR. rhodnii 0 3 (5.88) NSS. lentus 5 (9.80) 1 (1.96) NSS. pasteuri 7 (13.73) 3 (5.88) NSS. saprophyticus 6 (11.76) 2 (3.92) NSS. sciuri 2 (3.92) 2 (3.92) NSS. gordonii 1 (1.96) 1 (1.96) NSOveralla 47(92.16) 47(92.16) NS</p><p>NS: not significant (P &gt; 0.05).a One cockroach may harbor more than one species of bacteria.</p><p>Table 3 Gram-negative bacteria species and frequency of isolationfrom B. germanica collected from five habitats in Beijing (n = 51)</p><p>Bacterial Number from Number from Pspecies ES (%) AT (%)</p><p>A. haemolyticus/ 1 (1.96) 1 (1.96) NSgenospecies 4*</p><p>A. genospecies 15* 1 (1.96) 1 (1.96) NSA. radioresistens/ 4 (7.84) 2 (3.92) NSgenospecies 12*</p><p>B. caryophylli 2 (3.92) 4 (7.84) NSC. freundii 11 (21.57) 13 (25.49) NSC. koseri 5 (9.80) 9 (17.65) NSE. aerogenes 0 3 (5.88) NSE. asburiae 1 (1.96) 1 (1.96) NSE. cancerogenus 0 1 (1.96) NSE. cloacae 0 3 (5.88) NSF. mizutaii-like 7 (13.73) 6 (11.76) NSK. pneumoniae 0 1 (1.96) NSM. canis 1 (1.96) 2 (3.92) NSO. proteus 1 (1.96) 5 (9.80) NSP. dispersa 1 (1.96) 3 (5.88) NSP. stewartii 9 (17.65)a 22 (43.14) 0.000P. lundensis 0 1 (1.96) NSP. tolaasii 0 2 (3.92) NSR. terrigena 2 (3.92) 3 (5.88) NSS. gp1*. ST gallinarum 0 2 (3.92) NSS. gp6* 0 1 (1.96) NSS. marcescens 4 (7.84) 7 (13.73) NSS. sanguinis 0 2 (3.92) NSOverallb 31 (60.78)a 47 (92.16) 0.000</p><p>* The numbers indicate the type of the bacterium.a External surface vs. alimentary tract: P &lt; 0.05; b one cockroach mayharbor more than one kind of bacteria.NS: not significant (P &gt; 0.05).</p><p>The dominant species in the five habitats were Micro-coccus luteus, Pantoea stewartii, Enterococcus faecalis,and Bacillus pumilus. Salmonellae and Listeria mono-cytogenes were found in our studies. Unexpectedly, Es-cherichia coli, as the most common potentially-pathogenicbacteria, was not detected in our investigation.Altogether, 28, 29, 28, 29, and 37 species of bacteria</p><p>were detected on cockroaches collected from hospital,restaurant, oce, home, and market, respectively. Nosignificant dierences in bacterial species richness on indi-vidual cockroaches were observed among habitat, sex, orcarrying position (Table 1). The highest Shannon-Wienersdiversity index value was found in bacteria on cockroachesfrom the market (Table 4). Jaccards index of similarity ofbacteria species in both carrying positions was the smallestfor cockroaches collected from the market (Table 4).A significant (P &lt; 0.01) correlation in bacterial species</p><p>found on the external surface and in the gut of cockroachesoccurred in four habitats, but not in the market (P &gt;</p></li><li><p>252 FU Xue et al. Vol. 21</p><p>0.05). No significant dierence was found among the totalbacterial species isolated from the cockroach gut in fivehabitats (2 = 0.220, df = 1, P &gt; 0.05), while there weremore species isolated externally from the cockroach inthe market than in the dwelling house (2 = 6.565, df= 1, P &lt; 0.05) and the oce (2 = 4.591, df = 1, P&lt; 0.05). The cockroach bacterial species richness in thehospital and the restaurant was not significantly dierentfrom that of the dwelling house and the oce (Table 5).Taking bacterial species and similarity index as markers,after standardization, the five habitats were grouped intotwo parts with the market treated separately (Fig. 2).</p><p>Table 4 Community diversity indices for bacterial species in dierenthabitats</p><p>Habitat Species Jaccards index of Shannon-Wienerssimilarity diversity index</p><p>Among Between EShabitats and AT</p><p>Hospital 28 0.418 0.536 3.01092Restaurant 29 0.491 0.414 3.18129Oce 28 0.509 0.429 3.14218Dwelling 29 0.491 0.345 3.08614houseMarket 37 0.582 0.324 3.40262</p><p>Table 5 P...</p></li></ul>

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