Guidelines for Meaningful Phonics Instruction. Priscilla L. Griffith University of Oklahoma [email protected] Myths and Truths about Phonics Instruction. Phonics is a solution for all reading problems. MYTH Phonics ignores meaning. MYTH - PowerPoint PPT Presentation
Text of Guidelines for Meaningful Phonics Instruction
Guidelines for Meaningful Phonics InstructionPriscilla L.
GriffithUniversity of [email protected]
Myths and Truths about Phonics InstructionPhonics is a solution
for all reading problems. MYTHPhonics ignores meaning. MYTHPhonics
is synonymous with beginning reading instruction. MYTH
Phonics is an approach to word study that focuses on the
relationship between spelling patterns and sound patterns.
Goal of Phonics InstructionGet to the meaningDetermine a likely
pronunciationMake the leap to a known word that contributes to the
meaning of the passage being read
ExamplesThe case of what.The case of compass.
Achieving the Goal: When?By the end of Grade 2 most children
will have sufficient knowledge of letter-sound relationships.Beyond
Grade 2 instruction focuses more on how the spelling of a word
reveals its meaning.
Stretching phonics instruction out too long, or spending time on
teaching the arcane aspects of phonics the schwa, the silent K,
assigning accent to polysyllabic words is at best a waste of time.
-ed: /t/, /d/, /id/
I like to play Chutes and Ladders.Yesterday I played Chutes and
Ladders with my friend.
Achieving the Goal: How Much?According to Stahl (1992), phonics
instruction should take up no more than 25% (and possibly less) of
the total reading instruction time in the classroom.The majority of
classroom reading instruction should focus on reading connected
Achieving the Goal: What?Developing the alphabetic principle
understanding the relationship between spoken and written language
(The case of ox.)Letters SoundsIntentData
Expanding meaning vocabularyUnderstanding the goal of
readingFocusing on patternsCommon spelling patterns (e.g., CVC,
CVCe)Common spellings across words (e.g., 500 words can be
generated from 37 rimes)Writing
Phases of Word LearningEhri, 1994; Ehri & McCormick,
Meaningful Phonics Instruction Pre-AlphabeticBeginning readers
select non-phonemic visual characteristics to remember words.
Writing includes mock letters and random letters with no relation
to sound structure of the word.
Teacher read-alouds from texts that play with language through
rhyme, alliteration, or assonance.Discuss word meanings. Alphabet
booksLanguage experienceShared reading with enlarged text to model
Shared writing in which teacher models the alphabetic
principleOpportunities to incorporate writing while visiting
centersWriting using invented spelling
Meaningful Phonics Instruction Partial-AlphabeticBeginning
readers use some letters and context to guess the identity of
unfamiliar words. Vowel sounds are rarely represented in invented
Continue pre-alphabetic practices.Shared reading from patterned
texts.Print studies of patterned texts.Begin explicit instruction
in letter-sound correspondences.Use Elkonin boxes to examine
spellings of known words.
Rubberband words.Manipulate the onset of common rimes (e.g.,
bat/hat/cat/fat/rat).Teach mnemonics to help with reversals of
visually similar letters.Introduce interactive writing during which
the teacher and student share the pen.Sort pictures by initial or
Meaningful Phonics Instruction Full-alphabeticThe beginning
reader has a working knowledge of letter-sound correspondences that
enables him/her to decode many unfamiliar words. Vowel sounds are
represented in invented spellings.
Continue teacher read-alouds; shared and interactive writing;
explicit instruction in letter-sound correspondences; and
discussions of word meanings.Provide instruction in orthographic
patterns, e.g., CVC, CVCeSort words by focusing on common spellings
Sort word families by sound: bat/betManipulate letters and read
newly formed words: bat/bet/bit or bat/bad/backMaking words
activities.Introduce common inflectional endings: -s, -ed, -ingMuch
practice reading connected text at independent and instructional
Meaningful Phonics Instruction OrthographicThe reader uses
multi-level units to read words.
Continue word sorts.Study affixes and common roots.Continue
reading connected text at independent and instructional levels.
Phonics interacts with knowledge of word meanings and context to
help readers get to meaning.